Bataan
From left-to-right, top-to-bottom: Bataan Provincial Capitol Building, Mount Samat National Shrine, Bataan Death March Zero-Kilometer Marker, St. Dominic Parish in Abucay, the Freeport Area of Bataan, the Flaming Sword obelisk at Pilar, the Plaza Mayor de Balanga
Flag of Bataan
Official seal of Bataan
Location in the Philippines
Location in the Philippines
OpenStreetMap
Map
Coordinates: 14°41′N 120°27′E / 14.68°N 120.45°E / 14.68; 120.45
CountryPhilippines
RegionCentral Luzon
FoundedJanuary 11, 1757
CapitalBalanga
Largest LGUMariveles
Government
 • GovernorJose Enrique S. Garcia III (NUP)
 • Vice GovernorMa. Cristina M. Garcia (NUP)
 • LegislatureBataan Provincial Board
Area
 • Total1,372.98 km2 (530.11 sq mi)
 • Rank71st out of 81
Highest elevation1,398 m (4,587 ft)
Population
 (2020 census)[2]
 • Total853,373
 • Rank35th out of 81
 • Density620/km2 (1,600/sq mi)
  • Rank8th out of 81
Divisions
 • Independent cities0
 • Component cities
 • Municipalities
 • Barangays237
 • DistrictsLegislative districts of Bataan
Demographics
 • Ethnic groups
 • Languages
Time zoneUTC+8 (PHT)
ZIP Code
2100–2114
IDD:area code+63 (0)47
ISO 3166 codePH-BAN
Websitebataan.gov.ph

Bataan (/bɑːtɑːˈʔɑːn/, /bɑːˈtɑːn/), officially the Province of Bataan (Filipino: Lalawigan ng Bataan IPA: [bɐtɐˈʔan]), is a province in the Central Luzon region of the Philippines. Its capital is the city of Balanga while Mariveles is the largest town in the province. Occupying the entire Bataan Peninsula on Luzon, Bataan is bordered by the provinces of Zambales and Pampanga to the north. The peninsula faces the South China Sea to the west and Subic Bay to the north-west, and encloses Manila Bay to the east.

The Battle of Bataan is known in history as one of the last stands of American and Filipino soldiers before they were overwhelmed by the Japanese forces in World War II. The Bataan Death March was named after the province, where the infamous march started.

History

Aeta peoples

The first inhabitants of the Bataan peninsula are the Ayta Magbeken people. The next group of inhabitants were Kapampangans, who settled east Bataan.

Tagalog migration and states

Later on, Tagalogs from southern Luzon, most specifically Cavite, migrated to parts of Bataan. The Ayta Magbeken migrated towards the mountain areas of Bataan by the end of the 16th century. Kapampangans were displaced to the towns near Pampanga.

Spanish rule

In 1647, Dutch naval forces landed in the country in an attempt to seize the islands from Spain. The Dutch massacred the people of Abucay in Bataan.

Historian Cornelio Bascara documents that the province of Bataan was established on January 11, 1757, by Governor-General Pedro Manuel Arandia out of territories belonging to Pampanga and the corregimiento of Mariveles which, at that time, included Maragondon across Manila Bay.[3][4] By the end of the 1700s, Bataan had 3,082 native families and 619 Spanish Filipino families.[5]: 539 [6]: 31, 54, 113 

Japanese invasion

Main article: Battle of Bataan

Further information: Bataan Death March

March 1942: burning houses after a Japanese bombing raid in Bataan

Bataan featured prominently during World War II. Prior to the 1941 Japanese invasion, Bataan was a military reservation for the purpose of defending the fortress island of Corregidor.[7] The US Army stored nearly 1,000,000 US gallons (3,800 m3) of gasoline there, along with various munitions. At the southern tip of the peninsula the U.S. Navy had established a small base at the port of Mariveles.

