Beechcraft 1900
An Air New Zealand Link 1900D
Role Regional airliner, cargo, and corporate aircraft
Manufacturer Beech Aircraft Corporation
Raytheon Aircraft Company[1]
First flight September 3, 1982[2]
Introduction February 1984
Status In service
Primary users Ameriflight
Alpine Air Express
Central Mountain Air
Searca
Produced 1982–2002
Number built 695
Developed from Beechcraft Super King Air

The Beechcraft 1900 is a twin-engine turboprop regional airliner manufactured by Beechcraft. It is also used as a freight aircraft and corporate transport, and by several governmental and military organizations. With customers favoring larger regional jets, Raytheon ended production in October 2002.[3]

Developed from the Beechcraft Super King Air, the aircraft was designed to carry passengers in all weather conditions from airports with relatively short runways. It is capable of flying in excess of 600 miles (970 km), although few operators use its full-fuel range. In terms of the number of aircraft built and its continued use by many passenger airlines and other users, it is one of the most popular 19-passenger airliners in history.[4]

Development

A Continental Connection 1900D

The 1900 is Beechcraft's third regional airliner after the Beechcraft Model 18 and Beechcraft Model 99 Airliner.

The Beechcraft 1900's design lineage began in 1949 with the Beechcraft Model 50 Twin Bonanza, a 5-passenger, reciprocating engine utility aircraft designed for the U.S. Army. A larger passenger cabin was added to the Twin Bonanza's airframe, and called the Model 65 Queen Air. This aircraft was, in turn, further modified by adding turboprop engines and cabin pressurization, and named the Model 90 King Air. A stretched version of the King Air was later developed and designated the Model 200 Super King Air. Beechcraft developed the 1900 directly from the Super King Air, in order to provide a pressurized commuterliner to compete with the Swearingen Metro and the British Aerospace Jetstream.[5]

The 1900 first flew on September 3, 1982, with Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) certification awarded on November 22, 1983, under Special Federal Aviation Regulation (SFAR) 41C airworthiness standards.[5] Like the 1900, the 1900C was certified under SFAR 41C, but the later 1900D version was certified to FAR Part 23 "Commuter Category" standards.[6]

The 1900 entered service in February 1984,[5] with the first ExecLiner corporate version delivered in 1985. A total of 695 Beechcraft 1900 aircraft were built, making the airliner the best-selling 19-passenger airliner in history.[4][a] In 1991, the price of a 1900D Airliner was $3.95 million.[7] With market trends favoring larger 50- to 90-seat regional jets, Raytheon ended production of the Beechcraft 1900 in October 2002.[citation needed] Many airlines continue to fly the 1900.

Design

Beechcraft 1900C
The 1900 has single passenger seats either side of an aisle

Since the 1900 is derived from the King Air, all 1900s share certain characteristics with that aircraft. Cockpit controls and operations are similar to those of the King Air. The aircraft's noticeable deviations from the King Air comes from its longer fuselage and the presence of "stabilons", which are small horizontal stabilizers at the rear of the fuselage for overcoming T-tail blanking when the aircraft is in higher angles of attack. Additional fins for yaw stability were installed on the tail for 1900Ds, which also feature a taller cabin to allow for a "stand-up cabin" with more walking headspace like conventional airliners. While Federal Aviation Regulations require two pilots for passenger airline operations, the 1900 is designed and certificated for single-pilot operation in corporate or cargo settings, as is the King Air.

The 1900 is powered by two Pratt & Whitney Canada PT6A turboprop engines. The 1900 and 1900C use two PT6A-65B engines, each flat-rated at 1,100 shaft horsepower (820 kW). The 1900D uses two PT6A-67D engines, each rated at 1,279 shaft horsepower (954 kW). The propellers are manufactured by Hartzell, with four blades on each propeller. The blades are made from composite materials.

Performance

At FL230, the 1900D cruises at 280 kn (520 km/h) true airspeed while burning 772 lb (350 kg) per hour.[7] Range with 19 passengers for a flight plan with instrument flight rules fuel reserves for a 100 nmi (185 km) alternate airport and 45-minute hold is 680 nmi (1,260 km).[7] It can take off from 3,740 ft (1,140 m) runways at a weight of 16,950 lb (7,690 kg), at sea level and ISA conditions.[7] It can operate on grass and rough runways.

