Behror
बहरोड़
Bahror, Bhror, Bahroad
Municipal town | urban area
Left to right: NH48 Highway flyover at Behror (L), old bus stop circle on Shahid Marg Behror (R)
Nickname(s): 
Raath[1]
Behror
Behror
Behror in Rajasthan
Behror
Behror
Behror (India)
Coordinates: 27°53′N 76°17′E / 27.88°N 76.28°E / 27.88; 76.28Coordinates: 27°53′N 76°17′E / 27.88°N 76.28°E / 27.88; 76.28
Country India
StateRajasthan
DistrictAlwar
Founded byKing Shaliwahan[2]
Named forMohalla Bhairunpur[2]
Government
 • TypeMunicipal Corporation
 • BodyNagar Palika Behror
Elevation
312 m (1,024 ft)
Population
 (2011)
 • Total29,531
Language
 • OfficialHindi[3]
 • RegionalMewati
Time zoneUTC+5:30 (IST)
PIN
301701
Telephone code(+91)-1494
Vehicle registrationRJ02
Nearest railway stationNarnaul (25 km away)
Nearest airportIndra Gandhi Intnl. Airport (115 km away)
Vidhan Sabha ConstituencyBehror
M.L.A.Baljeet Yadav
WebsiteNagar Palika Behror

Behror (IPA: [bɛɦɾoːɽ] (About this soundlisten)) is a municipal town in the Alwar district of Rajasthan. It serves as the administrative headquarters of eponymous Behror Tehsil. Situated 120 km south-west of national capital New Delhi and being a part of National Capital Region, it also comes under National Capital Region Planning Board which is a federal authority for urban planning purposes in the National Capital Region.[4] It is clubbed under Shahjahanpur-Neemrana-Behror Complex in the National Capital Region, which includes 137 revenue villages. In this cluster Behror municipality is the largest urban conglomeration.[5] This region is also known as 'Ahirwal region' and serves as an industrial hub for the state of Rajasthan. Behror municipality, spread out in an area of 15 km2, is divided into four revenue villages, namely Behror tarf Gangabishan, Behror tarf Doongrasi, Behror tarf Nainsukh, and Behror tarf Balram.[6]

Toponym

According to the most commonly accepted legend, the name "Behror" is thought to be derived form a corruption of the word "Bhairun" in the name "Mohalla Bhairunpura". Mohalla Bhairunpura was named after Bhairun temple in the newly established Shaliwahpur by King Shalivahan.[2]

History

Several late harappan period pottery and archaeological artefacts have been found in and around Sahibi River Basin.[7][8]

In the sixth century AD, King Shaliwahan of Bhati clan ruled northern part of the current Alwar region north-west of Sahibi River. After King Mauradhwaj, Shaliwahan took over his reins and shifted his capital - Mauradhwaj town - on the banks of the then perennial Sahibi river to the north-west of it, and established two cities, Kot and Shaliwahapur, with the capital being Shaliwahpur. Kot's remains are found in Singhali village of Mundawar tehsil. Shaliwahpur later came to be known as Behror city.[9]

Ror founded the city Behror by establishing one of the biggest forts in the 2nd century BCE.[10]

Before Independence Behror was a tehsil and urban center under Alwar Princely state. During the reign of Rao Pratap Singh (ruler of Alwar), Behror and surrounding Bansur area were incorporated in Alwar Princely state.

In first freedom movement Pran Sukh Yadav, who fought along with Rao Tula Ram against the British in 1857 Freedom Struggle at the battle of Naseebpur near Behror in Narnaul, hailed from Behror Tehsil and was important in raising local population of Aheers against British.[11][12]

After independence, and in the subsequent accession of Alwar state to Indian Union on 1 July 1947 it became part of newly formed Republic of India.

In 1948, it became part of the United States Of Matsya under Indian Union which was formed through a covenant with Union Government of India by states of Alwar, Bharatpur, Dholpur and Karauli with capital being Alwar.

In 1949, these were again merged with other princely states of Rajputana to form Rajasthan and through this Behror came to be part of Rajasthan state.

In 1953, Behror along with Alwar were again considered to be included in to be formed Brij Pradesh or Greater Delhi by State Reorganisation Commission but those proposals were never implemented and subsequently dropped.[13]

Behror has remained important center of attraction in Ahirwal region and as a part of the larger Matsya region due to proximity to Delhi.[14]

Geography

Located at co-ordinates 27°53′N 76°17′E / 27.88°N 76.28°E / 27.88; 76.28.[15] with an average elevation of 312 metres (1,024 ft) Behror sits amidst generally plain and very fertile agricultural land with Aravali Range mountains running north–south approximately 5 km to west of Behror.

