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Banu Asad ibn Khuzaymah (Arabic: ابن أسد بن خزيمة) is an Arab tribe. They are Adnanite Arabs, powerful and one of the most famous tribes. They are widely respected by many Arab tribes, respected by Shia Muslims because they have buried the body of Husayn ibn Ali, his family (Ahl al-Bayt) and companions with the help of Ali ibn Husayn Zayn al-Abidin, the son of Husayn, and many martyrs from the Battle of Karbala are from the tribe. Today, many members of the tribe live in the Iraqi cities of Basra, Najaf, Kufa, Karbala, Nasiriyah, Amarah, Kut, Hillah, Diyala and Baghdad. There is a branch from the Banu Assad in Northern Sudan called Banu Kahil who have migrated from the Hijaz to Sudan. There are also members of Bani Assad tribe in Ahvaz in the Khuzestan of Iran located with neighboring tribes of Banu Tamim, Bani Malik, Banu Kaab and other notable Arab tribes.

Lineage

The Bani Asad are the patrilineal lineage originating from a man named Asad bin Khuzaimah bin Mudrikah bin Ilyas bin Mudar bin Nizar bin Ma'ad bin Adnan ...bin Qedar bin Ismâʿīl (Ishmael) bin Ibrahim (Abraham).

The Asad tribe that exists today are from Mudar (Mudarites), said to be cousins of the Islamic prophet, Muhammad who share with them the same ancestor Khuzaimah ibn Mudrikah ibn Ilyas ibn Mudar.[1]

Legacy of the Banu Asad

In the 6th century, a royal chief of the Kindah tribe named Hujr was killed by the Banu Asad. A contemporary of Imru' al-Qais, the illustrious Arabian mu'allaqat poet 'Abid bin al-Abras belonged to the Banu Asad and was fond of vaunting Hujr's murder. In the Namara inscription, Nasrid king of al-Hira, Imru' al-Qays ibn Amr claimed he killed two chiefs from Bani Assad, which is mentioned in Ibn Ishaq where their nephew said a poem about her two uncles the Asadites "One came early to tell me of the death of the two best of Asad, 'Amr b. Mas'tid and the dependable chief (alsamad)".[2][3][4]

Banu Asad had their own Talbiyah of the prilgrimmage to Mecca before Islam.[5]

Conflicts with Muhammad

The Islamic prophet Muhammad was involved in armed conflict against this tribe. The first conflict was the Expedition of Qatan in June 625 [6] Muhammad ordered his followers to attack the Banu Asad bin Khuzaymah tribe after receiving intelligence that they were allegedly plotting to attack Medina[7] 3 people were captured by Muslims during that expedition.[8] The second one was the Expedition of Ukasha bin Al-Mihsan in 627,[9] Muhammad ordered his followers to attack the Banu Asad bin Khuzaymah tribe to capture booty/spoils[9][10]

They also were involved in the Expedition of Al Raji where they were bribed to kill some Muslims on behalf of the Banu Lahyan tribe. According to William Montgomery Watt, the most common version of the event states that the motives of the Banu Lahyan for attacking Muslims, was that the Banu Lahyan wanted to get revenge for the assassination of their chief at Muhammad's instigation. So they bribed the two tribes of Khuzaymah to say they wanted to convert to Islam. Watt also said that the seven men Muhammad sent may have been spies for Muhammad and instructors for Arab tribes. He also said that it is difficult to verify the exact date the assassination of their chief took place.[11]

Migration to Iraq

The Banu Asad migrated to Iraq in the 7th century and settled in Kufa. They have settled near the banks of the Euphrates river near Kufa and Karbala and have also settled in Basra and in Ahvaz, sharing land with the Banu Tamim. The Bani Assad sided with Ali in the Battle of the Camel. Many companions of Muhammad and Ali are from the Bani Assad. The Bani Assad tribe sided with Husayn ibn Ali in the Battle of Karbala, which took place on Muharram 10th, 61 AH (October 9 or 10, 680 CE) in Karbala, Iraq.[12] Many martyrs from the Bani Assad clan died with Husayn in the Battle of Karbala.

The Mazyadid emirate of the Banu Asad

Main article: Banu Mazyad

In 998, Ali ben Mazyad, leader of the Baniu Asad tribe, established a virtually independent Mazyadid state in the Kufa area of Iraq. Backed by a powerful tribal army, the Mazyadids enjoyed great influence in the area for a century and a half. They acquired titles and subsidies from the Buyids in return for military services. Their most lasting achievement was the founding of Hillah, one of the main cities in Iraq, which became their capital in 1012. The originator of the Mazyadid name was a scholar, hadith narrator and chemist called Mazyad ben Mikhled al Sadaqa. Imad ad-Din al-Isfahani commented about the Mazyadid rulers, saying:

They were Arabs, belonging to the Bani Mazyad from the Powerful Banu Asad Tribe. They established themselves with the strength of their swords on the banks of Euphrates. They were the refuge of those who were in need of it, the shelter for the expectants, the helpers of those who sought help and supporters of the weak. People with expectation were attracted towards them and scholars found money with them. What they did in spending on good purpose is too well known and talks of their generosity too common. Sadaqa shook with pride when he listened to poetry and set aside for the poet a special part of his generosity. He made them free from poverty. He accepted them in his audience. He was all ears to listen to the requests of people and very generous in giving them what they needed.

