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Bhinmal
city
Bhinmal Railway Station
Bhinmal
Bhinmal
Coordinates: 25°00′N 72°15′E / 25.0°N 72.25°E / 25.0; 72.25Coordinates: 25°00′N 72°15′E / 25.0°N 72.25°E / 25.0; 72.25
CountryIndia
StateRajasthan
DistrictJalore
Government
 • TypeMunicipal
 • BodyNagarPalika
 • Mayor/ChairmanVimla Suresh Bohra
 • MP (Member of Parliament)Devji M Patel
 • MLA (Member of Legislative Assembly)Pura Ram Choudhary
Elevation
155.33 m (509.61 ft)
Population
 (2011)
 • Total302,553
Languages
 • OfficialHindi
Time zoneUTC+5:30 (IST)
PIN
343029
Telephone code02969
Vehicle registrationRJ-46 (New)

Bhinmal (old names:Srimala[1]) is an ancient town in the Jalore District of Rajasthan, India. It is 72 kilometres (45 mi) south of Jalore town. Bhinmal was the capital of Gurjaradesa, comprising southern Rajasthan and northern Gujarat of modern times.

The town is the birthplace of the Sanskrit poet Magha[citation needed] and famous mathematician-astronomer Brahmagupta, who was the first to give rules to compute with zero.[citation needed]

History

The original name of Bhinmal was bhillamala, the plateau of Bhils.[2] It was the early capital of the kingdom of Gurjaradesa. The kingdom is first attested in Bana's Harshacharita (7th century AD). Its king is said to have been subdued by Harsha's father Prabhakaravardhana (died c. 605 AD).[3] The surrounding kingdoms were mentioned as Sindha (Sindh), Lāta (southern Gujarat) and Malava (western Malwa), indicating that the region included northern Gujarat and southern Rajasthan.[4]

Xuanzang, the Chinese Buddhist pilgrim who visited India between 631-645 AD during Harsha's reign, mentioned the Gurjara country (Kiu-che-lo) with its capital at Bhillamala (Pi-lo-mo-lo) as the second largest kingdom of Western India. He distinguished it from the neighbouring kingdoms of Bharukaccha (Bharuch), Ujjayini (Ujjain), Malava (Malwa), Valabhi and Surashtra.[3] The Gurjara kingdom was said to have measured 833 miles in circuit and its ruler was a 20-year old kshatriya, who was distinguished for his wisdom and courage.[5] It is believed that the king must have been the immediate successor of the Chavda dynasty ruler Vyāgrahamukha, under whose reign the mathematician-astronomer Brahmagupta wrote his famous treatise in 628 AD.[6]

The Arab chroniclers of Sindh (an Arab province from 712 CE onward), narrated the campaigns of Arab governors on Jurz, the Arabic term for Gurjara. They mentioned it jointly with Mermad (Marumāda, in Western Rajasthan) and Al Baylaman (Bhinmal).[7] The country was first conquered by Mohammad bin Qasim (712-715) and, for a second time, by Junayd (723-726).[8] Upon bin Qasim's victory, Al-Baladhuri mentioned that the Indian rulers, including that of Bhinmal, accepted Islam and paid tribute.[9] They presumably recanted after bin Qasim's departure, which made Junayd's attack necessary. After Junayd's reconquest, the kingdom at Bhinmal appears to have been annexed by the Arabs.[8]

a new dynasty was founded by Nagabhata I at Jalore, in the vicinity of Bhinmal, in about 730 CE, soon after Junayd's end of term in Sindh. Nagabhata is said to have defeated the "invincible Gurjaras," presumably those of Bhinmal.[10] Another account credits him for having defeated a "Muslim ruler."[11] Nagabhata is also known to have repelled the Arabs during a later raid.[12]

The Gwalior Inscription of mihir bhoj praises Nagabhata for destroying mlecchas ( Arabs)

"स्तस्यानुजोसौ मघवमदमुषो मेघनादस्य संख्ये सौमित्त्रिस्तीव्रदण्डः प्रतिहरणविधेयः प्रतीहार आमोत् तहन्शे प्रतिहारकेतनभृति त्रैलोक्यरक्षास्पदे देवो नागभट : पुरातनमुनर्मूतिर्बभूवाद्भुतं । येनासौ सुक्कतप्रमाथिबलनम्लेच्छा।।

In that family, which extended shelter to the triple world and bore the emblem of Pratihāra, the king Nāgabhața appeared as an incarnation' of the Old Sage in a strange way.Wherefore he seemed to break up the complete army of the kings of Mlecchas the destroyers of virtue,with four arms lustrous because of the glittering and terrible weapons.