According to CGWA, it has been identified as an area for regulating withdrawal of ground water (Dark Zone) since there are limited surface water resources and mostly ground water is used as main source of water.[16] Sahibi River, which is an ephemeral river, flows 10 km south-east of Behror, flowing south-west to north-east. Usually these days it is dry. Sota river is 7 km to the south-west[17] of Behror and drains into the Sahibi river.[18]

The climate is mostly dry, and mainly summer, winter and a short rainy season are the main seasons, winter starts from November and till March, summer remains till July.[19] January is the coldest month when it may get as cold as 2 °C. Around four-fifths of the average rainfall is received in July, August and September.[20]

The soil is highly fertile and agriculture is one of the main occupation in the region. Mattiyar, a type of loamy soil, is most commonly found in Behror. The chiknot type of soil is commonly found in Alwar district is characteristically not found in Behror and Tijara Tehsils.[21]

The city falls under Seismic Activity Zones 4 with some area of Tahsil under Zone 3 and another under Zone 4.

Forests are mainly of deciduous hilly type found along tracts of Aravalli hills with dominant trees being kikar, neem and dhak.[22] Main mineral found is quartz. There have been rapid changes in the environment surrounding city due to rapid urbanisation and increased pollution.[23]

Administration

Behror Semi-Urban area comprises Behror Municipality and surrounding rural areas.

Behror City is Class 3 municipal town according to Rajasthan Government classification system and is proposed to become a Regional Centre city.[24]

Eponymous Behror Tehsil is an administrative unit comprising Behror city and surrounding gram panchayats/villages. Behror Legislative constituency is the political constituency including Behror city and surrounding villages for election of representative to State legislature.[25]

Behror municipality

The Behror municipality – which is Behror city proper – is divided into 25 wards for which elections are held every five years.[citation needed]

Behror Legislative Constituency

Behror Legislative Constituency is categorised as rural seat in Legislative constituency classification. There are a total of 211,534 voters in the seat, which includes 110,515 male voters, and 101,019 female voters. In the 2018 Rajasthan elections, Behror recorded a voter turnout of 74.69%. In 2013 the turnout was 76%, and in 2008 it was 69%.[26]

Behror Tehsil

Behror Tehsil comprises 62 gram panchayats and 64 Patwar circles with ILR Code - 5.[citation needed]

Economy

Due to rapid development waste disposal has become a problem in the municipality and wider region with no proper waste disposal sites.[27]

Transportation

Behror municipality is well connected to major urban conglomerations in the area.[28]

Roadways

The most important connecting road is NH-8 (NH - 48) which passes through the city connects it to Delhi to the North-East and Jaipur to the South-West. This important link is a part of the Golden Quadrilateral project of NHAI. Recently NH-8 had undergone a major development and now it has a six-lane road from Jaipur to Delhi for better.[16] RTDC run Hotel Midway was situated on NH-8 in Behror before it was closed down.[29]

Behror is midway between Jaipur and Delhi, at a distance of 130 km from the State Capital and 120 km from the National Capital.

Behror has also direct connectivity to the district capital, Alwar which is 60 km apart. Behror Tehsil borders Haryana's Mahendragarh/Narnaul district and is connected to Narnaul City by State Highway - 14[27] which reaches up to district headquarters Alwar.

MDR (Major District Road) - 78 road connects Behror municipality to Rewari and ICD at Kund.[30]

Railways

Nearest Railway station is Narnaul railway station 25 km away on the Phulera-Rewari-Delhi Railway Line.[31] Inland Container Depot is being developed near Kund Railway station of Behror Tehsil under DMRC project.[5]

Airways

The nearest airport is Indra Gandhi International Airport which is 110 km towards Delhi on Jaipur- Delhi Highway.[32] Another international airport is proposed at Kotkasim which is only 50 km away.[33]

Landmarks and monuments

Forts

Neemrana Fort
Neemrana Fort

Neemrana Fort Complex located 10 km away is the most important landmark. The Neemrana fort was built in the 16th century and was occupied by Chouhan Rajputs until 1947.[34]

