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Battle of Samana
Part of Mughal-Sikh Wars
DateNovember, 26 1709
Location
Result Sikh Victory.[2][3]
Belligerents
Punjab flag.svg
Khalsa
Alam of the Mughal Empire.svg
Mughal Empire
Commanders and leaders
Punjab flag.svg
Banda Singh Bahadur
Alam of the Mughal Empire.svg
Wazir Khan
Strength
Unknown Unknown

The Battle of Samana was fought between Banda Singh Bahadur and the Mughal Government of Samana in 1709. Following the battle, Banda Singh Bahadur shook the administration of Delhi.[4]

Background

Samana was a town where executioners Sayyed Jalal-ud-din, Shashal Beg and Bashal Beg lived. Sayyed Jalal-ud-din was responsible for the execution of Sikh Guru Teg Bahadur, whereas, Shashal Beg and Bashal Beg were responsible for the execution of Guru Gobind Singh's two children.[5][6]

The Battle

The Sikh had 3,000 horsemen and 5,000 foot-soldiers.[7] The commander of Samana had his town well defended. Banda advanced with speed during the night and reached the gates of Samana by the dawn of November 26. Once the gate-keepers were killed the whole army charged into the town. The executioners of Guru Tegh Bahadur and his grandchildren were killed.[7] The peasantry population of the neighborhood joined Banda Singh's army of 30,000, looking to wreak vengeance upon their expropriating landlords and together with Banda and his army entered the town from all sides, killed thousands of the city's inhabitants and razed the town.[5][8][9][3] Nearly 10,000 Muslims are said to have been massacred in the town and a great amount of wealth was obtained.[10][11]

Aftermath

After the successful expedition against Samana, Banda Singh Bahadur appointed Fateh Singh as the Governor of Samana.[7][12] Later, some important towns on the way to Sirhind were plundered, especially as they could provide military assistance to Sirhind.[13][14] Banda also forcibly took supplies from the villagers and plundered Ambala on the way.[15] The towns of Kunjpura, Ghuram and Thaska were also destroyed by the Sikhs, which were inhabited by Muslim Ranghars, who committed atrocities against the general population.[16]

References

  1. ^ Sagoo 2001, p. 124.
  2. ^ Jacques, Tony (2007). Dictionary of Battles and Sieges. Greenwood Press. p. 891. ISBN 978-0-313-33536-5.
  3. ^ a b Jacques, p. 892
  4. ^ Alexander Mikaberidze (31 July 2011). Conflict and Conquest in the Islamic World: A Historical Encyclopedia: A Historical Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. pp. 120–. ISBN 978-1-59884-337-8. Retrieved 15 September 2013.
  5. ^ a b Sagoo 2001, p. 125.
  6. ^ Singh, Patwant (2007). The Sikhs. Crown Publishing Group. p. 68. ISBN 9780307429339.
  7. ^ a b c Singh and Singh, Daljeet and Kharak (1997). Sikhism its Philosophy and History. Nagar, Chandigarh: Institute of Sikh Studies. p. 426. ISBN 81-85815-03-8.
  8. ^ Journal of Indian History. Department of Modern Indian History, 1981. 1981. p. 209. The peasantry joined hands with the Sikhs and did not hesitate to wreak vengeance upon their expropriating landlords.
  9. ^ Grewal, J. S. (1998-10-08). The Sikhs of the Punjab. Cambridge University Press. p. 82. ISBN 978-0-521-63764-0.
  10. ^ Gupta, Hari Ram (1944). Studies in Later Mughal History of the Panjab, 1707-1793. p. 46.
  11. ^ Singh, Ganda (1950). A Short History of the Sikhs. Orient Longmans. p. 79.
  12. ^ Gandhi, Surjit (1999). Sikhs In The Eighteenth Century. p. 28.
  13. ^ Gandhi 1999, p. 28.
  14. ^ Sagoo, Harbans Kaur (2001). Banda Singh Bahadur and Sikh Sovereignty. Deep & Deep Publications. p. 124. ISBN 9788176293006.
  15. ^ Macauliffe, Max Arthur (2013-03-28). The Sikh Religion: Its Gurus, Sacred Writings and Authors. Cambridge University Press. p. 247. ISBN 978-1-108-05547-5.
  16. ^ Gupta, Hari Ram (1999) [1937]. History of the Sikhs: Evolution of Sikh Confederacies (1708-69) (PDF). Munshiram Manoharlal Publishers. p. 9. ISBN 9788121502481.