His dynasty later expanded to Ujjain, Nagabhata's successor Vatsaraja lost Ujjain to the Rashtrakuta prince Dhruva, who claimed to have driven him into "trackless desert", which might mean that Vatsaraja withdrew to Bhinmal. An inscription in Daulatpura from 843 AD mentions Vatsaraja having made grants near Didwana. In due course, the Pratiharas became the dominant force of the entire Rajasthan and Gujarat regions, establishing a powerful empire centered at Kannauj, the former capital of Harshavardhana.[13][14] Raja Man Pratihar was ruling Bhinmal in jalore when Parmara Emperor Vakpati Munja(972-990 CE) invaded the region — after this conquest he divided these conquered territories among his Parmara princes - his son Aranyaraj Parmar was granted Abu region, his son, Chandan Parmar and his nephew, Dharnivarah Parmar was given Jalore region. This ended almost 250 years Pratihar rule over Bhinmal.[15] Raja Man Pratihar's son Dewalsimha Pratihar was a contemporary of Abu’s Raja Mahipal Parmar (1000-1014 CE). Raja Devalsimha made many attempts to free his country or to re-establish Pratihar hold onto Bhinmal but in vain .Finally he settled for the territories in Southwest of Bhinmal, comprising four hills - Dodasa, Nadwana,Kala-Pahad and Sundha. He made Lohiyana (present Jaswantpura) his capital. Hence this subclan became Dewal Pratihars.[16] Gradually their jagir included 52 villages in and around modern Jalore district. The Dewals participated in Jalore’s Chauhan Kanhaddeo’s resistance against Allauddin Khilji . Thakur Dhawalsimha Dewal of Lohiyana supplied manpower to Maharana Pratap and married his daughter to the Maharana, in return Maharana gave him the title of “Rana” which has stayed with them till this day[17] Ala ud din Khilji as the second ruler of the Khilji dynasty also destroyed and looted Srimala (ancient Bhinmal) when he conquered Jalore in 1310 AD.[citation needed] Prior to that, Srimala was a premier city of northwestern India. The city was laid out in the shape of a square. It has 84 gates. The mid-15th-century chronicle Kanhadade Prabandha provides descriptions of indiscriminate attacks by Muslims on Bhinmal.[18][non-primary source needed]

The city of Bhinmal had four gates. At a distance of 8 kilometres in the north there was the Jalori gate, in the south Laxmi gate, in the east the Sun gate and in the west Sanchori gate.[citation needed]

Hinduism and Jainism

According to the Chinese traveller Xuanzang, the King of Bhinmal was a believer in Buddhism and Jainism and a man of exceptional abilities. Brahmanism and Jainism dominated the city. There was only one Buddhist monastery with 100 monks in 'Buddha Vaas' neighbourhood.

There were several temples of Jain Tirthankar and Hindu gods such as Ganapati, Kshetrapala, Chandikadevi, and Shiva. The Sun temple of Bhinmal known as Jagatsvami was one of the earliest and most famous temples of Rajasthan. The temple had beautiful torana (archway). The temple was perhaps built during the reign of Gurjara Pratiharas who were sun worshippers. In ancient time, the festival was held at temple in the Hindu calendar month of Asvin.

There were also a number of Jain temples, the one of Mahavira (Mhaveerji) being the most famous. This temple was built by king Kumarapala and established by Acharya Hemachandra, dedicated to 1st Jain Tirthankar Rishabha. Currently, the temple is dedicated to the 24th Jain Tirthankar Mahavira, re-established by Vidhyachandra Suri of Tapagachha, belonging to the Tristutik sect.

Stone inscriptions of the year 1333 of the Vikrama Samvat (1277 AD) are found among ruins of some ancient temples across the town. There are signs that Lord Mahavira Swami, the 24th Jain Tirthankar, walked here, known as 'jeevit swami'.

This city has witnessed many rises and falls. Stone inscriptions of the year 1333 of the Vikrama Samvat (1277 AD) are found among ruins of temples. There are signs here and there showing that Lord Mahavira Swami, the 24th Jain Tirthankar wandered about here. They can provide historical evidence to researchers.