Shortly after the Japanese Army invaded the country in December 1941, the combined US and Filipino forces were being gradually overrun and General Douglas MacArthur moved his troops to the Bataan Peninsula in an attempt to hold out until a relief force could be sent from the US. Japanese forces started a siege of the peninsula on January 7, 1942, and launched an all-out assault on April 3, a few months after the Battle of the Points, Battle of the Pockets, the attack down Trail Number Two, and a half-dozen other brutal battles.[8] The Bataan campaign was the last time a regular cavalry unit of the U.S. Army, the Philippine Scouts 26th Cavalry, was used as a horse mounted fighting unit. On the morning of January 16, 1942, Lt. Edwin Ramsey led the last cavalry charge into the town of Morong, routing the advancing Japanese infantry.[9] As the troops on Bataan were continually reduced in rations, the horses were eventually slaughtered to feed the starving soldiers.[10]

The majority of the American and Filipino forces surrendered on April 9 and were forced to march more than 100 kilometers (62 mi) from Bataan to Capas, Tarlac, which became known as the Bataan Death March.

Postwar era

Postwar reconstruction in the province of Bataan was generally slow, although there were efforts to pursue industrialization projects in the area, most notably the establishment of the NASSCO (National Shipyard and Steel Corporation) in Mariveles which was inaugurated in 1953 during the Quirino administration.[11] It would later be bought by the Bataan Shipping and Engineering Company in 1964.[12]

Marcos dictatorship era

Main articles: Martial law under Ferdinand Marcos, Human rights abuses of the Marcos dictatorship, and Bataan Nuclear Power Plant

The beginning months of the 1970s marked a period of turmoil and change in the Philippines, as well as in Bataan.[13][14] During his bid to be the first Philippine president to be re-elected for a second term, Ferdinand Marcos launched an unprecedented number of foreign debt-funded public works projects. This caused[15][16] the Philippine economy took a sudden downwards turn known as the 1969 Philippine balance of payments crisis, which in turn led to a period of economic difficulty and a significant rise of social unrest.[17][18][19] [20]: "43" 

Just as this was happening, it was revealed that the site of two communities where the workers of NASSCO lived - Barrio NASSCO and Barrio Camaya - would be torn down for converstion into the new Bataan Export Processing Zone in 1969, compelling the relocation of the residents who in turn launched protests until the BEPZ was finally built in 1972.[21]

With only a year left in his last constitutionally allowed term as president, Ferdinand Marcos placed the Philippines under Martial Law in September 1972 and thus retained the position for fourteen more years.[22] This period in Philippine history is remembered for the Marcos administration's record of human rights abuses,[23][24] particularly targeting political opponents, student activists, journalists, religious workers, farmers, and others who fought against the Marcos dictatorship.[25]

By this time, the social unrest of the pre-martial law period and the Marcos' violent responses to the protests of the time led many of the Philippines' youth, who previously held moderate positions calling for political reform, to be radicalized. Some were convinced to joined the newly-formed New People's Army as a last desperate way to resist Marcos' authoritarianism,[26][27] including Catalino Blas, Amado Bugay , and Delia Cortez, who were all idealistic activists killed in encounters with Marcos' forces in various locations in Bataan.[28][29][30] But many noncombatants were killed as well, such as Social Worker and Catholic lay worker Puri Pedro, who had been wounded as part of the collateral damage during one encounter in 1977, but was assassinated in cold blood by a soldier who identified himself as Col. Rolando Abadilla while she was recovering at the Bataan Provincial Hospital.[31][32]

It was also during Martial Law that construction on the Bataan Nuclear Power Plant began in Morong, in 1976.[33] Marcos had announced an intention to build a nuclear power plant in July 1973, not long after the declaration of Martial Law,[33] and a presidential committee was set up to review proposals, of which there were two - one each from General Electric and Westinghouse Electric. The committee preferred the proposal of General Electric's bid although it cost more, because it contained detailed specifications for the plant. But Marcos, in a deal brokered by crony Herminio Disini, overrode then and signed a letter of intent awarding the project to Westinghouse, despite the absence of any specifications on their proposal.[34] The project was plagued with problems throughout construction, including location, welding, cabling, pipes and valves, permits, and kickbacks, as well as setbacks such as the decline of Marcos's influence due to bad health and PR fallout from the incident at the Three Mile Island nuclear reactor.[35] A subsequent safety inquiry into the plant revealed over 4,000 defects.[33] Another issues raisead regarding it was the proximity of a major geological fault line and of the then-dormant Mount Pinatubo.<[34] By March 1975, Westinghouse's cost estimate ballooned to US$1.2 billion without much explanation. The final cost was $2.2 Billion for a single reactor producing half the power of the original proposal.[34] Many problems identified in earlier stages remained throughout construction, as reported by inspectors though denied by Westinghouse.[35] The power plant would eventually would be responsible to 10% of the country's external debt, despite never actually operating.[36]

