Bidar Sultanate
Barid Shahi dynasty
Bidar Sultanate in the 1525, with neighbouring polities.[1]
Common languagesPersian (official)[2]
Deccani Urdu, Kannada
Sunni Islam[3]
Barid Shah 
• Established
• Disestablished
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Bahmani Sultanate
Adil Shahi dynasty
Today part ofIndia
Entrance of Bidar Fort.
Garden of Fort Bidar.
Tombs of Bidar Shahi kings at Barid Shahi Park in Bidar.

Bidar sultanate was one of the Deccan sultanates of late medieval southern India.[4] The sultanate emerged under the rule of Qasim Barid I in 1492 and leadership passed to his sons. Starting from the 1580s, a wave of successions occurred in the rulership of the dynasty which ended in 1609 under the last Sultan Amir Barid III who was eventually defeated in 1619 by the Bijapur sultan Ibrahim Adil Shah II. Bidar became annexed into the Bijapur Sultanate.


Qasim Barid and Amir Barid

The sultanate was founded in 1492 by Qasim Barid I,[5] who was a Turk[6][7][8][9] or Georgian and enslaved by Turks.[10] He joined the service of the Bahmani Sultan Muhammad Shah III. He started his career as a sar-naubat, and was made kotwal of Bidar by Nizam-ul-Mulk Bahri for helping the Deccanis in the massacre of the foreign population at Bidar.[11] However, he later became the mir-jumla (prime minister) of the Bahmani sultanate. During the reign of Mahmood Shah Bahmani II (r. 1482 – 1518), he became the de facto ruler.

After the death of Mahmud Shah Bahmani in 1518, he was succeeded by four sultans, one after another, but they were mere puppets in the hands of Amir Barid.[12][13]

When the last Bahmani ruler Kalimullah fled to Bidar in 1527, Amir Barid I became practically independent.[citation needed] But he never assumed any royal title.[14]

Ali Barid Shah

In 1542, Amir was succeeded by his son Ali Barid Shah I, who was the first to assume the royal title of Shah.[15] Ali Barid joined the other Deccan sultans in the Battle of Talikota against the Vijayanagar Empire in January 1565.

Later rulers

After his death in 1580, Ali Barid was succeeded by his son Ibrahim Barid, who ruled for seven years until his death in 1587.[16] He was succeeded by his younger brother Qasim Barid II.[17] After his death in 1591, he was succeeded by his infant son Ali Barid II, who was soon dethroned by one of his relative, Amir Barid II. In 1601, he was also overthrown by one of his relative, Mirza Ali Barid.

In 1609, he was succeeded by the last ruler, Amir Barid III,[17] who fought against the Mughals in 1616 under the leadership of Malik Ambar. In 1619, he was defeated by the Bijapur sultan Ibrahim Adil Shah II. Bidar was annexed to Bijapur sultanate. Amir Barid III and his sons were brought to Bijapur and kept "under surveillance".[18]


The rulers patronized Persianate culture. Persian poetry is inscribed on their tombs.


See also: Barid Shahi tombs

The Bidar Sultanate made considerable additions to the Bidar Fort. Their tombs are also located at Bidar.[19][20] The rulers employed Hindu architects and engineers for the construction of these buildings, which resulted in amalgamation of some Hindu features within the architecture of this period.[21]


Name Reign
Qasim Barid I 1489 – 1504
Amir Barid I 1504 – 1542[22]
Ali Barid Shah I 1542 – 1580[23]
Ibrahim Barid Shah 1580 – 1587
Qasim Barid Shah II 1587 – 1591
Ali Barid Shah II 1591
Amir Barid Shah II 1591 – 1601
Mirza Ali Barid Shah III 1601 – 1609
Amir Barid Shah III 1609 – 1619


See also



  1. ^ For a map of their territory see: Schwartzberg, Joseph E. (1978). A Historical atlas of South Asia. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. p. 39, 147. ISBN 0226742210.
  2. ^ Spooner & Hanaway 2012, p. 317.
  3. ^ Philon, Helen (2019). "Barīd Shāhīs". In Fleet, Kate; Krämer, Gudrun; Matringe, Denis; Nawas, John; Rowson, Everett (eds.). Encyclopaedia of Islam (3rd ed.). Brill Online. ISSN 1873-9830.
  4. ^ "Barīd Shāhī dynasty | Muslim dynasty". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 9 December 2018.
  5. ^ Sen 2013, p. 118.
  6. ^ Khan, Iqtidar Alam. Historical dictionary of medieval India. No. 20. Scarecrow Press, 2008."The founder of the Barid Shahi dynasty of Bidar was the son of a Bahmani noble of Turkish origin, Qasim Barid"
  7. ^ Bolar, Varija R. "Turks in Karnataka." International Journal of Social Sciences and Humanity Studies 4, no. 1 (2012): 419-428.“The Barid Shahi kingdom was established by a Turk named Qasim Barid who had come to Bidar in 1463 AD”
  8. ^ Ali, Shanti Sadiq. The African Dispersal in the Deccan: From Medieval to Modern Times. Orient Blackswan, 1996.“It may be noted here that Qasim Barid, the Kotwal of Bidar, though of Turkish origin succeeded in imposing his influence on Sultan Shihabu'd-din Mahmad”
  9. ^ Syed, Muzaffar H. History of Indian Nation: Medieval India. Vol. 2. KK Publications, 2022. p.37. “that he left the administration in the hands of one Turk noble, Qasim Barid.”
  10. ^ Bosworth 1996, p. 324.
  11. ^ J. Sarkar (1972). Maharashtra State Gazetteers. History: Mediaeval period, by B.G. Kunte.- pt. 3. Maratha period, by J. Sarkar and others. Maharashtra (India). Gazetteers Department. p. 214.
  12. ^ "India - Bahmanī consolidation of the Deccan". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 9 December 2018.
  13. ^ Haig 1928, pp. 431.
  14. ^ Yazdani, 1947, pp. 25.
  15. ^ Yazdani, 1947, pp. 13.
  16. ^ Yazdani, 1947, pp. 160.
  17. ^ a b Yazdani, 1947, pp. 14.
  18. ^ Majumdar 2007, p. 466-468.
  19. ^ Law, John. Modern Hyderabad (Deccan). pp. 15–17.
  20. ^ Centre, UNESCO World Heritage. "Monuments and Forts of the Deccan Sultanate". UNESCO World Heritage Centre. Archived from the original on 28 February 2018. Retrieved 9 December 2018.
  21. ^ Yazdani, 1947, pp. 26.
  22. ^ Haig 1928, pp. 429.
  23. ^ Haig 1928, pp. 681 & 683.