The airplane is certified to fly up to an altitude of 25,000 feet (7,600 m) above mean sea level with its pressurized cabin.[8] It is designed to operate in most weather conditions, including icing conditions, and it is usually equipped with weather radar to help pilots avoid severe weather.[8] The aircraft can be fitted with a lavatory, using space otherwise available for passenger seating and cargo storage.[8]

Variants

1900

The original design is known simply as the Beechcraft 1900. It features two airstair passenger boarding doors: one near the tail of the aircraft much like the smaller King Airs, and a second at the front just behind the cockpit. It has a small cargo door near the tail for access to the baggage compartment, which is behind the passenger compartment. Only three airframes were built, with "UA" serial numbers of UA-1, UA-2, and UA-3. UA-1 and UA-2 are stored at a Beechcraft facility in Wichita, Kansas. UA-3, registered FAB-043, served in Bolivia until it crashed in November 2011.[9]

1900C

Danish Air Transport 1900C

It quickly became clear that having two airstair doors on an aircraft holding only 19 passengers was excessive. In creating the 1900C, Beechcraft kept the front airstair, but eliminated the aft airstair door, installing an enlarged cargo door in its place. Other than the redesigned door layout, the early 1900Cs were substantially similar to the original 1900s. These were assigned serial numbers starting with the letters UB. A total of 74 UB version were built, many of which remain in service.[6] Aircraft in the UA and UB series employ a bladder-type fuel tank system in the wings. Later 1900Cs use a wet wing fuel system: entire sections of the wing are sealed off for use as fuel tanks. This design change allowed more fuel to be stored, substantially increasing the 1900C's range. The wet wing 1900Cs were assigned serial numbers beginning with "UC." These aircraft are also referred to as 1900C-1s. The wet wings proved popular, and the UC is the most common version of the low-ceiling 1900, with 174 UC airframes built.[6]

Raytheon manufactured six 1900C aircraft for use by the U.S. military. These were assigned "UD" serial numbers, UD-1 through UD-6.

1900D

The 1900D has a larger cabin to allow passengers to walk upright inside

While the 1900C had become a popular regional airliner, Beechcraft undertook a substantial redesign of the aircraft, and in 1991 introduced a new version called the 1900D.

The 1900 and 1900C, like most 19-passenger airliners and small business jets, have fairly small passenger cabins, with ceilings so low that passengers (of typical male heights) cannot walk through the interior without bending forward. The 1900D was designed to remedy this by providing a "stand-up cabin", which would allow most passengers to walk upright. It is one of only two 19-seat airliners with this feature, the other being the British Aerospace Jetstream 31/32.[6]

Because the taller passenger cabin adds both weight and drag to the airplane, other elements of the 1900D were also changed. More powerful engines and modified propellers were installed, winglets were added to reduce drag and increase the wings' efficiency, and the tail was made larger in response to the more powerful engines. The cockpit was updated with an Electronic Flight Instrument System (EFIS). The 1900D was certified under the then-new FAR Part 23 "Commuter Category" standards, which had replaced the earlier SFAR 41C. Since the UD serial numbers were already in use by the military 1900s, the 1900D airplanes have serial numbers beginning with UE. The 1900D is the most popular version of the airliner, with 439 of the 1900D built.[6]

Super Freighter

A supplemental type certificate has been awarded to Alpine Air Express to convert 1900D into cargo aircraft. The STC involved adding a second emergency exit to the cockpit and converting the interior to a cargo configuration. The 1900D can carry 900 cubic feet of cargo, 30% more than a 1900C. Powered by PT6-67D, the super freighter has a max takeoff weight of 17,120 lbs and is certified under the commuter category. Due to its standup cabin, the 1900D has a large internal volume. The large volume lends the aircraft well to the cargo industry where many packages are bulky and low in density. The 1900D is able to carry nearly as much volume as an EMB-120 and is certified for single pilot cargo operations. The single pilot crew and surplus of airframes allows for reduced operator costs.[10]

Military C-12J

The U.S. military designation for the Beechcraft 1900C is C-12J. This is a variant of the C-12 Huron, which is the most common designation for military King Airs. The C-12J includes the six Beechcraft 1900s with 'UD' serial number prefixes built for the U.S. military, as well as other 1900Cs in U.S. military service.