Taseeng Fort located in Aravali hills 5 km away is another place of attraction but is now in poor condition due to neglect. It was last occupied by Badgurjar Clan. Before them Chouhans from Machedi were its inhabitants.[35]

Taseeng Fort
Taseeng Fort

Temples

Mansa Devi Temple in Dahmi is thronged by devotees during Navratris.[36] It is 637 years old.[37]

Taseeng Baori
Taseeng Baori

Jeelani Mata Mandir built 500 years ago located behind Kutchery is another historical temple.[38]

Demographics

According to the 2011 Indian Census, Behror Municipality had a population of 29,531 of which 15,570 were males and 13,961 were females. Children between the age of 0 to 6 years were 3770, which was 12.77% of the total population. Female sex ratio was of 897. The total number of literates in Behror was 21,656, which constituted 73.33% of the total population, with male literacy of 80.04% and female literacy of 65.85%. The effective literacy rate of the 7+ population of Behror was 84.1%, of which male literacy rate was 92.4% and female literacy rate was 75.1%. The Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes had a population of 4,466 and 940 respectively. Behror municipality had total administration over 5,484 houses.[39]

The population of Behror fell in the first decades of the 20th century. This was attributable to influenza outbreaks in 1918, a plague outbreak in 1907, and deaths of enlisted soldiers in Rajputana units in the battlefields of World War 1 and China War in 1900; indeed this was true of most of Alwar state and Rajputana.[40]

Decadal population growth in Behror municipality[41][42][2][39]
Decade Population Growth rate (%)
1801 5,710 -
1881 Decrease 5,533 -
1901 Steady 5,540 -
1911 Decrease 5,253 -0.05
1921 Decrease 4,108 -0.22
1941
1951 Increase 4,465 -
1961 Increase 5,462 22.32
1971 Increase 6,868 40.55
1981 Increase 9,653 40.05
1991 Increase 16,238 68.21
2001 Increase 22,856 40.76
2011 Increase 29,531 29.20

Languages

Hindi, being the official language of state of Rajasthan, is the official language of the city. But in this border area's most common vernacular language - Raathi/Ahirwati - has influences of administrative Hindi, Haryanvi / Bangru, and Mewati.[43] It is influenced by Bangru the most, and seems rough to people not used to it.[44]

Culture and festivals

The Rath cattle fair is organised in May for the improvement of the Rath breed in Alwar district.[36]

