Beijing Mandarin
Beijingese
北京官話 / 北京官话
Běijīng Guānhuà
PronunciationBeijing dialect: [pèɪtɕíŋ kwánxwâ]
RegionBeijing, Hebei, Inner Mongolia, Liaoning and Tianjin
Native speakers
27 million (2004)[1]
Dialects
Language codes
ISO 639-3
ISO 639-6bjgh
cmn-bei
Glottologbeij1235  Beijingic
Linguasphere79-AAA-bb

In Chinese dialectology, Beijing Mandarin (simplified Chinese: 北京官话; traditional Chinese: 北京官話; pinyin: Běijīng Guānhuà) refers to a major branch of Mandarin Chinese recognized by the Language Atlas of China, encompassing a number of dialects spoken in areas of Beijing, Hebei, Inner Mongolia, Liaoning, and Tianjin,[1] the most important of which is the Beijing dialect, which provides the phonological basis for Standard Chinese. Both Beijing Mandarin and its Beijing dialect are also called Beijingese.

Classification

See also: Mandarin Chinese § Classification

Beijing Mandarin and Northeastern Mandarin were proposed by Chinese linguist Li Rong as two separate branches of Mandarin in the 1980s.[2] In Li's 1985 paper, he suggested using tonal reflexes of Middle Chinese checked tone characters as the criterion for classifying Mandarin dialects.[3] In this paper, he used the term "Beijing Mandarin" (北京官话) to refer the dialect group in which checked tone characters with a voiceless initial have dark level, light level, rising and departing tone reflexes.[3] He chose the name Beijing Mandarin as this Mandarin group is approximate to the Beijing dialect.[4]

He subsequently proposed a split of Beijing Mandarin and Northeastern Mandarin in 1987, listing the following as reasons:[5][6]

The 2012 edition of Language Atlas of China added one more method for distinguishing Beijing Mandarin from Northeastern Mandarin:[7]

Meanwhile, there are some scholars who regard Beijing Mandarin and Northeastern Mandarin as a single division of Mandarin. Lin (1987) noticed the phonological similarity between Beijing Mandarin and Northeastern Mandarin.[8] Zhang (2010) suggested that the criteria for the division of Beijing Mandarin and Northeastern Mandarin as top-level Mandarin groups are inconsistent with the criterion for the division of other top-level Mandarin groups.[9]

Subdivisions

Beijing Mandarin is classified into the following subdivisions in the 2012 edition of Language Atlas of China:[10]

Per the 2012 edition of Atlas, these subgroups are distinguished by the following features:[1]

Compared with the first edition (1987), the second edition (2012) of the Atlas demoted Jīngshī and Huái–Chéng subgroups to clusters of a new Jīng–Chéng subgroup. Shí–Kè (石克) or Běijiāng (北疆) subgroup (including the cities of Shihezi and Karamay), listed as a subgroup of Beijing Mandarin in the 1987 edition, is re-allocated to a Běijiāng (北疆) subgroup of Lanyin Mandarin and a Nánjiāng (南疆) subgroup of Central Plains Mandarin. The Cháo–Fēng subgroup covers a greater area in the 2012 edition.[12]

Phonological features

Initials

With regard to initials, the reflexes of kaikou hu syllables with any of the 影, 疑, 云 and 以 initials in Middle Chinese differ amongst the subgroups: a null initial is found in the Jīngshī cluster, while /n/ or /ŋ/ initials are often present in the Huái–Chéng cluster and the Cháo–Fēng subgroup.[1][13]

Initial in Middle Chinese ►
Subdivision Location / / /
Jingshi Beijing
Huai–Cheng Chengde[14] n n n n n
Chao–Feng Chifeng[15]
(old-style)
ŋ ŋ n

Dental and retroflex sibilants are distinct phonemes in Beijing Mandarin.[5] This is contrary to Northeastern Mandarin, in which the two categories are either in free variation or merged into a single type of sibilants.[5]

