Vector drawing of a banawa of Gowa, Sulawesi island. There is an inset of the rudder mounting. This ship showed a headsail, which is a European influence.
Vector drawing of a banawa of Gowa, Sulawesi island. There is an inset of the rudder mounting. This ship showed a headsail, which is a European influence.

Benawa or banawa is a type of ship from Gowa, an old principality in the southwest corner of Sulawesi, Indonesia. The earliest record of this vessel is from Hikayat Banjar,[1]: Line 1067  which was written in or not long after 1663.[1]: 181  In the present, this vessel is already extinct; being replaced by vessels with a similar hull, namely palari and padewakang.[2]: 109–110 

Etymology

The word benawa or banawa comes from the kawi Javanese language, which means boat or ship.[3]: 75  In the old Javanese language the word banawa means perahu or ship.[4]: 201  In different languages, the word may refer to a different type of vessel, depending on the context of the sentence.[5]: 196 

Description

The benawa was made for transporting horses and buffaloes. The hull is wide with a convex keel, with a high front and back stem and sternpost. On either side, there are paths attached to a number of transverse beams that are attached to the supports. The secondary function of these beams is to divide the deck space into equal compartments for animals. The deck above the "stable" consist of bamboo lattice.[2]: 110 [6]

It is steered with 2 quarter rudders, with helmsmen standing on the outboard galleries. The rudders are mounted on heavy crossbeams in such a way as to allow rapid emergency release. There is a cramped cabin for the captain below the poop deck. The vessel has 2 to 3 masts, both are three-legged posts with the hind legs attached to heavy tabernacles. The mast can be lowered easily if the forelegs pop out of the hooks that hold them in place. The sails are tanja and made with karoro matting.[6] With European influence in the latter centuries, western-styled sails can also be used. In the past, Makassarese sailors may sail them as far as New Guinea and Singapore.[2]: 111–112 

See also

References

  1. ^ a b Ras, Johannes Jacobus (1968). Hikajat Bandjar: A Study in Malay Historiography. The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff.
  2. ^ a b c Frese, H.H. (1956). "Small Craft in the Rijksmuseum voor Volkenkunde, Leiden". The Mariner's Mirror. 42 (2): 101–112.
  3. ^ Maharsi (2009). Kamus Jawa Kawi Indonesia. Yogyakarta: Pura Pustaka.
  4. ^ Zoetmulder, P. J. (1982). Old Javanese-English dictionary. The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff. ISBN 9024761786.
  5. ^ Rafiek, M. (December 2011). "Kapal dan Perahu dalam Hikayat Raja Banjar: Kajian Semantik". Borneo Research Journal. 5: 187–200.
  6. ^ a b G. E. P. Collins, East Monsoon (London, 1936); Makassar Sailing (London, 1937); 'Seafarers of South Celebes', The National Geographic Magazine, Washington, January 1945·