See also

References

  1. ^ "अलवर की भौगोलिक एवं इतिहासिक पृष्ठभूमि" [Alwar Ki Bhogolik evam Ithesik Prishtbhoomi] (PDF). Shodhganga (in Hindi). Shodhganga INFLIBNET. p. 3. Retrieved 11 July 2020.
  2. ^ a b c d Ram, Maya (1968). Gazetteer of Rajasthan - Alwar (PDF). Jaipur: Government of Rajasthan. pp. 713–714.
  3. ^ "52nd Report of the Commissioner for Linguistic Minorities in India" (PDF). nclm.nic.in. Ministry of Minority Affairs. Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 May 2017. Retrieved 27 September 2019.
  4. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 17 July 2011. Retrieved 27 March 2010.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  5. ^ a b "SNB Master Plan" (PDF). Master Plan Report. Govt. Of Rajasthan: 15.
  6. ^ Shahjahanpur-Neemrana-Behror Complex (PDF). Jaipur: UDH, Govt. of Rajasthan. p. 13.
  7. ^ "( Sahibi River Basin ) 4 Chapter 1" [This phenomenon of settlement migration towards east between the Ghaggar and Yamuna divide was thoroughly studied by Manmohan Kumar (2009: 1-27) who foundthat the Late Harappan sites were increased in number towards the river Yamuna] (PDF): 2. Retrieved 11 July 2020. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  8. ^ A History of Ancient and Early Medieval India : From stone age to 12th century. Pearson. 2009. p. 116. ISBN 9788131716779.
  9. ^ "Rajasthan - Alwar - Bhogolik, Etihasik Pristhbhumi: Sthapana". ignca.nic.in. Retrieved 10 July 2020.
  10. ^ "History of Behror Rajasthan – Read Behror History & Facts". Rajasthan Direct. Retrieved 21 July 2021.
  11. ^ "Shodhganga" (PDF).
  12. ^ Freedom Struggle of 1857 - Renu Saran. Diamond Books. 1900. ISBN 9789350830659.
  13. ^ Ram, Maya (1968). Gazetteer of Rajasthan - Alwar. Jaipur: Government Press, Jaipur. pp. 97–98.
  14. ^ "History of Alwar". Retrieved 1 July 2020.
  15. ^ Falling Rain Genomics, Inc - Behror
  16. ^ a b Sub-Regional Plan for Rajasthan Sub-Region - 2021 Report. Jaipur: State Press, Govt. Of Rajasthan.
  17. ^ Master Plan for Behror, 1989-2001. Chief Town Planner, Govt. Of Rajasthan.
  18. ^ Rajasthan State Gazetteer: History and culture. p. 6.
  19. ^ "Master Plan 2041SNB" (PDF). UDH Rajasthan. Retrieved 7 July 2020.
  20. ^ The Imperial Gazetteer of India, 1908 (Volume 5 ). Oxford: Clarendon Press. 1909. p. 255.
  21. ^ The Imperial Gazetteer of India, 1908. 5. Oxford: Clarendon Press. 1909. p. 261.
  22. ^ Lenin, Janaki (6 July 2020). "Dhok, the purple-heart tree warrior of the Aravallis". The Hindu. ISSN 0971-751X. Retrieved 11 July 2020.
  23. ^ Sub-Regional Plan for Rajasthan Sub-Region - 2021 Report (PDF). Jaipur: State Press, Govt. Of Rajasthan. pp. 153, 228, 249.
  24. ^ Sub Regional Plan 2021 (PDF). Jaipur: Govt. Of Rajasthan. pp. Final Report - PAGE 35.
  25. ^ "Administration". Alwar District.
  26. ^ "Behror Elections 2018". News18. Retrieved 4 July 2020.
  27. ^ a b Sub Regional Plan 2021 (PDF). Jaipur: Govt. Of Rajasthan. pp. Final Report - Page 148.
  28. ^ David, Rohit E. (6 October 2018). "Rapid rail to be linked with metro, work on Delhi-Behror track may start in March 2019". The Times of India. Retrieved 11 July 2020.
  29. ^ "RTDC Midway in Bad Condition". Patrika. Retrieved 4 July 2020.
  30. ^ Sub Regional Plan (PDF). Jaipur: Govt. Of Rajasthan. pp. Annex 6.3 - Page 6.
  31. ^ Sub-Regional Plan 2021 (PDF). Jaipur: Govt. Of Rajasthan. pp. Executive Summary - Page 1.
  32. ^ "Airport Near Behror, Rajasthan, India, Nearest Airports". airport.globefeed.com. Retrieved 11 July 2020.
  33. ^ "राजस्थान में यहां हवाई अड्डे की फिर चर्चा, सरकार ने एयरपोर्ट की ओर बढ़ाया कदम, मुख्यमंत्री ने की थी यह घोषणा". Patrika News (in Hindi). Retrieved 11 July 2020.
  34. ^ "Alwar Tourist Places". Alwar District. Retrieved 1 July 2020.
  35. ^ "विरासत के झरोखे से: कभी अभेद्य रहा, पर अब तिल-तिल कर मर रहा हूं". Patrika News (in Hindi). Retrieved 10 July 2020.
  36. ^ a b Census 2011 District Handbook - Alwar (PDF). Jaipur: Directorate of Census Operatioins. 2014. pp. 30, 31.
  37. ^ "Mansa Devi Bell from 1437 still Ringing". Dainik Bhaskar. Retrieved 4 July 2020.
  38. ^ "सिसोदिया वंशजों ने बनाया जिलाणी माता मंदिर". Dainik Bhaskar (in Hindi). 9 December 2017. Retrieved 10 July 2020.
  39. ^ a b "Census of India: Behror (M)". www.censusindia.gov.in. Retrieved 27 September 2019.
  40. ^ Maya, Ram (1968). Gazetteer of Rajasthan - Alwar. Jaipur: Government Press, Jaipur. pp. 110–111.
  41. ^ Jiwanlal, Brij (1922). Census of India 1921. XXIV. Kolkata: Government Printing, Calcutta. p. 12.
  42. ^ Census of India 1911. London: Superintendent Government Printing. 1911. p. 16.
  43. ^ "Mewati". Ethnologue. Retrieved 14 September 2019.
  44. ^ "Alwar Ki Bhogolik evam Ithehasik Prishthbhoomi" (PDF). Sodhganga. Adhyaya 1: 9. 11 July 2020 – via Sodhganga/INFLIBNET.