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Blaenavon
Blaenavon Workmen

Blaenavon War Memorial and Workmen's Hall
Blaenavon is in the north of the district of Torfaen, in south east Wales
Blaenavon is in the north of the district of Torfaen, in south east Wales
Blaenavon
Location within Torfaen
Area17.83 km2 (6.88 sq mi) [1]
Population6,055 (2011)[2]
• Density340/km2 (880/sq mi)
GSS codeW04000760
OS grid referenceSO 255 095
Community
  • Blaenavon
Principal area
Ceremonial county
CountryWales
Sovereign stateUnited Kingdom
Post townPONTYPOOL
Postcode districtNP4
Dialling code01495
PoliceGwent
FireSouth Wales
AmbulanceWelsh
UK Parliament
Senedd Cymru – Welsh Parliament
List of places
UK
Wales
Torfaen
51°46′25″N 3°04′58″W / 51.77363°N 3.08278°W / 51.77363; -3.08278Coordinates: 51°46′25″N 3°04′58″W / 51.77363°N 3.08278°W / 51.77363; -3.08278

Blaenavon (Welsh: Blaenafon) is a town and community in Torfaen county borough, Wales, high on a hillside on the source of the Afon Lwyd. It is within the boundaries of the historic county of Monmouthshire and the preserved county of Gwent. The population is 6,055.

Parts of the town and surrounding country form the Blaenavon Industrial Landscape, inscribed as a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 2000.

History

The Church in Wales church of St Peter
The Church in Wales church of St Peter
The Church in Wales church of St Paul
The Church in Wales church of St Paul
The Former Municipal Offices in Lion Street
The Former Municipal Offices in Lion Street
Big Pit National Coal Museum
Big Pit National Coal Museum
Rail manufactured in Blaenavon, seen in Sweden
Rail manufactured in Blaenavon, seen in Sweden
Horeb Baptist church

Blaenavon literally means "head of the river" or loosely "river's source" in the Welsh language. Blaenavon grew around an ironworks opened in 1788 by the West Midlands industrialist, Thomas Hill, and his partners, Thomas Hopkins and Benjamin Pratt. The businessmen invested £40,000 into the iron works project and erected three blast furnaces. Hopkins, as a result of operating the Cannock Wood Forge in Rugeley, Staffordshire, was in contact with skilled and experienced ironworkers, and managed to persuade many of them to migrate to Blaenavon to help establish the new iron works. In 1836 Robert William Kennard formed the Blaenavon Coal and Iron Company, which subsequently bought the Blaenavon Ironworks.

Blaenavon House, a mansion constructed in 1798 by Thomas Hopkins, was re-purposed as a hospital supported by the subscriptions of local iron and coal workers in 1924. In the 1940s the hospital site was given by the then owners of the site, the National Coal Board, to the Ministry of Health; it was run as a cottage hospital until 1985. When the hospital closed the building was sold by the local authority and refurbished as a nursing home for the elderly. In 1995 the building was listed as a Grade 2 Historic Building. Following the closure of the nursing home in 2007 the Building was left empty. It was badly vandalised and stripped of its lead work, slate roof and original interiors, and was placed on the Buildings At Risk register. In 2016 a fire caused severe damage to the ballroom wing and adjoining extension. The House was sold in 2017 to private owners and is currently undergoing restoration as a family home once again.

The Municipal Offices in Lion Street were the home of Blaenavon Urban District Council until local government re-organisation in 1974.[3]

Governance

Blaenavon is a community represented by Blaenavon Town Council and electoral ward of Torfaen County Borough Council. Blaenavon is twinned with Coutras in France.[4]

Geography

The town lies near the source of the Afon Lwyd river, north of Cwmbran.

Demography

Following twenty years after the closure of the ironworks in 1900 the population has declined gradually at each ten-year census, including rapidly after closure of the coal mine in 1980; it had however already fallen to 8,451 in 1961. Part of this decline was not emigration but a decrease in birth rate.[5]

Economy

Further information: Blaenavon Ironworks

The Blaenavon Coal and Iron Company developed the Big Pit coalworks with adjoining steel works particularly rail manufacture, part of which since 1988 is the museum.[6][7] The steel-making and coal mining industries followed, boosting the town's population to over 20,000 at one time before 1890.[8]

Culture and community

Government, publishers and mainly Welsh writers sought in 2003 to attract more visitors by introducing Blaenavon as Wales' second "book town" (the first being Hay-on-Wye on the English border). However the project did not succeed.[9] This can be attributed to a combination of the town's remote location and the established competition from Hay. Many thriving community groups serve and improve the town, including Future Blaenavon, which has helped to create a community garden at the bottom of the town.