Examples of C-12J aircraft in military service include one used for GPS jamming tests at the 586th Flight Test Squadron, Holloman Air Force Base, New Mexico,[11] and three based at the 459th Airlift Squadron, Yokota Air Base, Japan.[4] The U.S. Army operates both C-12J and 1900D aircraft along with other C-12 (King Air) aircraft.[12]

King Air ExecLiner

The King Air ExecLiner was a marketing name for a corporate version of the Beechcraft 1900C.

Operators

Two 1900Ds of Maverick Airlines

Civilian operators

In July 2018, a total of 114 1900Cs and 192 1900Ds were in airline service: 207 in the Americas, 63 in Africa, 25 in Europe and 11 in the Asia Pacific and Middle East. Airline operators with nine or more aircraft were:[13]

Military operators

A 1900D of the Swiss Air Force arrives at the 2016 RIAT, England.
 Algeria
 Colombia
 Egypt
 France
 Myanmar
 South Sudan
 Switzerland
 Taiwan
 United States

Accidents and incidents

Specifications (Beechcraft 1900D)

Data from Raytheon: Beechcraft 1900D Passenger Specifications and Performance[46]

General characteristics

Performance

Avionics

See also

Related development

Aircraft of comparable role, configuration, and era

Related lists

Notes

  1. ^ The Fairchild Swearingen Metroliner series outsold the 1900 series by eight aircraft, but many were built as corporate Merlins and purpose-built Expediter freighters. The 19-seat de Havilland Canada DHC-6 Twin Otter outsold both types, with nearly a thousand built and sold, but it is typically used in different operations.

