Battle of Pencon
Datec. 720
Location
Pencoed Glamorgan
Result British victory
Belligerents
Britons Unknown
Commanders and leaders
Unknown Unknown

The Battle of Pencon or Pencoed was a battle won by the Britons (modern Welsh), possibly against the Mercians or against themselves, around the year 720.

Accounts

The Chronicle of the Princes places the battle in AD 720. The Annals of Wales are undated but Phillimore placed the following entry in the year 722:[1]

The battle of Hehil among the Cornish, the battle of Garth Maelog, the battle of Pencon among the South Britons, and the Britons were the victors in those three battles.[2][3]

Although the Annals of Wales does not specifically identify the Anglo-Saxons as the enemy, it is considered[by whom?] that the failure to specify an enemy was simply because it would have been obvious. While other theories suggest the battle could have been between the Welsh and Cornish themselves.

The Chronicle of Princes seems to refute this logic, specifically excluding Pencoed from Rhodri Molwynog's conflict with the Saxons that year:

The same year Rhodri Molwynauc was made king over the Britons, and a great war arose between him and the Saxons, during which the Britons won two battles honorably. The same year, the battle of Garthmaelawg took place, and another in Gwynedd, and the battle of Pencoed in Glamorganshire; in all which three the Britons conquered.[4]

Location

Castell Pen-y-Coed, an earthwork in Carmarthenshire, Wales has been suggested as the possible site of the battle of Pencon.[5] Another site is next to Coed y Mwstwr (lit. Field of the Muster) and Ogof y Pebyll (caves next the Encampments) at Pencoed, near Bridgend in Glamorgan

References

  1. ^ Harleian MS. 3859. Op. cit. Phillimore, Egerton. Y Cymmrodor 9 (1888), pp. 141–83. (in Latin)
  2. ^ Ingram, James. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. Everyman Press (London), 1912.
  3. ^ For the original Latin for both the A & B texts, see: Annales Cambriae at the Latin Wikisource. (in Latin)
  4. ^ Archaeologia Cambrensis, the Journal of the Cambrian Archaeological Association, Vol. X., Series 3. "Brut y Tywysogion". Smith (London), 1864. Accessed 10 Feb 2013. (in Welsh and English)
  5. ^ Royal Commission on th ancient and historical monuments of Wales

Coordinates: 51°54′N 2°48′W / 51.9°N 2.8°W / 51.9; -2.8