There was a time when this city had a circumference of 64 kilometres and the fort had 84 gates. This city looked beautiful with hundreds of pinnacled temples. From the 7th to the 10th century, talented Jain monk/writer Acharya Haribhadra, Mundas Gani, Udayprabhsuri, Mahnedrsuri, Rajendrasuri and many more created here valuable Jain literature and sanctified and beautified this place. The temple of the 23rd Jain Tirthankar Parshvanatha in Hathi pole area is regarded to be very ancient. This temple has great archaeological importance. A golden idol of Shri Parshvanatha in Padmasana posture is the presiding deity.[citation needed]

Apart from the many ancient Jain temples across the town, there is a temple of Jains called 72 Jinalayas - the 72 temple complex with the 72 Tirthakar (24 past + 24 future + 24 current) as per Jainism. It is the largest Jain temple which conclude 19 years of its making. It was made by a family of builders loonkars the owners of a modern leading company Sumer. Another significant temple complex dedicated to Mahavir Swami and Osia Mataji called as Bafna Waddi Tirth is there just outside the town.[citation needed]

Out of 108 Parshvanatha, "Shri Bhaya-Bhanjan Parshvanatha" is also located in the town where thousands of Jain and other pilgrims come to the town and offer their prayer here.

Jain Tirth Bhandavpur, another ancient Jain centre which is now a major pilgrimage place is located about 46 km north of Bhinmal.[19]

Culture and science

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Bhinmal was a great centre of learning. Brahmagupta, the well-known mathematicians astronomer, born in 598 AD is often referred to as Bhillamalacharya, the teacher from Bhillamala. He may have been born in this city, or may have taught there. He is known for the composition of two texts on mathematics and astronomy: The Brahmasphutasiddhanta in 628, and the Khandakhadyaka in 665. The Sanskrit poet Magha, the author of Sisupalavadha, lived here in 680 AD. The Jain scholar Siddharshi Gani, a resident of Bhinmal wrote Upmitibahava prapancha katha in 905 AD. The Jain Ramayana was written by Jain monk Vijayagani in 1595 AD. Jain scholar Udyotan Suri wrote kuvalayamala here.

Shrimala

Bhinmala was also called Shrimala, recorded in a thirteenth century text Shramali Purana. The Brahmins and merchants originating from Bhinmal were called Shrimali Brahmanas and Shrimali Vaniyas respectively. After Vanaraja Chavda established a new capital at Patan, the symbolic centre of these communities shifted to Patan. The main image of Mahalakshmi was shifted from Bhinmal to Patan in 1147 AD.[20]

Geography

Bhinmal is located at 25°00′N 72°15′E / 25.0°N 72.25°E / 25.0; 72.25.[21] It has an average elevation of 155.33 metres (479 feet).

Economy

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The economy of the town and surrounding area is mainly based on agriculture and animal husbandry. Oilseeds (especially mustard oilseeds) are the predominant crop. Jeera, wheat, bajra, kharif pulses, barley, jowar and sesamum are also produced.

Bhinmal is the main mandi (market) for agricultural produce of the area. The town has the Krishi Upaj Mandi Samiti (Agricultural Produce Market Committee). Food Corporation of India has its warehouses here. The town is the main supply point for various agricultural inputs like fertilisers, seeds and pesticides and for agricultural implements, motors, tractors and spare parts.

Bhinmal is known for fine quality of mojari (embroidered leather shoes). The small towns nearby also had fine workers of mojari. There are many types of mojari like badagaun, panjabi, tarawali, jariwali, left-right and goal ru jodu are made by the workers called jeenagar.

There are no large- or medium-size industries in the Bhinmal RICO industrial area. The predominant small scale industries are granite slabs and tiles, marble cutting and polishing, mustard seed crushing, skimmed milk powder, butter and ghee, handloom cloth, and leather shoes.

Infrastructure

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Transport

Bhinmal Railway Station
Bhinmal Railway Station

Bhinmal is connected to Rajasthan state and other major cities of India by road as well as rail. The local transportation system within the city includes Auto-Rikshas and buses respectively.

Bhinmal is on the Samadari-Bhildi section of the North Western Railway. The name of the railway station is Marwar Bhinmal. The railway tracks are broad gauge.

Bhinmal is connected to all major cities by all weather roads.

Electricity

There is one sub grid station of 400/220 KV at Bhinmal. The town receives power from Power Grid Corporation of India limited's grid station in bhinmal [Jalore District]. Almost all villages of the Bhinmal subdivision are electrified.