[citation needed]

Members of the Bani Assad clan outside Iraq

Mansour Moosa Al-Mazeedi played an important role in developing the Constitution of Kuwait issued on January 29, 1963 as part of Al Majles Al Ta'sesy or Founding Parliament.[13]

The Al Mazeedi family are Shia in Iraq, dramatically increasing the influence of Shia minorities in Arabia. And there are also Al Mazeedi Shia families in Kuwait as well as Sunni. Recently it was discovered that some Al-Mazeedi family members migrated to Yemen a few hundred years ago and settled in the region of Hadhramaut. Their tribal name is Al-Mazyad or Banu Asad, their surnames or their family names is Assadi, Al-Assadi, or Al-Mazeedi, some (about 1,000) were also found in Oman and in India, primarily in the state of Karnataka with ancestral concentration in a place called Thokur, a village in Mangalore. A group of Sunni Muslims having Assadi as surname arrived at the Mangalore Port during the rule of Tipu Sultan. These Persian speaking sailors claimed their ancestry from Banu Assad. They built a Community center by name Thokur Jamia Masjid in Thokur village of Mangalore .

Fatalities from the Banu Asad in the Battle of Karbala

Main article: List of casualties in Hussain's army at the Battle of Karbala

Habib ibn Muzahir (commander of the left flank), Muslim ibn Awsaja al-Asadi, Uns ibn Hars Asadi, Qais ibn Masher Asadi, Abu Samama Umru ibn Abdullah, Ureer Hamdani, Hanala ibn Asad, Abis Shakri, Abdul Rahman Rahbi, Saif ibn Hars, Amer ibn Abdellah Hamdani.

Burials

On the 13th of Muharram, three days after the massacre, members of the Banu Asad in Karbala had the honor of burying the bodies of Husayn, his family and their companions. The Banu Ad tribe is widely respected by other Shia Arab tribes. Ali ibn Husayn Zayn al-Abidin, the 4th Twelver Shia Imam, helped the Banu Asad tribe to bury the martyred bodies and helped them to identify the bodies of Husayn ibn Ali, his father, and the Ahl al-Bayt and their companions.[citation needed]

Clans

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All clans are related which goes back to the same tribe or ancestor of Asad.

.

Leading personalities

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See also

References

  1. ^ Ibn Ishaq, Guillaume (1955). The Life of Muhammad: A Translation of Ibn Isḥāq's sīrat. London. p. 3. ISBN 0195778286. The Lineage of Muhammad, Asad and Muhammad have same grandfather Khuzaimah
  2. ^ Ibn Ishaq, Guillaume (1955). The Life of Muhammad: A Translation of Ibn Isḥāq's sīrat. London. pp. 736, 120, 568, 720, 305, 557, 756. ISBN 0195778286.
  3. ^ Watt, Montgomery (1956). Muhammad at Medina. pp. 30, 36, 79, 88. ISBN 9780199064731. Qatan battle page 30, Mecca battle 36,79, Tulayha 88 Alt URL
  4. ^ Shahid (1989). Byzantium and the Arabs in the 5th century. Washington D.C.: Dumbarton Oaks. ISBN 0884021521.
  5. ^ Angelika Neuwirth; Nicolai Sinai; Michael Marx, eds. (2010). The Qur'an in context historical and literary investigations into the Qur'anic milieu. Leiden: Brill. p. 302. ISBN 9789047430322. Alt URL Archived 2015-10-02 at the Wayback Machine
  6. ^ Watt, W. Montgomery (1956). Muhammad at Medina. Oxford University Press. p. 34. ISBN 978-0195773071. The expeditions to Hamra' al-Asad and Qatan (March and June 625) (free online)
  7. ^ Mubarakpuri, The sealed nectar: biography of the Noble Prophet , p. 349.
  8. ^ Sa'd, Ibn (1967). Kitab al-tabaqat al-kabir. Vol. 2. Pakistan Historical Society. p. 150. ASIN B0007JAWMK.
  9. ^ a b Mubarakpuri, The Sealed Nectar, p. 205. (online)
  10. ^ Sa'd, Ibn (1967). Kitab al-tabaqat al-kabir,By Ibn Sa'd,Volume 2. Pakistan Historical Society. p. 104. ASIN B0007JAWMK. Then occurred the sariyyah of 'Ukashah Ibn Mihsan al-Asadl on al-Ghamr.
  11. ^ Watt, W. Montgomery (1956). Muhammad at Medina. Oxford University Press. p. 33. ISBN 978-0-19-577307-1. The common version, however, is that B. Lihyan wanted to avenge the assassination of their chief at Muhammad's instigation, and bribed two clans of the tribe of Khuzaymah to say they wanted to become Muslims and ask Muhammad to send instructors. (online)
  12. ^ Karbala: Chain of events Section - The Battle
  13. ^ Amiri Diwan, The Efforts of the Constituent Assembly, State of Kuwait 2006

Other sources