Contemporary era

On March 14 2020, Bataan recorded one of the earliest cases of COVID-19 infection outside of Metro Manila, with a male patient from Orani being the 64th recorded case in the Philippines.[37] Bataan later became one of the provinces under the Enhanced community quarantine in Luzon.[38][39]

Geography

Bataan peninsula's strategic location in the west of Manila Bay, directly across Metro Manila

Bataan lies in the southwestern part of the Central Luzon region. It is a peninsular province with an area of 1,372.98 square kilometers (530.11 sq mi)[40]. The province is bounded in the west by the South China Sea, in the south by the Corregidor Island, and in the east by Manila Bay - the gateway to the Philippines' political, social and economic center. It is bounded inland by the city of Olongapo in the north and by the provinces of Pampanga and Bulacan in the northeast. Its capital, the City of Balanga, is about 31.3 nautical miles from Manila across Manila Bay.[41]

Topography

Bataan, a peninsula, is composed of 11 municipalities and one city. All except the northern most municipality of Dinalupihan, are coastal areas. The province's coastline is approximately 177 kilometers from Hermosa in the northeastern portion of the province, looping up to Morong in the northwest.

Bataan is divided by two mountain groups of volcanic origins. The northern side is composed of the Mount Natib (elevation 1,253 meters (4,111 ft)), Mount Sta. Rosa and Mount Silangan. The southern group is composed of Mount Mariveles, Mount Samat, and Mount Cuyapo. A narrow pass separates these two mountain groups.[4] The topography of the province is classified generally as hilly and mountainous with a narrow plain on the eastern side. The highest elevation is in the Mariveles mountains at 1,388 meters above sea level.[41]

Bataan has abundant water resources in the form of rivers, streams, creeks, waterfalls and springs. There are more than 100 rivers in the province radiating from the two aforementioned mountain groups. These are important not only for irrigation but also for navigation and fishing as well. The Talisay and Almacen Rivers are the two major rivers in the province. Talisay has its headwater in the Mariveles mountain group extending down to Pilar and Balanga into Manila Bay. Almacen River has its headwater in the Natib mountains extending down to Hermosa and exits through the Orani Channel to Manila Bay. Some of the smaller rivers are Abo-abo River, Bantalan River, Lamao River, Saysayin River, Agloloma River, Mamala River.[41]

Coastline

A view of the Bataan Peninsula from Manila Bay
Bataan as seen from the entrance of Manila Bay

Muddy tidal flats along the alluvial sandbars characterize the coastline along Manila Bay. Mangrove areas can be observed from Orani to Orion, along with seaweed areas and seagrass patches areas from portions of Balanga and Pilar down to Mariveles. The deeper portions are the coastal areas of Orion to Mariveles where most seaports are operating. Poor coral reef patches, mixed with sandy-rocky bottom can be found in Mariveles area, where the coastline begin to take on a rocky character looping from the mouth of Manila Bay to the western side of the province. The coastline facing the South China Sea is interspersed with pristine beaches with rocky portions and fringes of coral reef in good condition from Bagac to Morong, which is a haven for sea turtles and other marine animals.[41]

Climate

Bataan has distinct dry and wet seasons categorized as Type I in the Philippines' Modified Coronas' Climate Classification (Climate of the Philippines). The dry season begins in November and ends in April, while the rainy season starts in May and ends in October. The most rains come in June to August. Mean average rainfall in August is the heaviest at 633mm. Bataan is often visited by typhoons. Farming systems in the province follow these climatic cycles.[41]

Administrative divisions

Bataan is administratively subdivided into 11 municipalities and one component city.