The city electricity board is operated by Jodhpur Vidhut Vitran Nigam Limited and its office is located at Station Road Bhinmal for O&M and its transmission system is operated from Raniwara road, through 220 kv GSS under RVPNL

Water

The town gets drinking water from nimbawas, and Rajpura. The drinking water supply is managed by PHED (water dept. of Govt. of Rajasthan), while the main source of irrigation for farmers continues to be from wells.

Accommodation

There are many hotels in the town. The heritage hotel known as Castle Durjan Niwas is at village Daspan 25 km from Bhinmal. There is a Government rest house run by the Public Works Department (PWD).

Education

The town has a graduate/degree college called G K Gowani Govt. College affiliated to Jai Narain Vyas University, Jodhpur and accredited by the National Assessment and Accreditation Council (NAAC). On 23 August 2013 Bhinmal College was upgraded to post-graduate by the Department of College Education,[22] Govt of Rajasthan. Now GK Gowani Govt College, Bhinmal will act as the post-graduate extension centre (Hindi) to cater to the higher educational needs of rural and semi urban students of town and this region.

There are three higher secondary and about 45 primary and middle schools in Bhinmal. This city also has a Govt. Girls School (Govt.G.Sec.Sr.Sch.) up to senior secondary level.

Bhinmal has more than 160 primary and middle schools run by the education department of Rajasthan government as well as the private sector. Adrash Vidhya Mandir Sr. Sec., Madhav International School English and Hindi medium, Vidya Bhawan English Medium School, and New Sacred Heart English School are private schools in Bhinmal.

Communication

Medical facility

Bhinmal town has good medical facilities. The town has a government referral hospital near Gandhi Maidaan and many private hospitals. There is an Aryuvedic hospital as well. In the government hospital there are good facilities. There are about 13 private hospitals in Bhinmal city.

Sports

Shivaraj Stadium was inaugurated by staging the Ranji trophy match in December 1985 between Rajasthan and Madhya Pradesh. It has indoor and outdoor games facilities. The yearly state level badminton tournament is held here.

Banking

Four nationalised banks, UCO Bank, Punjab National Bank, Bank of Baroda, Yes Bank, Kotak Mahindra bank, Bank of India, HDFC Bank, Axis bank and State Bank of India have their branches here.

Some co-operative and local banks also have their branches in the town. They are Jalore Nagrik Sahakari Bank ltd., Adrash cooperative bank, Madhav Nagrik Sahakari Bank Ltd., Marwar Gramin Bank, Jalore Central Cooperative Bank, Bhumi Vikas Bank and N.P credit co-op society ltd.

Library

The town has two public libraries; one is managed by the municipality and the other by Saraswati Temple Trust.

Administrative set-up

Demography

As of 2011 India census,[26] Bhinmal had a population of 3,02,553. Rural population was 2,54,621, urban population was 47,932, Males constituted 50.6% of the population and females 49.4%. Bhinmal had an average literacy rate of 53.6%, lower than the national average of 74%, with male literacy of 70.2% and female literacy of 36.8%. 17% of the population were under 6 years of age.[27]

Temples in Bhinmal

Jain Temples

Hindu Temple

Monuments

Distances

Nearest airports:

Nearest airstrips:

By road

Bhinmal in the news

During construction work at the premises of Shri Parshwa Nath temple at Bhinmal town in the Jalore District of Rajasthan, a 450 years old temple structure was un-earthed in 2002 at a depth of 30 feet. The temple possesses five images of Jain Tirthankars, which are made in white marble. One inscription on a pillar in the temple premises shows the year 1621 Vikram Samvat, along-with other description about the temple.[29]

