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Batangas Tagalog
Native toPhilippines
RegionBatangas
Latin (Tagalog or Filipino alphabet);
Historically Baybayin
Language codes
ISO 639-3
Glottologbata1300
Batangas Tagalog.svg
places where it is generally spoken
Katagalugan dialects.png


Batangas Tagalog (also known as Batangan or Batangueño [batɐŋˈgɛn.ɲo]) is a dialect of the Tagalog language spoken primarily in the province of Batangas and in portions of Cavite, Quezon, Laguna and on the island of Mindoro. It is characterized by a strong accent and a vocabulary and grammar closely related to Old Tagalog.[citation needed]

Grammar

The most obvious difference is the use of the passive imperfect in place of the present progressive tense. In Manila, this is done by inserting the infix -um- after the first syllable and repeating the first syllable. In the Batangan dialect, this form is created by adding the prefix na- to the word.

This conjugation is odd,[citation needed] because it would be the passive past to Manileños. The answer to Nasaan si Pedro? (Where is Pedro?) is Nakain ng isda! (He's eating a fish!). To those unfamiliar with this usage, the statement might mean "He was eaten by a fish!"; however, a Batangas Tagalog user can distinguish between the two apparently-identical forms by determining the stress in the words (nákain is eating and nakáin is eaten).

Morphology

Another difference between Batangan and Manila Tagalog is the use of the verb ending -i instead of -an mo, especially in the imperative. This only occurs when the verb stands alone in a sentence or is the last word in the phrase. When another word follows, Batangueños would not use the -an form.

Example 1

However,

This uses the absolute degree of an adjective, not heard elsewhere.[citation needed] It is the rough equivalent to -issimo or -issima in Italian, and is missing from other Tagalog dialects.[citation needed] This is done with the prefix pagka-:

Example 1
Example 2

Second-person plural

Another notable characteristic of the Batangan dialect is the dual-number pronouns, referring to two things (as opposed to plural, which can be two or more). Although it has not disappeared in some other areas, this form is rarely used in the Manila dialect.[citation needed]

Example 1
Example 2

Intonation tends to rise, particularly in the expression of deep emotion.

Phonology

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Another notable difference is the closed syllable, which has disappeared from the Manila dialect. The town of Tanauan is pronounced tan-'a-wan, although it would be pronounced ta-'na-wan by other Tagalog speakers. This is also true of words such as matamis (pronounced matam-is). Because Batangan is more closely related to ancient Tagalog, the merger of the phonemes e and i and the phonemes o and u are prevalent; e and o are allophones of i and u, respectively, in Tagalog.

Prevalent in Batangan but missing from other dialects are the sounds ei and ow. Unlike their English counterparts, these diphthongs are sounded primarily on the first vowel and only rapidly on the second; this is similar to the e in the Spanish word educación and the first o in the Italian word Antonio.

Vocabulary

Locative adjectives are iré or aré (this) and rine or dine (here). Vocabulary is also divergent. Batangueño has several translations of the word "fall", depending on how a person falls. They may have nádulas (slipped), nagtingkuró (lost their balance) or nagsungabâ (fallen on their face.)

People from Manila may ask why a student came home early when school is in session. The student would answer, May pasok, pero waláng klase; the student would go to school to have their attendance checked, but there are no classes.

To the confusion of other Tagalog speakers,[citation needed] Batangueños use the phrase Hindî pô akó nagyayabang! to mean "I am not telling a lie!"; Manileños and other native Tagalog speakers would say Hindî pô akó nagsisinungaling! To them, the former statement means "I am not bragging (or boasting)!"

A panday is a handyman in Batangas and a smith in Manila. An apáw is "mute" ("overflow" in Manila [ápaw]; "mute" is pipi). An exclamation of disbelief is anlaah!, roughly a shorter translation of walâ iyán ("that's nothing" or "false") in Manila Tagalog.

The Batangas dialect is also known for the particle eh. While it is used throughout the province, some variations exist (such as ala eh). This particle has no intrinsic meaning; its closest equivalent in English is in the conversational context of "Well,...". In other cases it can show that the preceding word is the cause of something, much as kasi would be used. The particle eh is also spoken in other native Tagalog-speaking areas and by second-language speakers w/ the same closest English translation mentioned above w/out its variants like ala eh.

Batangas dialect

Old Tagalog Modern Tagalog (Filipino) English
Asbag Yabang Egoism
Bilot Tuta Puppy
Huntahan Kwentuhan Storytelling
Kakaunin Susunduin Fetch
Bang-aw Ulol Stupid
Buog Tulog Sleep
Sumbi Suntok Punch
Taluti Daldal Talkative
Guyam Langgam Ant
Tarangkahan Geyt Gate
Kahanggan Kapitbahay Neighbor
Atungal Iyak Cry
Baak Hati Sever
Dagasa Bulusok Stab
Dine Dito Here
Barino Galit Angry
Sura Inis Annoying
Gahaman Takaw Gluttony
Susot Yamot Exasperated
Harot Landi Flirt
Litar[a] Pasyal Stroll
Gura Sumbrero Hat
Landang Lagnat Fever
Kapulong Kausap Talking
Barik Lasing Drunk
Suray Liko Swerve
Tubal Maduming-damit Dirty clothing
Timo Tigil Stop
Takin Tahol Bark
Mamay Lolo Grandfather
Hiso Sipilyo Toothbrush
Asbar[b] Garuti/Tali Lace
Nagpabulak Nagpakulo Boil
Masukal Malago Grow
Imis Linis Clean
Umis Ngiti Smile, Grin
Umungkot Umupo Sit
Pangkal Tamad, Batugan Lazy
Maas/Ulaga/Malag Tanga/Ulol Fool
Hawot Tuyo Dried fish
Bangi Ihaw Grill
Balatong Munggo Mung bean
Salop Salok Ganta
Sakol Kumain gamit ang kamay Eating using a hand

Batangas Tagalog dialect surrounding within area

Outside Batangas borders

Majestic plural

The plural is not limited to those of lower ranks; those in authority are also expected to use this pluralisation with the first-person plural inclusive Tayo, which acts as the majestic plural. The Batangueños use the inclusive pronoun, commonly for government officials or those with authority over a territory (such as a priest or bishop).

This form is used by doctors or nurses when talking to patients. A doctor from the province will rarely ask someone how he is feeling; rather, he will ask "How are we feeling?".

Although and opò show respect, Batangueños replace these with and ohò (a typical Batangueño morphophonemic change). However, Batangueños understand the use of and opò (the more-common variant in other Tagalog-speaking regions).

Notes

  1. ^ [ɾ], written as "r", in syllable-final position in native Tagalog words was influenced by Spanish.
  2. ^ [ɾ], written as "r", in syllable-final position in native Tagalog words was influenced by Spanish.

References