Political map of Bataan

Demographics

Population census of Bataan
YearPop.±% p.a.
1903 46,787—    
1918 58,340+1.48%
1939 85,538+1.84%
1948 92,901+0.92%
1960 145,323+3.80%
YearPop.±% p.a.
1970 216,210+4.05%
1975 263,269+4.03%
1980 323,254+4.19%
1990 425,803+2.79%
1995 491,459+2.72%
YearPop.±% p.a.
2000 557,659+2.75%
2007 662,153+2.40%
2010 687,482+1.38%
2015 760,650+1.94%
2020 853,373+2.29%
Source: Philippine Statistics Authority[42][43][44]

The population of Bataan in the 2020 census was 853,373 people,[2] with a density of 620 inhabitants per square kilometer or 1,600 inhabitants per square mile. The demonym for natives of the province is Bataeño.

Tagalog and English are two of the predominant languages spoken in the province, as are the Philippines as a whole. The Tagalogs and Kapampangans speak both of these with their respective accents. Kapampangan is spoken in towns near the boundary with Pampanga, specifically Dinalupihan, Hermosa, and Orani. Ilocano is spoken by descendants of Ilocano settlers in southeastern areas, specifically Orion, Limay, & Mariveles.[45][46][better source needed].

Ethnicity

The three most prominent ethnic groups in Bataan are the Tagalogs, the Kapampangans and the Ayta Magbeken, though the third group has a lower population despite being the province's first inhabitants. The second group is mainly present at the northeast of the province, as well as in the provincial capital to a lesser extent. Some Bataeños are descendants of Ilocano settlers. Non-native residents in Bataan include Pangasinans, Bicolanos, several Cordillera tribes, Cebuanos, Hiligaynons, Maranaos, Maguindanaons and Tausugs.

Religion

Catholicism

Roman Catholicism is the predominant religion, comprising 85.46% of the Bataan population.[citation needed]

Others

Various religious groups are present in the province, which include Members Church of God International (MCGI),[47] Iglesia ni Cristo (4.47%), Evangelicals (2.06%), Aglipayans (1.60%), and others.

Human development

Bataan is amongst the provinces in the Philippines with high Human Development Index. The 2015 HDI of the province is 0.793.[48]

Economy

Economic significance

Bataan is one of the most progressive provinces of Central Luzon and Manila Bay Region, and a key contributor to the region's overall economic productivity. Its Provincial Product Account (PPA) also known as Provincial GDP (Gross Domestic Product) is valued at PhP256.88-billion.[49] It has the biggest GDP-per capita amongst all the provinces in the Philippines at PhP297,930 per person.[50][51] The province is strategically located right in the middle of the country's growth triad corridor of Subic Special Economic and Freeport Zone, Clark Freeport and Special Economic Zone and Metro Manila. It is one of the Philippines' industrial centers owing to the presence of heavy industries, two freeport zones and several special manufacturing zones. Due to these factors plus the province's competitive incentives offered to new business locators, the Philippine Chamber of Commerce and Industry adjudged Bataan as the most business friendly province in the country during the 49th Philippine Business Conference Expo held last October 25 and 26, 2023. This is the third time the province had received such recognition, the first one was in 2018, while the second in 2021.[52]

In 2020, Bataan registered the third highest locally sourced income among all the provinces in the Philippines as certified by the Department of Finance - Bureau of Local Government Finance (BLGF).[53]

Industries and manufacturing

The 180,000 bpsd Petron Bataan Refinery in Limay, Bataan is the sole integrated oil refinery and petrochemical complex in the Philippines
The Freeport Area of Bataan, formerly known as Mariveles Free Trade Zone (June 21, 1969–November 20, 1972), and Bataan Export Processing Zone/Bataan Economic Zone (November 20, 1972–October 23, 2009 (primary name before the conversion of BEZ to FAB); October 23, 2009–June 30, 2010 (secondary name during the eight-month transition period of the zone's operations and management from PEZA to AFAB and subsequent abolishment of BEPZ/BEZ), is the fastest growing freeport in the country in terms of investments[54]
Government Arsenal made sniper rifles on display

Bataan hosts various industries, ranging from light to heavy. These industries are producing diverse products for domestic distribution and export such as refined petroleum products, petrochemicals, ammunitions, industrial grade explosives, marine cargo vessels, luxury yachts, pre-cast concrete, cement, steel building materials, animal feeds, fertilizers, fiberglass products, electronic components, automotive parts, medical personal protective equipment, paper, plastic products, optical lenses, textile and leather products, and sporting goods and apparels.[41] Industrial productions account to more than 63% of the province's GDP valued at PhP162.27-billion as of 2022.[55]

The largest industrial complexes operating in the province are listed below.

