Bhadrajun
Erstwhile Jagir Jodhpur State, Town
In bhadrajun.jpg
Bhadrajun is located in Rajasthan
Bhadrajun
Bhadrajun
Location in Rajasthan, India
Bhadrajun is located in India
Bhadrajun
Bhadrajun
Bhadrajun (India)
Coordinates: 25°36′00″N 72°52′01″E / 25.600°N 72.867°E / 25.600; 72.867Coordinates: 25°36′00″N 72°52′01″E / 25.600°N 72.867°E / 25.600; 72.867
Country India
StateRajasthan
DistrictJalor
Founded byRao Jodha of Mandore
Named forSubhdr-arjun
Elevation
225 m (738 ft)
Population
 (2011)
 • Total5,546
Languages
 • OfficialHindi
 • RegionalMarwari, Rajasthani
Time zoneUTC+5:30 (IST)
Vehicle registrationRJ-16
Sex ratio908 /
Websitehttp://www.bhadrajunfort.com
Blessing to the fort
Blessing to the fort

Bhadrajun is a village in the Jalore district of the western part of Rajasthan, India, dating back to ancient times of the Mahabharata epic. It gets its name from Subhadra and her husband Arjuna from Dvapara Yuga. However, in recent centuries, it was the scene of warfare between the rulers of the Marwar dynasty and of the Mughal Empire.[1][2]

In the 16th century, a fort known as the Bhadrajun Fort was built at Bhadrajun by the Rathore kings of Marwar. Today the fort is owned by Raja Shri Karanveer Singhji, the sixteenth descendant of Marwar Maharajas, who ruled from Jodhpur. It is now run as a heritage hotel. The fort has a significant collection of goods from its long past.[1][2]

Geography

Bhadarjun is located in Jalore district within the Luni River basin.[3] It is situated in a tropical and semi-tropical climatic zone. The average annual and daily temperatures are high, with annual rainfall of 434 millimetres (17.1 in). January is the coldest month, with temperatures recorded between 1 and 2 °C (34 and 36 °F). Summer is very hot, recording an average daily temperature in the range of 41 to 42 °C (106 to 108 °F). The highest temperature recorded was 48 °C (118 °F) on a few days.[3]

According to the 2001 census, the population of Bhadrajun was 4,499, with 2,358 males and 2,141 females.[4]

History

Legend

Arjuna and Subhadra were married in Bhadrajun
Arjuna and Subhadra were married in Bhadrajun

The word Bhadrajun is directly linked to the Mahabharata epic. Bhadrajun is made up of two words, the name of 'Subhadra', sister of Lord Krishna, plus 'Arjuna', the third among the five Pandava brothers of Mahabharata. Initially, it was called "Subhdr-arjun" but over the years it was changed to the colloquial usage of the single word "Bhadrajun". The legend linked to this name is a story of romance.[1]

According to the Mahabharata legend, when Arjuna was in the last stage of his exile, he came to Dwarka. While roaming with Lord Krishna during a festival, he beheld Shubhada, the heavenly daughter of Vasudeva and fell for her instantly. On seeing his friend’s condition Krishna advised Partha to escape with his dear sister. The reason for Krishna's advice was, if a Swayamvara was held nobody could predict whom the Yadava princess would’ve chosen. Also, none of the Yadavas would agree to this marriage if Krishna proposed it in front of them, as Arjuna was already married thrice and they wouldn’t want their beloved princess to be someone’s fourth wife. However, Arjuna, who was disguised as a saint, was desperate to have the daughter of Vasudeva (maternal uncle of Arjuna), Subhadra as his wife. Before eloping with Chitra (Subhadra), Partha took permission from both Yudhishthira and Lord Krishna, who wished nothing but the best for his little sister. [1][5][6][7][8]

