Bani Khalid Emirate
إِمَارَةُ بَنِي خَالِدٍ
Flag of Bani Khalid Emirate
Coat of arms of Bani Khalid Emirate
Coat of arms
Territories and zones of influence of the Bani Khalid Emirate, mid-late 17th-18th century (late 11th to early 12th Hijri century)
Territories and zones of influence of the Bani Khalid Emirate, mid-late 17th-18th century (late 11th to early 12th Hijri century)
CapitalHofuf (First)
al-Hasa (last)
Common languagesArabic
• 1669–1682
Barrak ibn Ghurayr [ar] (first)
• 1793–1796
Barak bin Abdul Mohsen [ar] (last)
Historical era17th-18th centuries
• Established
• Disestablished
CurrencyBani Khalid Dinar
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Portuguese Empire
Lahsa Eyalet
Sheikhdom of Kuwait
Emirate of Diriyah
Today part ofSaudi Arabia
United Arab Emirates

Bani Khalid Emirate (Arabic: إِمَارَةُ بَنِي خَالِدٍ) or the Emirate of Al Humaid from the Bani Khalid tribe was a state that arose in the eastern region of the Arabian Peninsula in year 1669 after Emir Barrak ibn Ghurayr [ar] made his capital in Al-Mubarraz then managed to defeat the Ottoman Empire represented by Lahsa Eyalet and drove them out of the region. The Emirate of Al Hamid ended in the year 1796 after the defeat of Barak bin Abdul Mohsen [ar] at the hands of the First Saudi State.


First Khalidi Emirate

The main branches of the tribe are the Al Humaid, the Juboor, the Du'um, the Al Janah, the Al Suhoob, the Grusha, the Al Musallam, the 'Amayer, the Al Subaih and the Mahashir & Nahood.[1] The chieftainship of the Bani Khalid has traditionally been held by the clan of Al Humaid [fa]. The Bani Khalid dominated the deserts surrounding the Al-Hasa and Al-Qatif during the 15th and 18th century.[2] Under Barrak ibn Ghurayr [ar] of the Al Humaid, the Bani Khalid were able to expel Ottoman forces from the cities and towns in 1670 and proclaim their rule over the region.[3][4] Ibn Ghurayr made his capital in Al-Mubarraz, where remnants of his castle stand today.[4] According to Arabian folklore, one chief of the Bani Khalid attempted to protect the prized desert bustard (Habari) from extinction by prohibiting the bedouin in his realm from poaching the bird's eggs, earning the tribe the appellation of "protectors of the eggs of the Habari", an allusion to the chief's absolute supremacy over his realm.[5] The first chieftain of the "Khawalid" was Haddori.[citation needed]

Fall to the Saudis

The Bani Khalid of eastern Arabia maintained ties with members of their tribe who had settled in Nejd during their earlier migration eastwards, and also cultivated clients among the rulers of the Najdi towns, such as the Al Mu'ammar of al-Uyayna. When the emir of Uyayna adopted the ideas of Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab, the Khalidi chief ordered him to cease support for Ibn Abd al-Wahhab and expel him from his town. The emir agreed, and Ibn Abd al-Wahhab moved to neighboring Dir'iyyah, where he joined forces with the Al Saud. The Bani Khalid remained staunch enemies of the Saudis and their allies and attempted to invade Nejd and Diriyyah in an effort to stop Saudi expansion. The first attacks of the Al Saud occurred in 1763 which were led by Abdulaziz bin Muhammad.[6] Their efforts failed, however, and after conquering Nejd, the Saudis invaded the Bani Khalid's domain in al-Hasa and deposed the Al 'Ura'yir in 1789.[7]

Return and Fall from Power

When the Ottomans invaded Arabia and overthrew the Al Saud in 1818, they conquered al-Hasa, al-Qatif and reinstated members of the Al 'Uray'ir as rulers of the region. The Bani Khalid were no longer the potent military force they once were at this time, and tribes such as the Ajman, the Dawasir, and Subay' began encroaching on the Bani Khalid's desert territories. They were also beset by internal quarrels over leadership. Though the Bani Khalid were able to forge an alliance with the 'Anizzah tribe in this period, they were eventually defeated by an alliance of several tribes along with the Al Saud, who had reestablished their rule in Riyadh in 1823. A battle with an alliance led by the Mutayr and Ajman tribes in 1823,[8] and another battle with the Subay' and the Al Saud in 1830, brought the rule of the Bani Khalid to a close. The Ottomans appointed a governor from Bani Khalid over al-Hasa once more in 1874, but his rule also was short-lived.[9]

List of rulers

Emirs of Bani Khalid (1669–1796)

Name Reign start Reign end Notes
Barrak ibn Ghurayr [ar] 1669 1682
Muhammad bin Ghurair [ar] 1682 1691
Sa'dun bin Muhammad [ar] 1691 1722
Ali bin Muhammad [ar] 1722 1736
Sulayman bin Muhammad Al Khalidi [ar] 1736 1752
Urayar bin Dajeen bin Saadoun [ar] 1752 1774
Bateen Bin Urayer [ar] 1774 1775
Dajeen bin Urayer [ar] 1775 1775
Sa'dun bin Urayar [ar] 1775 1786
Duwaihis Bin Urayar [ar] 1786 1793
Zaid bin Urayar [ar] 1793 1794
Barak bin Abdul Mohsen [ar] 1793 1796


  1. ^ Al-Jassir
  2. ^ Mandaville, p. 503
  3. ^ Fattah, p. 83
  4. ^ a b Ibn Agil, p. 78
  5. ^ شبكة قبيلة بني خالد Archived 4 November 2006 at the Wayback Machine
  6. ^ Saeed 'Amr M. Al-'Amr Al-Beeshi (1994). The Social and Political History of the Western Coast of the Gulf, 1207-1256/1793-1840 (PhD thesis). University of Manchester. p. 50. ISBN 978-1-392-10160-5. ProQuest 2217103618.
  7. ^ Sani Ali Bashir (1979). A study of Al Khalifah's rule in Bahrain, 1783-1820 (MA thesis). McGill University. p. 12.
  8. ^ Meglio
  9. ^ Al-Rasheed, p. 36


أبو عبدالرحمن بن عقيل الظاهري، "أنساب الأسر الحاكمة في الأحساء، القسم الثاني: بنو حميد (آل عريعر)"، من منشورات دار اليمامة، الرياض، المملكة العربية السعودية
عبدالكريم الوهبي، "بنو خالد وعلاقتهم بنجد"، دار ثقيف للنشر والتأليف، 1989