References

  1. ^ "Type Certificate Data Sheet No. A24CE" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on December 23, 2016. Retrieved February 7, 2016.
  2. ^ Jackson 2003, pp. 535–536.
  3. ^ "Beech 1900 Airliner". globalsecurity.org. Retrieved August 4, 2018.
  4. ^ a b c John Pike. "C-12J". globalsecurity.org. Retrieved January 18, 2015.
  5. ^ a b c Francillon 2001, p. 57.
  6. ^ a b c d e "Raytheon Airline Aviation Services". Archived from the original on October 17, 2007. Retrieved August 26, 2011.
  7. ^ a b c d Aarons, Richard N. (December 1991). "Inflight report: Beech's 1900D Airliner/Execuliner". Business & Commercial Aviation. Vol. 69, no. 6. New York: McGraw-Hill, Inc. pp. 46–51 – via Internet Archive.
  8. ^ a b c Beechcraft 1900D Aircraft Flight Manual, Raytheon Aircraft Corporation
  9. ^ Aeronave de la FAB aterriza de emergencia, retrieved 18 January 2015
  10. ^ "Super Freighter | Shipping | Alpine Air Express | United States". Alpine Air Express. Retrieved September 21, 2019.
  11. ^ "Holloman Air Force Base - Fact Sheet Media". af.mil. Archived from the original on May 26, 2011. Retrieved January 18, 2015.
  12. ^ "UsArmyAviation.com - Fixed Wing Page 1". usarmyaviation.com. Archived from the original on July 17, 2011. Retrieved January 18, 2015.
  13. ^ "World Airline Census 2018". Flightglobal.com. Retrieved August 27, 2018.
  14. ^ a b c d e "World Air Forces 2021". Flightglobal Insight. 2021. Retrieved June 2, 2021.
  15. ^ "Twin Jet F-GTVC (Beech 1900D - MSN UE349)". www.airfleets.fr.
  16. ^ Cutler, David (April 17, 2012). "Factbox: How Sudan and South Sudan shape up militarily". Reuters.com. Thomson Reuters. Archived from the original on February 22, 2014. Retrieved February 9, 2014.
  17. ^ Hoyle Flight International 4–10 December 2018, p. 56.
  18. ^ Hoyle Flight International 8–14 December 2015, p. 49.
  19. ^ "Audit of the Department of State's Administration of its Aviation Program" (PDF). September 2018. Archived from the original (PDF) on April 23, 2022. Retrieved July 5, 2020.
  20. ^ Ranter, Harro (November 23, 1987). "ASN Aircraft accident Beechcraft 1900C N401RA Homer Airport, AK (HOM)". aviation-safety.net. Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved March 29, 2012.
  21. ^ Ranter, Harro. "ASN Aircraft accident Beechcraft 1900C-1 RP-C314 Manila International Airport (MNL)". aviation-safety.net. Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved June 17, 2021.
  22. ^ Military Aviation Accidents Archived September 20, 2012, at the Wayback Machine, TaiwanAirPower.org
  23. ^ "Introduction to conflicting N811BE Accident Investigation Reports". Iprr.org. Retrieved March 29, 2012.
  24. ^ "block island - safety hyushin - air safety - 1993 - 1706 - Flight Archive". flightglobal.com. Retrieved January 18, 2015.
  25. ^ "ASN Aircraft accident Beechcraft 1900C N811BE Block Island, RI". Aviation-safety.net. Retrieved March 29, 2012.
  26. ^ Ranter, Harro. "ASN Aircraft accident Beechcraft 1900C-1 N55000 Saranac Lake-Adirondack Airport, NY (SLK)". aviation-safety.net. Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved June 16, 2021.
  27. ^ "NTSB Report: United Express Flight 5925" (PDF).
  28. ^ "F-GSJM/F-GAJE". www.bea.aero.
  29. ^ "Controlled flight into terrain, Régionnair Inc., Beechcraft 1900C C-FGOI, Saint-Augustin, Quebec, 4 January 1999". www.tsb.gc.ca. Transportation Safety Board of Canada. November 15, 2000. A99Q0005. Retrieved May 30, 2023.
  30. ^ "Controlled Flight Into Terrain, Régionnair Inc., Raytheon Beech 1900D C-FLIH, Sept-Îles, Quebec, 12 August 1999". www.tsb.gc.ca. Transportation Safety Board of Canada. January 10, 2002. A99Q0151. Retrieved May 30, 2023.
  31. ^ "ASN Aircraft accident Beechcraft 1900C-1 S9-CAE Quilemba". aviation-safety.net. Retrieved May 30, 2023.
  32. ^ "ASN Aircraft accident Beechcraft 1900C N127YV Mena, AR". aviation-safety.net. Retrieved May 30, 2023.
  33. ^ "UPDATE ON NTSB INVESTIGATIONS INTO RECENT BEECH 1900D ACCIDENTS AND INCIDENTS." National Transportation Safety Board. November 21, 2003. Retrieved on February 13, 2009.
  34. ^ Ranter, Harro. "ASN Aircraft accident Beechcraft 1900D 7T-VIN Ghardaïa-Noumérat Airport (GHA)". aviation-safety.net. Retrieved September 15, 2017.
  35. ^ Ranter, Harro. "ASN Aircraft accident Beechcraft 1900C N27RA Tonopah-Test Range Airport, NV (XSD)". aviation-safety.net. Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved June 16, 2021.
  36. ^ "ASN Aircraft accident Beechcraft 1900D 5N-JAH Besi, Obanliku". Aviation-safety.net. Retrieved February 3, 2012.
  37. ^ "BBC NEWS - Africa - Engine fault 'caused Sudan crash'". bbc.co.uk. May 3, 2008. Retrieved January 18, 2015.
  38. ^ Correction: South Sudan declares three-day mourning for crash victims Archived August 10, 2017, at the Wayback Machine Sudan Tribune 3 May 2008
  39. ^ Ranter, Harro. "Accident description". aviation-safety.net. Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved March 12, 2018.
  40. ^ "No survivors in Karachi plane crash". TGeo TV Pakistan. Archived from the original on July 28, 2012. Retrieved January 18, 2015.
  41. ^ "19 dead after tourist plane crashes in Nepal". Australian Broadcasting Corporation.
  42. ^ Ranter, Harro. "ASN Aircraft accident Beechcraft 1900C-1 ZS-PHL São Tomé Island Airport (TMS)". aviation-safety.net. Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved June 16, 2021.
  43. ^ Ranter, Harro. "ASN Aircraft accident Beechcraft 1900C YV1674 Miami Executive Airport, FL (TMB)". aviation-safety.net. Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved June 16, 2021.
  44. ^ Pyae Thet Phyo, Swan Ye Htut (February 10, 2016). "Five killed in military plane crash in Nay Pyi Taw". The Myanmar Times. Retrieved February 10, 2016.
  45. ^ Ranter, Harro. "ASN Aircraft accident Beechcraft 1900D 4610 Pyin Oo Lwin". aviation-safety.net. Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved June 17, 2021.
  46. ^ Raytheon: Beechcraft 1900D Passenger Specifications and Performance Archived 2012-03-15 at the Wayback Machine Retrieved on 30 December 2010

References