Bataan is also a strategic transport route and transshipment point linking the Subic Special Economic and Freeport Zone and the rest of the western part of Central Luzon region to Metro Manila. Several private ports, dry docks and ship yards, and oil terminals are operating along its long eastern coast facing Manila Bay. Among these are San Miguel Corporation Shipping and Lighterage, Petron Corporation Limay Terminal, PNOC jetty, Planters Products Inc. Bulk Handling Terminal, Seasia-Nectar Terminal, Oilink Terminal, Jetti Petroleum Terminal, Orion Dockyard, Herma Shipyard, Seafront Terminal and Shipyard, Liquigaz Philippines LPG Terminal and Filoil/Total Philippines Terminal.

Agriculture and fisheries

Agriculture and fishery productions are major sources of income for the people of Bataan. Productions range from crops, fruits, fish, shellfish and other marine species. About 44,000 hectares of land are utilized for farming. The top five agricultural crops produced by the province are palay (rice), corn, coconuts, mangoes and bananas.[71] The municipalities of Dinalupihan, Hermosa, Orani, Samal, Abucay, Pilar and Orion are the main contributors for agricultural output of the Province.

Poultry Production

Bataan is frequently included in the top ten poultry and poultry product producers in the country,[72] it hosts modern poultry dressing and processing plants owned by San Miguel Corporation and Bounty Fresh Chicken. Currently, San Miguel Food and Beverage is building a $100-million mega-poultry facility that can house 80-million birds in Brgy. Lucanin, Mariveles.[73]

Fisheries

Being a peninsula, Bataan is one of the major sources of various marine products in Luzon, that include good quality tilapia, bangus (milkfish), tiger prawns, mud crabs, and bivalves such as mussels, oysters and capiz shells.[41]

Commerce and services

Capitol Drive in Balanga
SM City Bataan

Bataan is in a process of accelerated growth in commercial sector driven mainly by young entrepreneurs and the advent of online commerce. Based from the Philippine Statistics Authority, more than 10,000 micro, small and medium enterprises (MSME) are operating in the province.[74] With an average of 126 enterprises available per 10,000 people, Bataan is considered as the most enterprising province in Central Luzon. Commerce and services' share to provincial economy as of 2022 is valued at PhP84.6-billion, equivalent to 33% of the province's GDP.[75]

The City of Balanga, the capital of Bataan, is the prime commercial hub in the province and hosting several shopping centers notably SM City Bataan, Vista Mall Bataan, Waltermart Balanga, Capitol Square, Galeria Victoria, Center Plaza Mall, Recar Commercial Complex and Ocampo's Megastore. In addition, a new shopping mall, Robinsons Place Balanga, located in E. Garcia Sr. Avenue corner Roman Superhighway, is expected to start construction soon. The municipalities of Morong, Dinalupihan, Hermosa, Orani, Mariveles and Orion are considered as secondary commercial hubs. The rest of the municipalities have established smaller business district enough to support the local demand.

Information technology and business process outsourcing

Genpact is the largest Business Process Outsourcing (BPO) company operating in the province of Bataan of Bataan.

The City of Balanga is one of the twenty-five (25) emerging digital hubs identified by The Digital Cities 2025 program by the Department of Information and Communications Technology (DICT), Information Technology and Business Process Association of the Philippines (IBPAP), and Leechiu Property Consultants, Inc. (LPC).[76] It hosts several outsourcing companies such as Genpact, Boston-based start-up Botkeeper, and Australia-based Yoonet. While in the town of Mariveles, the Freeport Area of Bataan is now hosting several blockchain and fintech firms.[77] The town of Abucay is also being groomed as the province's next Business Process Outsourcing (BPO) hub thru its First Abucay Freeport Inc. which is a declared expansion area of the Authority of the Freeport Area of Bataan and with Cognizant as its first locator.

Banking and finance

Bataan is served by most of the leading universal and commercial banks in the Philippines. Based from the Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas (BSP) statistics, as of September 2021, there are 41 universal and commercial bank branches, 36 thrift bank branches, and 31 rural and cooperative bank branches scattered around the province but with the most numbers in the City of Balanga and towns of Dinalupihan and Mariveles.[78]

Tourism

Bataan is rich in natural wonders and is also a popular heritage and historical destination especially due to its role during the beginning of the Pacific Theater of the Second World War.