Arjuna, in disguise of a saint, fled from Dwarka with Subhadra in a chariot, in full view of Krishna and Vasudeva and the family members. After an arduous journey of three days and two nights, through mostly uninhabited forest area, they reached the valley near Bhadrajun where they decided to get married, before proceeding to Indraprastha, their capital. The marriage was conducted by a local Brahmin priest. Indra with Sachi came down to perform the wedding rituals. The Brahmin priest was given an earring (vali in local language) by Subhadra and a conch-shell by Arjuna as fee for performing their marriage. The village of the Brahmin was named thereafter as Sankhwali (in the word "sankavali", ‘sankh’ means ‘conch-shell’ and ‘vali’ means "ear ring"). It is also said that Balarama, though furious initially with Arjuna did not chase him to stop the marriage. He was persuaded by Krishna and Vasudeva to forgive Arjuna and Subhadra, given that they were in love with each other. Convinced of this fact, Balarama later sent gifts to his sister - gifts of jewellery, elephants, chariots, horses, servants and maidservants. Following this blessed marriage, Bhadrajun grew in population. A small temple in the name of Subhadra, popularly known as the "Dhumbda Mata", exists even now in a nearby mountain.[1][5][6][9]

Early history

While the mythological history of Bhadrajun is traced to Arjuna and Subhadra who lived in the Dvapara Yuga, one of the four Hindu eras of Mahabharata; the history of Bhadrajun and the Marwar rulers of Jodhpur can only be traced from the 16th century. Several historic wars took place in Bhadrajun, initially against the Suri dynasty and later against the Mughal dynasty rulers.[1][5]

The earliest ruler who occupied Bhadrajun was Thakur Rattan Singh, fifth son of Rao Maldeo, the Maharaja of Jodhpur in 1549. It was a feudal land under the Jodhpur kingdom, which had ten land lords who were called Rajas or Thikanas, out of a total of 1,891 land lords. These ten Rajas were known as Sirayats in the State of "Jodhpur Marwar". They held high positions in the court of Jodhpur. The Bhadrajun feudatory was also one of the ten feudatories which received special privileges in the court.[1][5] In the seating arrangement in the Jodhpur court, the Raja of Bhadrajun was always seated to the right of the king, since he belonged to the king's lineage. Sixteen generations of Marwars ruled from Bhadrajun.[1][5]

Lineage and wars

The first to rule from Bhadrajun was Raja Ratan Singh, son of Rao Maldeo (also known as Chandra Sen).

Maldeo of Jodhpur (also known as Maldeo Rathore), father of Ratan Singh, soon after becoming King of Marwar, launched war campaigns and successfully defeated the Sindhals and annexed Bhadrajun.[10]

In 1543, Ratan Singh fought at Giri-Sumel against the invading army of Sher Shah Suri (the first ruler of Suri Dynasty), the then Emperor of India. He also fought a second battle at Merata, when he suffered injuries and was subsequently defeated by Viram Deo.[5]

In 1563–64, the Rathores lost their capital city of Jhodpur to Pathan Malik, a commander of the Mughal Emperor Akbar, but they retained their territory around Bhadrajun.[5][11] During this war, they could not sustain their army's needs as adequate provisions were not available inside the fort. Also, there was no help forthcoming from outside powers. Maldev Rathore abandoned the fort and reached Bhadarajun and remained there for seven years.[12][13]

In 1651, Mukan Dasji of Bhadrajun fought against Raja Sawai Sur Singhji of Jodhpur in the battle against the Mughals at Mandavgarh. His bravery was duly rewarded with recognition of Bhadarajun as his jagir (estate) with a due patta (document).[5]

When Emperor Aurangzeb's army attacked Jodhpur, Udai Bhanji of Bhadrajun fought for Maharaja Jaswant Singh and saved the Maharaja's life. As a reward, he married the niece of the Maharaja. Subsequently, he went to Peshawar to fight war against the Pathan’s. But in 1785, in the battle against the Mughal Emperor of India, he was killed. His wife, Jas Kanwar of Dodiali, committed Sati ('sati' was an act of self-immolation undertaken by the wife on the pyre of her husband, a practice prevalent then in many parts of India).[5]

Subsequent rulers of Bhadrajun were also involved in several battles with the kingdom of Jodhpur and with other feudatories in the region. Finally, Bhadrajun merged with the Union of India, after India became independent in August 1947. The last scion of the dynasty, Raja Gopal Singh, now owns the estate and manages it as a heritage hotel.[5]

Monuments

Ganesha on the wall of the fort
Ganesha on the wall of the fort

There are a number of historic monuments in and around the village Bhadrajun. The best known is the Bhadrajun fort due to its history and status as a heritage hotel.

