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In philosophy, being is the material or immaterial existence of a thing.[1] Being is a concept encompassing objective and subjective features of existence.[2] Ontology is the branch of philosophy that studies being. The concept of being has been investigated by philosophers such as Aristotle,[3] Thomas Aquinas,[4][5] and Martin Heidegger.

See also


  1. ^ "being". Oxford English Dictionary (Online ed.). Oxford University Press. (Subscription or participating institution membership required.) = "being [...] Existence, the fact of belonging to the universe of things material or immaterial."
  2. ^ Winning, Jason; Bechtel, William (2019), Gibb, Sophie; Hendry, Robin; Lancaster, Tom (eds.), "Being Emergence Vs. Pattern Emergence: Complexity, Control, and Goal-Directedness in Biological Systems", The Routledge Handbook of Philosophy of Emergence, pp. 134–144, retrieved 27 July 2022.
  3. ^ Wippel, John F. (2000). The Metaphysical Thought of Thomas Aquinas: From Finite Being to Uncreated Being. Monographs of the Society for Mediaeval and Renaissance Philosophy, No. 1. The Catholic University of America Press. p. 75.
  4. ^ Kreyche 1959, p. 70.
  5. ^ Aersten, Jan A. (1995), "Aquinas, St. Thomas", in Kim, Jaegwon; Sosa, Ernest (eds.), A Companion to Metaphysics, Blackwell Companions to Philosophy, pp. 21–22.