Tones

In both Beijing Mandarin and Northeastern Mandarin, the checked tone of Middle Chinese has completely dissolved and is distributed irregularly[16] among the remaining tones.[17] However, Beijing Mandarin has significantly fewer rising-tone characters with a checked-tone origin, compared with Northeastern Mandarin.[18]

Subdivision Location / [19]
Beijing Mandarin Beijing dark level light level departing
Northeastern Mandarin Harbin rising rising rising

The Cháo–Fēng subgroup generally has a lower tonal value for the dark level tone.[1]

Tones of Beijing Mandarin dialects
Subdivision Location Dark level Light level Rising Departing Ref.
Jingshi Beijing ˥ (55) ˧˥ (35) ˨˩˦ (214) ˥˩ (51) [20]
Huai–Cheng Chengde ˥ (55) ˧˥ (35) ˨˩˦ (214) ˥˩ (51) [20]
Chao–Feng Chifeng ˦ (44) ˧˧˥ (335) ˨˩˧ (213) ˥˧ (53) [21]
Xingcheng ˦ (44) ˧˥ (35) ˨˩˧ (213) ˥˩ (51) [21]
Taiwanese Taipei ˦ (44) ˧˨˧ (323) ˧˩˨ (312) ˥˨ (52) [22]
Taichung ˦ (33) ˧˨˨ (322) ˧˩ (31) ˦˨ (32) [23]

Lexical features

The Cháo–Fēng subgroup has more words in common with that of Northeastern Mandarin.[11]

this place to envy to deceive to show off;
to brag
dirty to do
MSC 地方 / 地方 嫉妒 騙人 / 骗人 炫耀 /
Chao–Feng 圪墶 / 圪垯 眼氣 / 眼气 忽悠 得瑟 埋汰

The intensifier is also used in the Cháo–Fēng subgroup.[11]

Notes

  1. ^ a b c d e Chinese Academy of Social Sciences (2012), p. 42.
  2. ^ Chinese Academy of Social Sciences (2012), p. 41.
  3. ^ a b Li (1985), p. 3, 4.
  4. ^ Li (1989), p. 247.
  5. ^ a b c Chinese Academy of Social Sciences (2012), p. 40.
  6. ^ Li (1989), p. 246.
  7. ^ Chinese Academy of Social Sciences (2012), p. 35, 40, 41.
  8. ^ Lin (1987), p. 166–167.
  9. ^ Zhang (2010), p. 45.
  10. ^ Chinese Academy of Social Sciences (2012), p. 42 - 43.
  11. ^ a b c Chinese Academy of Social Sciences (2012), p. 37.
  12. ^ Chinese Academy of Social Sciences (2012), p. 11.
  13. ^ Hou (2002), p. 18.
  14. ^ There are also other ways to pronounce such initials in this dialect. (Zhang 2010, p. 79)
  15. ^ There are also other ways to pronounce such initials in this dialect. (Zhang 2010, p. 79)
  16. ^ Zhang (2010), p. 180.
  17. ^ Hou (2002), p. 17.
  18. ^ Hou (2002), p. 19.
  19. ^ Referring to its checked-toned pronunciation, as in 質量 / 质量.
  20. ^ a b Hou (2002), p. 38.
  21. ^ a b Zhang (2010), p. 33.
  22. ^ Multiple sources:
    • Fon, Yee-Jean (1999). "What Does Chao Have to Say about Tones? A Case Study of Taiwan Mandarin". AH.
    • 石, 鋒; 鄧, 丹 (2006). "普通話與台灣國語的語音對比" (PDF). 山高水長:丁邦新先生七秩壽慶論文集: 371–393.
    • Sanders, Robert (2008). "Tonetic Sound Change in Taiwan Mandarin: The Case of Tone 2 and Tone 3 Citation Contours" (PDF). Proceedings of the 20th North American Conference on Chinese Linguistics (NACCL-20). 1: 87–107.
  23. ^ 慧如(Khoo, Hui-lu) 許 (2020). "「台中腔」-台灣中部華語的聲調特徵及其成因初探". Taiwan Journal of Linguistics. 18 (1): 115–157. doi:10.6519/TJL.202001_18(1).0004. ISSN 1729-4649.

References