Cultural and historical sites

Umagol River in Las Casas Filipinas de Acuzar

Ecotourism

Festivals and holidays

President Ferdinand Marcos Jr. attending to the Day of Valor (Araw ng Kagitingan) ceremony in Mt. Samat, Bataan

Infrastructure

Power

Generation

A solar power facility in Tipo, Hermosa area of the Subic Special Economic and Freeport Zone, Philippines

Bataan is a location of bulk power generation, where most of the power generated is sent to the Luzon Grid. Most power plants in Bataan rely on fossil fuels, like oil and coal, but renewable energy sources, primarily solar power, form part of the total generation. As of November 30, 2022 the total installed capacity of existing power plants equals to 3,676.7 MW.[80] Incoming power plants that are under construction will increase the output to 4,920.7 MW, with targeted commissioning date of 3rd quarter, 2023 to 3rd quarter, 2026.[81]

Fossil fuel-fired plants account for 3,528 MW, and are mostly concentrated in Limay and Mariveles. These include the GN Power Mariveles Coal Power Plant, with 690 (2x345) MW, SMC Limay Greenfield Power Plant (4x150 MW), Petron Cogeneration Power Plant (4x35 MW), Panasia Bataan Combined Cycle Power Plant (648 MW), and the recently commissioned GN Power Dinginin Units 1 and 2 (725x2 MW).[80][82] Two plants are under construction, Petron's Refinery Solid Fuel-Fired Boiler Project - Phase 3 (44 MW), and SMC Mariveles Coal Power Plant (8x150 MW). These will increase the capacity by additional 1,244 MW.[81] Three natural gas-fired power plants with combined capacity of 3,275 MW are proposed, one planned in Limay and two in Mariveles. These are currently endorsed by the Department of Energy for grid-impact study.[83]

Renewable energy, accounts for 92.4 MW. Existing renewable energy power plants include the Bataan 2020 Cogen Power Plant (12.5 MW), Cleangreen Energy Corp. Napier Grass Fired Power Plant (12 MW), YH Green Energy Solar Power Plant (12.6 MW), Citicore Solar Power Plant (18 MW), Morong Solar Power Plant (5 MW), and Jobin-Sqm Inc.'s (a subsidiary of Nickel Asia Corporation[84]) Sta. Rita Solar (32.3 MW) in Tipo, Hermosa side of Subic Bay Freeport Zone.[82] While additional 11.64 MW are expected from two projects that are on the advanced stage of construction, these are Citicore's 6.64 MW solar rooftop project in the Freeport Area of Bataan,[85] and Ayala Corp.'s Bataan Solar Energy Inc. with 5 MW in Batangas Dos, Mariveles.[86] Two more solar power projects are in the pipeline - Solana Solar Power Project (28 MW) and Jobin-Sqm Inc. Bataan Solar Power Project Phases 1, 2, 3a-3b (100 MW).[81] Also, two wind power projects are planned, the 500 MW Bagac Bay Offshore Wind Project and 300 MW Bagac Bay Onshore Wind Project, both by Earth Sol Power Corporation. These are also endorsed by the Department of Energy for grid impact study.[83]

The Bataan Nuclear Power Plant in Morong, with a design 600 MW capacity, was supposed to be the first nuclear power plant in the Philippines. It was supposed to commence operation in 1986, but was mothballed amidst critical opposition to the Marcos regime and concerns on nuclear power. There is some discussion of either rehabilitating the plant, which would likely be uneconomical, or constructing a new nuclear power station.

