Uthra of Baptism
Other namesBihram Rabba
AbodeWorld of Light
Sethian Gnostic equivalentMicheus, Michar, and Mnesinous

In Mandaeism, Bihram (Classical Mandaic: ࡁࡉࡄࡓࡀࡌ) or Bihram Rabba (Classical Mandaic: ࡁࡉࡄࡓࡀࡌ ࡓࡁࡀ, "Bihram the Great") is an uthra (angel or guardian)[1]: 8  who presides over the masbuta, or baptism ritual.[2] Bihram is mentioned in Mandaean texts such as the Qolasta. Many Mandaean masbuta ritual prayers invoke the name of Bihram.[3]


The name Bihram may have originally been derived from the Persian name Bahram, in reference to one or several of the Sasanian kings of the third century A.D.[2]

Uthra of baptism

Mandaeans consider Bihram to be the uthra of baptism.[2] Similarly, in Sethianism, Micheus, Michar, and Mnesinous are three heavenly guardian spirits presiding over the baptism of the Living Water (see also Five Seals).[4]

Mandaean name

See also: Mandaean name

Bihram is also a Mandaean male baptismal name (as opposed to Mandaean birth names). Notable Mandaeans with the name include Yahya Bihram. In the colophons of Mandaean texts, the name Bihram is also often mentioned for different priests and copyists of various eras.[5]

In Mandaean scriptures

In chapter 3 of the Mandaean Book of John, Bihram, led by Nbaṭ and the uthras Gubran, Yawar, and Yukabar, helps lead a rebellion against Yushamin and his 21 sons. Yawar slays 12 of Yushamin's sons, while Bihram slays 9 of them.[6]

See also


  1. ^ Buckley, Jorunn Jacobsen (2002). The Mandaeans: ancient texts and modern people. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-515385-5. OCLC 65198443.
  2. ^ a b c Aldihisi, Sabah (2008). The story of creation in the Mandaean holy book in the Ginza Rba (PhD). University College London.
  3. ^ Drower, E. S. (1959). Canonical Prayerbook of the Mandaeans. Leiden: E.J. Brill.
  4. ^ Meyer, Marvin (2007). The Nag Hammadi scriptures. New York: HarperOne. ISBN 978-0-06-162600-5. OCLC 124538398.
  5. ^ Buckley, Jorunn Jacobsen (1999). "Glimpses of A Life: Yahia Bihram, Mandaean priest". History of Religions. 39: 32–49. doi:10.1086/463572. S2CID 162137462.
  6. ^ Gelbert, Carlos (2017). The Teachings of the Mandaean John the Baptist. Fairfield, NSW, Australia: Living Water Books. ISBN 9780958034678. OCLC 1000148487.