|北京官話 / 北京官话|
|Pronunciation||Beijing dialect: [pèɪtɕíŋ kwánxwâ]|
|Region||Beijing, Hebei, Inner Mongolia, Liaoning and Tianjin|
|27 million (2004)|
In Chinese dialectology, Beijing Mandarin (simplified Chinese: 北京官话; traditional Chinese: 北京官話; pinyin: Běijīng Guānhuà) refers to a major branch of Mandarin Chinese recognized by the Language Atlas of China, encompassing a number of dialects spoken in areas of Beijing, Hebei, Inner Mongolia, Liaoning, and Tianjin, the most important of which is the Beijing dialect, which provides the phonological basis for Standard Chinese. Both Beijing Mandarin and its Beijing dialect are also called Beijingese.
See also: Mandarin Chinese § Classification
Beijing Mandarin and Northeastern Mandarin were proposed by Chinese linguist Li Rong as two separate branches of Mandarin in the 1980s. In Li's 1985 paper, he suggested using tonal reflexes of Middle Chinese checked tone characters as the criterion for classifying Mandarin dialects. In this paper, he used the term "Beijing Mandarin" (北京官话) to refer the dialect group in which checked tone characters with a voiceless initial have dark level, light level, rising and departing tone reflexes. He chose the name Beijing Mandarin as this Mandarin group is approximate to the Beijing dialect.
He subsequently proposed a split of Beijing Mandarin and Northeastern Mandarin in 1987, listing the following as reasons:
The 2012 edition of Language Atlas of China added one more method for distinguishing Beijing Mandarin from Northeastern Mandarin:
Meanwhile, there are some scholars who regard Beijing Mandarin and Northeastern Mandarin as a single division of Mandarin. Lin (1987) noticed the phonological similarity between Beijing Mandarin and Northeastern Mandarin. Zhang (2010) suggested that the criteria for the division of Beijing Mandarin and Northeastern Mandarin as top-level Mandarin groups are inconsistent with the criterion for the division of other top-level Mandarin groups.
Beijing Mandarin is classified into the following subdivisions in the 2012 edition of Language Atlas of China:
Per the 2012 edition of Atlas, these subgroups are distinguished by the following features:
Compared with the first edition (1987), the second edition (2012) of the Atlas demoted Jīngshī and Huái–Chéng subgroups to clusters of a new Jīng–Chéng subgroup. Shí–Kè (石克) or Běijiāng (北疆) subgroup (including the cities of Shihezi and Karamay), listed as a subgroup of Beijing Mandarin in the 1987 edition, is re-allocated to a Běijiāng (北疆) subgroup of Lanyin Mandarin and a Nánjiāng (南疆) subgroup of Central Plains Mandarin. The Cháo–Fēng subgroup covers a greater area in the 2012 edition.
With regard to initials, the reflexes of kaikou hu syllables with any of the 影, 疑, 云 and 以 initials in Middle Chinese differ amongst the subgroups: a null initial is found in the Jīngshī cluster, while /n/ or /ŋ/ initials are often present in the Huái–Chéng cluster and the Cháo–Fēng subgroup.
|Initial in Middle Chinese ►||*ŋ||*ŋ||*ʔ||*ʔ||*ʔ|
|Subdivision||Location||鵝 / 鹅||昂||愛 / 爱||矮||襖 / 袄|
Dental and retroflex sibilants are distinct phonemes in Beijing Mandarin. This is contrary to Northeastern Mandarin, in which the two categories are either in free variation or merged into a single type of sibilants.
In both Beijing Mandarin and Northeastern Mandarin, the checked tone of Middle Chinese has completely dissolved and is distributed irregularly among the remaining tones. However, Beijing Mandarin has significantly fewer rising-tone characters with a checked-tone origin, compared with Northeastern Mandarin.
|Subdivision||Location||戳||福||質 / 质 |
|Beijing Mandarin||Beijing||dark level||light level||departing|
The Cháo–Fēng subgroup generally has a lower tonal value for the dark level tone.
|Subdivision||Location||Dark level||Light level||Rising||Departing||Ref.|
|Jingshi||Beijing||˥ (55)||˧˥ (35)||˨˩˦ (214)||˥˩ (51)|||
|Huai–Cheng||Chengde||˥ (55)||˧˥ (35)||˨˩˦ (214)||˥˩ (51)|||
|Chao–Feng||Chifeng||˦ (44)||˧˧˥ (335)||˨˩˧ (213)||˥˧ (53)|||
|Xingcheng||˦ (44)||˧˥ (35)||˨˩˧ (213)||˥˩ (51)|||
|Taiwanese||Taipei||˦ (44)||˧˨˧ (323)||˧˩˨ (312)||˥˨ (52)|||
|Taichung||˦ (33)||˧˨˨ (322)||˧˩ (31)||˦˨ (32)|||
The Cháo–Fēng subgroup has more words in common with that of Northeastern Mandarin.
|this place||to envy||to deceive||to show off;
|MSC||這地方 / 这地方||嫉妒||騙人 / 骗人||炫耀||髒 / 脏||搞|
|Chao–Feng||這圪墶 / 这圪垯||眼氣 / 眼气||忽悠||得瑟||埋汰||整|
The intensifier 老 is also used in the Cháo–Fēng subgroup.