Battery energy storage system

In 2021, San Miguel Corporation's Universal Power Solutions Inc. together with its partner Wärtsilä commissioned the first battery energy storage system (BESS) in Limay with 40 MW/40MWh capacity.[87] Three more BESS projects are committed to be built - Hermosa Battery Energy Storage System (40 MW/40MWh), Lamao Battery Energy Storage System Phases 1 and 2 (30 MW/30MWh, 20 MW/20MWh), and BCCP Limay Battery Energy Storage System Project Phase 2 (20 MW/40MWh). All by Universal Power Solutions Incorporated.[81]

Transmission

Power is transmitted to the province through various transmission lines and substations located within the province. There are four transmission substations located within the province which are the Hermosa, Balsik EHV, Limay, and Mariveles EHV substations of National Grid Corporation of the Philippines (NGCP). Since 2018, the province has a network of 500 kV transmission lines which are the Mariveles-Hermosa, Hermosa-Castillejos, Hermosa-San Jose, GNPower Dinginin-NGCP Mariveles, and MPGC – Mariveles Power Plant-NGCP Mariveles lines. The first three transmission lines are operated and maintained by NGCP while the last two are dedicated point-to-point generation facilities being operated by respective power generation companies.

Distribution

Power distribution in the province are served by the Peninsula Electric Cooperative (PENELCO) except the two freeport zones located within the province which are Subic Special Economic and Freeport Zone and Freeport Area of Bataan (including barangays of Mariveles that are also under the jurisdiction of FAB which are Malaya (Quadro) and Maligaya (Pizarro)) where they are served by Subic Enerzone and Utility Management Department (UMD) of National Transmission Corporation (TransCo), respectively. Some large customers have their power supply sourced from the transmission grid, whose network of 69,000 volt lines supply substations owned by PENELCO.

Research and development

Ayala Corporation Energy Holdings, Ltd (ACEN), the listed energy platform of the Ayala Group built the ACEN Tech Hub in Mariveles. Different energy and energy storage technologies will be tested here for possible large-scale use in the Philippines.[88]

Airport

Aerial view of Subic Bay International Airport

Seaports

Port of Mariveles in Bataan

Port management

Port Management Office (PMO) - Bataan/Aurora of the Philippine Ports Authority is responsible for financing, management and operations of public ports operating in Bataan. Currently there are three government-owned ports, and these are:[89]

Limay and Mariveles ports are primarily used by tramper vessels/tankers catering to the requirement of industries and companies operating in the province. While the Port of Capinpin is equipped for Roll-on/roll-off (Ro-Ro) vessels to carry passengers which is served by 1Bataan Integrated Transport System from Esplanade Seaside Terminal at the Mall of Asia, Pasay to Orion and vice versa.

There are also 15 private ports/terminals that are operating in the province, namely:[89][90]

The Subic Bay International Terminal Corporation in Cubi Point, Subic Bay Freeport Zone, while part of Bataan thru the municipality of Morong, is located within the jurisdiction of Subic Special Economic and Freeport Zone and administered by Subic Bay Metropolitan Authority.

Customs administration

Thru the Customs Administrative Order (CAO)-05-2008,[91] the new Collection District No. XVI to be known as Bureau of Customs (BOC)-Port Limay was established. It has jurisdiction and is responsible for assessment and collection of customs revenues from imported goods and other dues, fees, charges, fines and penalties accruing under the Customs Modernization and Tariff Act (RA 10863) from all ports within the province of Bataan excluding the portions of the province that is within the Subic Special Economic and Freeport Zone as defined by R.A. No. 7227. The BOC-Port of Limay is considered as the third largest port in the Philippines in terms of revenue collection, behind Manila International Container Port (MICP) and Port of Batangas.[92] The total revenue collection of BOC-Port of Limay in 2023 reached PhP 123.24-billion (equivalent to USD 2.24-billion).[93]

Highways, expressways and national roads

Tipo Interchange in Hermosa, Bataan, before the toll system integration with NLEx.

Bataan is served by a network of national highways and two expressways. Roman Superhighway, part of highway N301, and Jose Abad Santos Avenue, or highway N3 and Olongapo-Gapan Road, forms the backbone of the national highway network. Subic–Clark–Tarlac Expressway (SCTEX) and Subic Freeport Expressway (SFEX), are toll expressways, linking the province with Pampanga, Tarlac and Subic Special Economic and Freeport Zone. The Layac-Balanga-Mariveles Port Road (a.k.a. Old National Road), Bagac-Mariveles Road, SBMA-Morong Road and Governor J.J. Linao National Road forms the secondary network, which connects the smaller municipalities with the main highway network.[94][95] In addition, a new 17.74-kilometer access road is being constructed to connect the Hermosa Ecozone and Industrial Park directly to the Subic Bay Freeport Zone. It will traverse the barangays of Palihan and Mabiga in Hermosa, and ends in Mabayo, Morong, to serve as a toll-free alternative to SCTEX and SFEX.[96]