Bhadrajun fort

The fort is constructed on top of the hill and although small, it was built as a strong hill fort. It is also strategically located in the village of Bhadrajun, which is also securely protected since it is enclosed in a horse shoe shape valley with one entry from the east. The fort walls are 20–30 feet (6.1–9.1 m) high, built at strategical locations around the village with a uniform width of 10 feet (3.0 m). Bastions, known as burjis, were built to erect canons and to eject arrows against invaders. The average elevation of the place is 2,000 feet (610 m) above m.s.l.[5]

The fort is built on rugged hills with forest vegetation consisting of trees, cacti, bushes and rocks. The forest around the fort is inhabited by wildlife such as jackals, wild cats, blue bulls, hedgehogs and foxes. The fort has been converted into a luxury hotel, with 14 furnished rooms, all with a bathroom ensuite.[5][14]

Visitor information

Bhadrajun is 97 kilometres (60 mi) from Jodhpur. Jodhpur is well connected by road, rail and air links with rest of the country.[5]

By road, Bhadrajun is 54 kilometres (34 mi) away from Jalore, the district headquarters, on the Jalore-Jodhpur state highway, 200 kilometres (120 mi) from Udaipur, 356 kilometres (221 mi) from Jaipur and 618 kilometres (384 mi) from Delhi.

Pali is the nearest railway station on the broad gauge line. The nearest airport is at Jodhpur, 97 kilometres (60 mi) away.[15]

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h "Historical Places". Qila–Fort Bhadrajun. National Informatics centre. Archived from the original on 29 May 2009. Retrieved 15 November 2009.
  2. ^ a b "Welcome to Bhadrajun Fort". Retrieved 15 November 2009.
  3. ^ a b Geographic. Archived from the original on 21 February 2010. Retrieved 15 November 2009.
  4. ^ "Bhadrajun Population". Retrieved 15 November 2009.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m "About Fort". The History. Bhadrajunfort.com. Retrieved 15 November 2009.
  6. ^ a b "The Marriage of Arjun and Subhadra". Hare Krishna.com. Retrieved 15 November 2009.
  7. ^ "Marwar horse Safari". Bhadrajun. Archived from the original on 11 November 2009. Retrieved 21 November 2009. …towards the historic castle of Bhadrajun. It is here that Pandav prince Arjun married Lord Krishna's sister Suhhadra thus getting its name Bhadrajun. The majestic palace of Bhadrajun dates back to 16th century and is a running heritage hotel
  8. ^ Dange, Sadashiv Ambadas (1990). Encyclopaedia of puranic beliefs and practices, Volume 4. Legend of Subhadra. Navrang. p. 1398. ISBN 978-81-7013-056-7. Retrieved 21 November 2009.
  9. ^ "India Rajasthan" (PDF). Day 8 Cycle to Bhadrajun. Archived from the original (pdf) on 6 July 2011. Retrieved 21 November 2009. According to the Mahabharata, the Pandava prince Arjun eloped with Subhadra, the sister of Lord Krishna and married in this valley.
  10. ^ Ratnawat, Shyam Singh; Krishna Gopal Sharma (1999). History and culture of Rajasthan: from earliest times up to 1956 A.D. Bhadrajun. Centre for Rajasthan Studies, University of Rajasthan. p. 163. Retrieved 15 November 2009.
  11. ^ Ratnawat p.177
  12. ^ Sinh, Raghubir (1975). Durga Das Rathor. Bhdarjun. National Book Trust, India: distributors, Thomson Press (India). p. 11.
  13. ^ Bhargava (1966). Marwar and the Mughal emperors (A. D. 1526-1748). Bhdrajun. Munshiram Manoharlal. p. 46. Retrieved 15 November 2009.
  14. ^ "Horse Safari in Rajasthan" (pdf). Bhenswara – Bhadrajun. Riding Distance 34km. Retrieved 15 November 2009.[permanent dead link]
  15. ^ "Royal Rajwada, Bhadrajun". Archived from the original on 20 July 2010. Retrieved 15 November 2009.