Battle of Kozludzha
Part of the Russo-Turkish War, 1768-1774
Date20 June 1774
Location
near the village of Kozludzha
43°19′45.9″N 27°35′33.91″E / 43.329417°N 27.5927528°E / 43.329417; 27.5927528Coordinates: 43°19′45.9″N 27°35′33.91″E / 43.329417°N 27.5927528°E / 43.329417; 27.5927528
Result Russian victory
Belligerents
 Russian Empire  Ottoman Empire
Commanders and leaders
Alexander Suvorov
Mikhail Kamensky
Abdul-Rezak Pasha
Strength
8,000[1][2] 40,000[1][2]
Casualties and losses
209[3] 3,000[3]

The Battle of Kozludzha (also known as the Battle of Kozluca), fought on 20 June (Old Style - June 9) 1774 near the village of Kozludzha (now Suvorovo, Bulgaria), was one of the final and decisive battles of the Russo-Turkish War (1768–74).[4] The Russians managed to rout the Ottoman army, scoring a major victory.[4] This battle, alongside several others in this campaign, established the reputation of the Russian general Alexander Suvorov as one of the brilliant commanders of his time.[5][6]

The Ottoman forces are estimated at about 40,000.[4][1][2] Russian numbers were much lower,[7] 8,000 men in total.[1][2] The Ottoman forces were demoralized due to previous defeats and had poor logistics (including a year of withheld back pay).[8]

Battle

The Russian army under Generals Alexander Suvorov and Mikhail Kamensky encountered the Ottoman forces of General Abdul-Rezak Pasha.[4][9] After scouts reported to Suvorov, he immediately ordered the attack.[10] The Russian army, divided into four squares, attacked the Ottomans.[10] Ottoman cavalry charges were repulsed by the Russians, [11] while a Russian cavalry attack from the rear resulted in the capture of all of the Ottoman artillery.[10] Russian artillery fire is also said to have been highly devastating to the Ottoman forces.[12] Casualties were 3,000 for the Ottomans[3] and 209 for the Russians.[3][10] The Russians captured the Ottoman camp with its supplies, while the Ottomans abandoned Kozludzha[12] and retreated to Shumla, where they were soon blockaded, suffering from further defeats and attrition.[7][9][10][12][13]

Aftermath

The Russian victory was one of the major reasons why a month later, on 21 July, the Ottomans were forced to sign the unfavorable Treaty of Küçük Kaynarca.[4][7][14]

References

  1. ^ a b c d Duffy C., Younghusband B. Eagles Over the Alps: Suvorov in Italy and Switzerland, 1799. Emperor's Press. 1999. P. 15
  2. ^ a b c d Dowling T. C. Russia at War: From the Mongol Conquest to Afghanistan, Chechnya, and Beyond. ABC-CLIO. 2014. P. 436
  3. ^ a b c d Dowling T. C. Russia at War: From the Mongol Conquest to Afghanistan, Chechnya, and Beyond. ABC-CLIO. 2014. P. 437
  4. ^ a b c d e Political History and Culture of Russia. Nova Science Publishers. 2003. p. 171. Retrieved 26 June 2013.
  5. ^ Gregory Fremont-Barnes (June 2006). The encyclopedia of the French revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars: a political, social, and military history. ABC-CLIO. p. 960. ISBN 978-1-85109-646-6. Retrieved 26 June 2013.
  6. ^ Alexander Mikaberidze (19 January 2005). Russian Officer Corps of the Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars. Casemate Publishers. p. 387. ISBN 978-1-61121-002-6. Retrieved 26 June 2013.
  7. ^ a b c Mesut Uyar; Edward J. Erickson (2009). A Military History of the Ottomans: From Osman to Atatürk. ABC-CLIO. p. 118. ISBN 978-0-275-98876-0. Retrieved 26 June 2013.
  8. ^ Jadwiga Nadzieja (1988). Od Jakobina do księcia namiestnika. Wydawnictwo "Śląsk". p. 14. ISBN 978-83-216-0682-8.
  9. ^ a b Tony Jaques (2007). Dictionary of Battles and Sieges: F-O. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 545. ISBN 978-0-313-33538-9. Retrieved 26 June 2013.
  10. ^ a b c d e Wlodzimierz Onacewicz (1985). Empires by Conquest: Ninth century-1905. Hero Books. p. 147. ISBN 978-0-915979-04-2. Retrieved 26 June 2013.
  11. ^ Jadwiga Nadzieja (1988). Od Jakobina do księcia namiestnika. Wydawnictwo "Śląsk". p. 15. ISBN 978-83-216-0682-8.
  12. ^ a b c Virginia H. Aksan (1 January 1995). An Ottoman Statesman in War and Peace: Ahmed Resmi Efendi, 1700-1783. BRILL. p. 165. ISBN 978-90-04-10116-6. Retrieved 26 June 2013.
  13. ^ Gábor Ágoston; Bruce Alan Masters (1 January 2009). Encyclopedia of the Ottoman Empire. Infobase Publishing. p. 493. ISBN 978-1-4381-1025-7. Retrieved 26 June 2013.
  14. ^ Anthony Pagden (25 March 2008). Worlds at War: The 2,500-Year Struggle Between East and West. Random House Publishing Group. p. 362. ISBN 978-1-58836-678-8. Retrieved 26 June 2013.