Bataan-Cavite Interlink Bridge

A 32-kilometer bridge called Bataan–Cavite Interlink Bridge is proposed to connect Bataan with Cavite, crossing Manila Bay, and is envisioned to be one of the world's longest marine bridges. The contract for detailed engineering and design was awarded in October 2020.[97] The Philippine Department of Public Works and Highways announced that the bridge's construction, costing $3.91 billion, will be co-funded by Asian Development Bank (ADB), Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank (AIIB) and the Philippine government thru a 54%/29%/17% sharing respectively.[98] It is targeted to start in 2024.[99]

In December 12, 2023, the ADB announced it has approved the $2.1 billion funding it promised for the construction of this bridge.[100] On December 15 of the same year, the Philippine government, through the Department of Finance (DOF), and the Asian Development Bank (ADB) signed the first tranche of the financing for this project, worth $650 million of the total $2.1 billion loan package.[101] On the other hand, AIIB announced that their share of first tranche funding, worth $350 million, will be available to the Philippine government by January 2024.[102]

Sports facilities

Public sports facilities are dispersed across the province. Indoor sports arenas or gymnasiums are located in the towns of Dinalupihan, Hermosa, Orani, Orion, Limay and Mariveles, and there are two in the City of Balanga. An olympic-size swimming pool frequently used for local competitions is situated in the town of Abucay. While the town of Dinalupihan hosts the remaining athletics track and field in the province after the conversion of former Bataan Provincial Oval in Balanga to a public highschool.

There are three privately-owned golf courses in the province, these are:

The province will also be the site of the Philippine Sports Training Center (PSTC) in Bagac. The PSTC is targeted for completion in 2025.[103][104]

Education

As of 2018, literacy rate in Bataan is 99.4% (Literacy of the Household Population 10 Years Old and Over).[105] Access to education opportunities is provided by 259 elementary schools, 84 secondary schools and 19 tertiary schools, owned and operated by either the government or private persons/groups. There are also 6 TESDA-accredited institutions offering technical/vocational courses.[106]

Educational institutions

Bataan Peninsula State University or BPSU is a state-owned university and the leading tertiary education provider in the province. It was established by virtue of Republic Act 9403, signed into law on 22 March 2007. It is a conglomeration of five state-owned higher education institutions in Bataan. The university currently has six campuses scattered across the province - the Main Campus (formerly Bataan National School of Arts and Trade), Balanga Campus (formerly Bataan Community Colleges), Abucay Campus (formerly Bataan National Agricultural School), Dinalupihan Campus (formerly Bataan State College), Orani Campus (formerly Bataan National Polytechnic School), and Bagac Campus. Its seventh campus in Sabang, Morong, Bataan is now under construction[107]

Another state-owned higher education institution in the province is Polytechnic University of the Philippines Bataan, which is a satellite campus of the Polytechnic University of the Philippines in Sta. Mesa, Manila, established in 1976. It is located inside the Freeport Area of Bataan (FAB) in Mariveles.

Other notable tertiary education institutions in Bataan are listed below:

Iskolar ng Bataan

Iskolar ng Bataan is a provincial government-funded tertiary education scholarship program with a primary goal of producing at least one professional in every household in the province and be gainfully employed in the trade and industries operating inside or outside the province.[108]

Bataan Highschool for the Arts

Through Republic Act No. 11190, the Bataan High School for the Arts is established as the second specialized public high school in the Philippines offering arts-focused education after the Makiling-based Philippine High School for the Arts (PHSA).

The School aims to develop artistically gifted and talented students by implementing a special secondary education curriculum and support programs committed to the conservation and promotion of the Filipino artistic and cultural traditions. This is also a Center for Arts and Design of the Senior High School Program among the twenty school divisions of Central Luzon. Through the establishment of the BHSA, DepEd will be able to help select, stimulate, and prepare students for a career in the arts and cultural work who will serve the region and the country.[109]

Notable people

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National heroes and patriots[edit]

Politics, military and government[edit]

Business and economy[edit]

Education, arts and sciences[edit]

Religion[edit]

Sports and entertainment[edit]

See also

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