Landmarks

Parts of the town and surrounding country form the Blaenavon Industrial Landscape, inscribed as a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 2000. Attractions in the town include the Big Pit National Coal Museum (an Anchor Point of ERIH, The European Route of Industrial Heritage), Blaenavon Ironworks,[10] the Pontypool and Blaenavon Railway, Blaenavon World Heritage Centre, Blaenavon Male Voice Choir, Blaenavon Town Band and many historical walks through Blaenavon's mountains.

Transport

A railway viaduct was constructed in 1790; the structure disappeared and was unearthed in a 2001 episode of the archaeology television programme Time Team. The Pontypool and Blaenavon Railway is a scenic attraction rich in geological and historical interest. Blaenavon lost both of its passenger railway stations — Blaenavon High Level station closed in 1941, and the last train from Blaenavon (Low Level) (to Newport via Pontypool Crane Street) ran in April 1962. The lower line had already been closed for more than a year before the Beeching Axe took place. The lower line's passenger service was among many in Gwent (Monmouthshire) which Ministry of Transport de-classified papers reveal were axed because of rail congestion in the Newport area following the newly opened Llanwern steelworks.

Education

Following Samuel Hopkins death in 1815, his sister Sarah Hopkins of Rugeley, who had inherited much money from her late brother, erected Blaenavon Endowed School in his memory.

Religious sites

St Peter's Church was constructed in 1804, gifted to the parish by Thomas Hill and Samuel Hopkins.

Sport

Blaenavon Golf Club (now defunct) was founded in 1906. The club closed in 1937.[11]

Notable people

See also: Category:People from Blaenavon

Notable Broadway and film actor E. E. Clive, award-winning mystery writer Dorothy Simpson, and international rugby union players Mark Taylor (Wales), Ken Jones (Wales and British Lions and also Olympic athlete), John Perkins (Wales), Chris Huish (Wales) Terry Cobner (Wales and British Lions) were all born in Blaenavon. Nick Thomas-Symonds, elected MP for Torfaen in 2015, was brought up in the town. The artist David Parfitt[12][13] grew up in Blaenavon. Well known for his portraits and paintings of the River Thames, the influence of the hybrid rural-industrial Welsh valleys of the 1950s and early 1960s is clear in his early work, and continues to inspire his painting today.

See also

References

  1. ^ "2011 Census:Quick Statistics:Population Density for Blaenavon". Office for National Statistics. Archived from the original on 3 December 2013. Retrieved 29 November 2013.
  2. ^ "2011 Census:Key Statistics:Key Figures for Blaenavon". Office for National Statistics. Archived from the original on 2 December 2013. Retrieved 25 November 2013.
  3. ^ Cadw. "Council Offices (Municipal Offices) (15278)". National Historic Assets of Wales. Retrieved 16 June 2022.
  4. ^ "Town Twinning". Torfaen County Borough Council. Retrieved 20 September 2016.
  5. ^ http://www.visionofbritain.org.uk/unit/10045757/cube/TOT_POP
  6. ^ "Geograph:: Blaenavon Ironworks Site © Cedwyn Davies". www.geograph.org.uk.
  7. ^ McCrum, Kirstie (7 September 2013). "Going Underground; Big Pit: National Coal Museum Is Celebrating Its 30th Anniversary as a Tourist Attraction and Museum". Western Mail. Archived from the original on 8 August 2016. Retrieved 14 June 2016.
  8. ^ "Geograph:: Workman's Hall, Blaenavon © Carol Rose". www.geograph.org.uk.
  9. ^ the Book Guide: Blaenafon - The Booktown Experiment Fails, 17 March 2006 Archived 23 October 2012 at the Wayback Machine. Accessed 2 November 2012
  10. ^ Blaenavon Ironworks
  11. ^ “Blaenavon Golf Club”, “Golf’s Missing Links”.
  12. ^ "David Parfitt NEAC". 21 May 2016.
  13. ^ "Home". www.dgparfitt.co.uk.