Bidar Sultanate
Barid Shahi dynasty
1492–1619
CapitalBidar
Common languagesPersian (official)[2]
Deccani Urdu, Kannada
Religion
Sunni Islam[3]
GovernmentMonarchy
Barid Shah 
History 
• Established
1492
• Disestablished
1619
CurrencyMohur
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Bahmani Sultanate
Adil Shahi dynasty
Today part ofIndia
Entrance of Bidar Fort.
Entrance of Bidar Fort.
Garden of Fort Bidar.
Garden of Fort Bidar.
Tombs of Bidar Shahi kings at Barid Shahi Park in Bidar.
Tombs of Bidar Shahi kings at Barid Shahi Park in Bidar.

Bidar sultanate was one of the Deccan sultanates of late medieval southern India.[4] The sultanate emerged under the rule of Qasim Barid I in 1492 and leadership passed to his sons. Starting from the 1580s, a wave of successions occurred in the rulership of the dynasty which ended in 1609 under the last Sultan Amir Barid III who was eventually defeated in 1619 by the Bijapur sultan Ibrahim Adil Shah II. Bidar became annexed into the Bijapur Sultanate.

History

Qasim Barid and Amir Barid

The sultanate was founded in 1492 by Qasim Barid I,[5] who was Georgian and enslaved by Turks.[6] He joined the service of the Bahmani Sultan Muhammad Shah III. He started his career as a sar-naubat but later became the mir-jumla (prime minister) of the Bahmani sultanate. During the reign of Mahmood Shah Bahmani II (r. 1482 – 1518), he became the de facto ruler.

After the death of Mahmud Shah Bahmani in 1518, he was succeeded by four sultans, one after another, but they were mere puppets in the hands of Amir Barid.[7][8]

When the last Bahmani ruler Kalimullah fled to Bidar in 1527, Amir Barid I became practically independent.[citation needed] But he never assumed any royal title.[9]

Ali Barid Shah

In 1542, Amir was succeeded by his son Ali Barid Shah I, who was the first to assume the royal title of Shah.[10] Ali Barid joined the other Deccan sultans in the Battle of Talikota against the Vijayanagar Empire in January 1565.

Later rulers

After his death in 1580, Ali Barid was succeeded by his son Ibrahim Barid, who ruled for seven years until his death in 1587.[11] He was succeeded by his younger brother Qasim Barid II.[12] After his death in 1591, he was succeeded by his infant son Ali Barid II, who was soon dethroned by one of his relative, Amir Barid II. In 1601, he was also overthrown by one of his relative, Mirza Ali Barid.

In 1609, he was succeeded by the last ruler, Amir Barid III,[12] who fought against the Mughals in 1616 under the leadership of Malik Ambar. In 1619, he was defeated by the Bijapur sultan Ibrahim Adil Shah II. Bidar was annexed to Bijapur sultanate. Amir Barid III and his sons were brought to Bijapur and kept "under surveillance".[13]

Culture

The rulers patronized Persianate culture. Persian poetry is inscribed on their tombs.

Architecture

See also: Barid Shahi tombs

The Bidar Sultanate made considerable additions to the Bidar Fort. Their tombs are also located at Bidar.[14][15] The rulers employed Hindu architects and engineers for the construction of these buildings, which resulted in amalgamation of some Hindu features within the architecture of this period.[16]

Rulers

Name Reign
Qasim Barid I 1489 – 1504
Amir Barid I 1504 – 1542[17]
Ali Barid Shah I 1542 – 1580[18]
Ibrahim Barid Shah 1580 – 1587
Qasim Barid Shah II 1587 – 1591
Ali Barid Shah II 1591
Amir Barid Shah II 1591 – 1601
Mirza Ali Barid Shah III 1601 – 1609
Amir Barid Shah III 1609 – 1619

Gallery

See also

References

Citations

  1. ^ For a map of their territory see: Schwartzberg, Joseph E. (1978). A Historical atlas of South Asia. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. p. 39, 147. ISBN 0226742210.
  2. ^ Spooner & Hanaway 2012, p. 317.
  3. ^ Philon, Helen (2019). "Barīd Shāhīs". In Fleet, Kate; Krämer, Gudrun; Matringe, Denis; Nawas, John; Rowson, Everett (eds.). Encyclopaedia of Islam, THREE. Brill Online. ISSN 1873-9830.
  4. ^ "Barīd Shāhī dynasty | Muslim dynasty". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 9 December 2018.
  5. ^ Sen 2013, p. 118.
  6. ^ Bosworth 1996, p. 324.
  7. ^ "India - Bahmanī consolidation of the Deccan". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 9 December 2018.
  8. ^ Haig 1928, pp. 431.
  9. ^ Yazdani, 1947, pp. 25.
  10. ^ Yazdani, 1947, pp. 13.
  11. ^ Yazdani, 1947, pp. 160.
  12. ^ a b Yazdani, 1947, pp. 14.
  13. ^ Majumdar 2007, p. 466-468.
  14. ^ Law, John. Modern Hyderabad (Deccan). pp. 15–17.
  15. ^ Centre, UNESCO World Heritage. "Monuments and Forts of the Deccan Sultanate". UNESCO World Heritage Centre. Archived from the original on 28 February 2018. Retrieved 9 December 2018.
  16. ^ Yazdani, 1947, pp. 26.
  17. ^ Haig 1928, pp. 429.
  18. ^ Haig 1928, pp. 681 & 683.

Bibliography