A docudrama (documentary) made on Bhinmal village, My Beautiful Village Bhinmal,[30] by Azad Jain, won "Best Documentary-Writing" Award in Rolling Frames Short Film Summit, Bangalore, in 2014.[31] It was also screened at the Ekotop Junior Film Festival, Slovak Republic, Europe, Pink City Short Film Festival, Jaipur,[32] and Wanderlust Film Festival, Jaisalmer.[33] Leading newspapers from Rajasthan mentioned it as it was the only film in the festival about Rajasthani village and its people.[34]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Gopal, Lallanji (1989), The Economic Life of Northern India, C. A.D. 700-1200, Motilal Banarsidass, pp. 199–, ISBN 978-81-208-0302-2
  2. ^ Sircar, Studies in the Geography of Ancient and Medieval India 1990, p. 240.
  3. ^ a b Puri, The History of the Gurjara-Pratiharas 1986, p. 9.
  4. ^ Goyal, Shankar (1991), "Recent Historiography of the Age of Harṣa", Annals of the Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute, 72–73 (1/4): 331–361, JSTOR 41694902
  5. ^ Puri, The History of the Gurjara-Pratiharas 1986, p. 35.
  6. ^ Smith, Vincent A. (October 1907). "'White Hun' Coin of Vyagrahamukha of the Chapa (Gurjara) Dynasty of Bhinmal". Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland: 923–928. doi:10.1017/S0035869X00036868. JSTOR 25210490.
  7. ^ Bhandarkar 1929, pp. 29–30; Wink, Al-Hind: The Making of the Indo-Islamic World 2002, p. 208; Blankinship, The End of the Jihad State 1994, pp. 132–133
  8. ^ a b Blankinship, The End of the Jihad State 1994, p. 133.
  9. ^ Blankinship, The End of the Jihad State 1994, p. 319.
  10. ^ Shanta Rani Sharma 2012, p. 8.
  11. ^ Sanjay Sharma 2006, p. 204.
  12. ^ Blankinship, The End of the Jihad State 1994, p. 188.
  13. ^ Puri, The History of the Gurjara-Pratiharas 1986, chapters 3–4.
  14. ^ Sircar, Studies in the Geography of Ancient and Medieval India 1990, pp. 240–242.
  15. ^ Rao Ganpatsimha Chitalwana, Bhinmal ka Sanskritik Vaibhav, p. 46- 49
  16. ^ Rao Ganpatsimha Chitalwana, Bhinmal ka Sanskritik Vaibhav, p. 49
  17. ^ Rao Ganpatsimha Chitalwana, Bhinmal ka Sanskritik Vaibhav, p. 50- 53
  18. ^ Kanhadade Prabandha. New Delhi. 1991. p. 49. A farman (firman) was now given to Gori Malik (to sack Bhinmal)… The Turkish [Muslim] invaders entered the town making dreadful din and clamor. Orders were issued clear and terrible: ‘The soldiers shall march into the town spreading terror everywhere! Cut down the Brahmanas [Brahman priests], wherever they may be- performing homa or milking cows! Kill the cows- even those which are pregnant or with newly born calves!’ The Turks ransacked Bhinmal and captured everybody in the sleepy town. Thereafter, Gori Malik gleefully set fire to the town in a wanton display of force and meanness.
  19. ^ "श्री भांडवपुर जैन तीर्थ – Shri Bhandavpur Jain Tirth | 52 Jinanlay | Shri Rajendra Shanti Vihar".
  20. ^ Cort, Jains in the World 2001, p. 35, 37.
  21. ^ "Maps, Weather, and Airports for Bhinmal, India". www.fallingrain.com.
  22. ^ "Plan Upgradation" (PDF). rajasthan.gov.in. 23 August 2013. Retrieved 12 August 2021.
  23. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 10 August 2013. Retrieved 10 August 2013.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  24. ^ http://www.eci.gov.in/election-analysis/AE/S20/partycomp172.htm[permanent dead link]
  25. ^ "sanwalaramm". Facebook.
  26. ^ "Census of India 2001: Data from the 2001 Census, including cities, villages and towns (Provisional)". Census Commission of India. Archived from the original on 16 June 2004. Retrieved 1 November 2008.
  27. ^ "Provisional Population Statistics 2011". jalore.nic.in. Archived from the original on 20 February 2014. Retrieved 12 August 2021.
  28. ^ "VATYAKSHNI MATAJI - KULDEVI OF PARASHAR GOTRA SHREEMALI BRAHMINS". www.vatyakshnima.blogspot.com.
  29. ^ "Jain temple unearthed during excavations at Bhinmal (Raj.)" (PDF). Jain Ahimsa Times. September 2002. p. 3. Retrieved 28 August 2021.
  30. ^ "My Beautiful Village Bhinmal (Short 2014) - IMDb" – via www.imdb.com.
  31. ^ http://www.rollingframes.in/selected-movies[dead link]
  32. ^ "Results|Pink City International Short Film Festival". archive.ph. 13 November 2014. Retrieved 12 August 2021.
  33. ^ "Sortliste Films|My Beautiful Village Bhinmal". wanderlustfestival.weebly.com.
  34. ^ "वंडरलस्ट फिल्म फेस्टिवल में स्क्रीनिंग|Screening at Wunderlust Film Festival". Dainik Bhaskar (in Hindi). 3 November 2014. Retrieved 12 August 2021.

Bibliography