This article may be expanded with text translated from the corresponding article in German. (November 2012) Click [show] for important translation instructions. Machine translation like DeepL or Google Translate is a useful starting point for translations, but translators must revise errors as necessary and confirm that the translation is accurate, rather than simply copy-pasting machine-translated text into the English Wikipedia. Consider adding a topic to this template: there are already 7,244 articles in the main category, and specifying|topic= will aid in categorization. Do not translate text that appears unreliable or low-quality. If possible, verify the text with references provided in the foreign-language article. You must provide copyright attribution in the edit summary accompanying your translation by providing an interlanguage link to the source of your translation. A model attribution edit summary is Content in this edit is translated from the existing German Wikipedia article at [[:de:]]; see its history for attribution. You should also add the template ((Translated page)) to the talk page. For more guidance, see Wikipedia:Translation.
This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.Find sources: "Barmen" – news · newspapers · books · scholar · JSTOR (December 2009) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
Barmen in 1870. Painting by August von Wille
Barmen in 1870. Painting by August von Wille

Barmen is a former industrial metropolis of the region of Bergisches Land, Germany, which merged with four other towns in 1929 to form the city of Wuppertal.

Barmen, together with the neighbouring town of Elberfeld founded the first electric suspended monorail tramway system, the Schwebebahn floating tram.


Barmen was a pioneering centre for both the early industrial revolution on the European mainland, and for the socialist movement and its theory. It was the location of one of the first concentration camps in Nazi Germany, KZ Wuppertal-Barmen, later better known as Kemna concentration camp.[1]

Oberbarmen (Upper Barmen) is the eastern part of Barmen, and Unterbarmen (Lower Barmen) the western part.

One of its claims to fame is the fact that Friedrich Engels, co-author of The Communist Manifesto, was born in Barmen. Another of its claims is the fact that Bayer AG was founded there by Friedrich Bayer and master dyer Johann Friedrich Weskott with the express purpose to erect and operate a dyeworks.[2]


The asteroid 118173 Barmen is named in its honour, celebrating the 1934 Synod which issued the Barmen Declaration defining Protestant opposition to National-Socialist ideology.



Historical population


  1. ^ David Magnus Mintert, Das frühe Konzentrationslager Kemna und das sozialistische Milieu im Bergischen Land[permanent dead link] (PDF) Ruhr University Bochum, doctoral dissertation (2007), pp 144–145. Retrieved January 14, 2012 (in German)
  2. ^ "History The Early Years (1863–1881)". Bayer AG. Retrieved 4 February 2021.
  3. ^ Rudolf Carnap

Coordinates: 51°16′N 7°12′E / 51.267°N 7.200°E / 51.267; 7.200