Innovia APM 100 vehicles on the Metromover in Miami.
Innovia APM 100 vehicles on the Metromover in Miami.
Skyway train at George Bush Intercontinental Airport.

The Innovia APM 100 (formerly known as the CX-100) is an automated people mover (APM) rolling stock first developed by Westinghouse (later Adtranz, Bombardier Transportation, and now Alstom), intended mainly for airport connections and light rail in towns. They are operated by Automatic Train Control (ATC), making it fully automatic and driverless.

The Innovia APM 100 is an evolution of Westinghouse's previous people mover vehicle, the C-100. Bombardier's intended successor to the Innovia APM 100 is the Innovia APM 200 (originally simply known as the Innovia), which made its debut on Dallas-Fort Worth International Airport's Skylink APM. However, the Innovia APM 100 continues to be offered by Bombardier and will remain in service at many airports for years to come. In addition to being used at many airports, the Innovia APM 100 is used on the Miami Metromover which runs throughout Downtown Miami, Florida, United States.

History

First-generation C-100 vehicles operating at Tampa International Airport in 1982
First-generation C-100 vehicles operating at Tampa International Airport in 1982

The Innovia 100 APM people mover vehicle is a modern version of the Westinghouse C-100 people mover first built by the Westinghouse Electric Corporation. Westinghouse developed the technology in the early 1960s. They built the Transit Expressway Revenue Line in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania as a prototype to demonstrate their people mover technology in 1965.[1] Westinghouse marketed the people mover system as an urban transit system and had hoped to build a fully-functioning system in Pittsburgh. However, political leaders held opposing views on the prospects of a rubber-tired mass transit system and plans to implement this system were rejected.[2]

Despite this, Westinghouse would see success with their people mover system at airports. In 1966, they were contracted to build a people mover system for the new terminal at Tampa International Airport. This would be the first time an automated people mover system was used to transport passengers within an airport terminal. The Tampa airport system included eight first-generation Westinghouse C-100 vehicles when it opened in 1971.[3] Two years later, Westinghouse completed its second airport people mover system, the Satellite Transit System, at Seattle-Tacoma International Airport.[4]

A Westinghouse second-generation C-100 on Miami's Metromover train in its original livery
A Westinghouse second-generation C-100 on Miami's Metromover train in its original livery

In 1980, Westinghouse people mover systems were opened at Miami International Airport and Hartsfield Atlanta International Airport. The system in Atlanta (known today as The Plane Train), is one of the world's most heavily used people mover systems in the world. These systems used second generation C-100 vehicles, which has been the primary design of the vehicle ever since. The C-100 would be installed at more airports throughout the 1980s.[5]

In 1986, the Westinghouse C-100 made its debut on its first urban people mover system, the Metromover in Miami, Florida.[6]

In 1988, Westinghouse sold its transportation division to Germany company AEG, which merged into a joint venture of ABB and Daimler Benz named Adtranz in 1996. Adtranz continued production on the C-100, which was marketed as the Adtranz C-100 and subsequently the Adtranz CX-100.[7]

Adtranz was acquired by Bombardier in 2001, who then rebranded the vehicle as the Bombardier CX-100. Bombardier has since rebranded the CX-100 again to its current name, the Innovia APM 100, to bring all of their people mover models under the same branding.[8]

While most of the earlier C-100s have been retired and replaced with Innovia APM 100s, London Stansted Airport still uses 5 C-100 vehicles on its Track Transit System.[9] 4 C-100s are also preserved on display in museums: 2 vehicles from the Miami Metromover are preserved at the Gold Coast Railroad Museum and 2 from the Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta International Airport system are preserved at the Southeastern Railway Museum.[10]

Airport connections

A Bombardier Innovia APM 100 train on the Bukit Panjang LRT Line.
A Bombardier Innovia APM 100 train on the Bukit Panjang LRT Line.
Innovia APM 100 operating on AeroTrain at Kuala Lumpur International Airport.
Innovia APM 100 operating on AeroTrain at Kuala Lumpur International Airport.
The automatic people mover of Adolfo Suárez Madrid–Barajas Airport.
The automatic people mover of Adolfo Suárez Madrid–Barajas Airport.

A popular rolling stock for intra-terminal connection in large airports, it operates in a number of airports:

Airport System Opened Notes
Adolfo Suárez Madrid–Barajas Airport
Beijing Capital International Airport
Changi Airport (Singapore) Changi Airport Skytrain 1990 Original 2nd Gen C-100s were replaced by Mitsubishi Crystal Movers in 2006.[11]
Denver International Airport Automated Guideway Transit System 1995 14 of the original 2nd Gen C-100s continue to operate with the CX-100s.
Frankfurt Airport (Frankfurt, Germany) SkyLine
George Bush Intercontinental Airport (Houston, Texas) Skyway 1999
Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta International Airport The Plane Train 1980 Original 2nd Gen C-100s were replaced with CX-100s in 2001.[12] However, only a few still remain in service
Kuala Lumpur International Airport AeroTrain 1998
Leonardo da Vinci Airport (Rome, Italy) SkyBridge 1999
London Gatwick Airport Tracked Shuttle System Original 2nd Gen C-100s replaced with Innovia APM 100s in 2009.[13][14]
London Stansted Airport Track Transit System 1991 Operates with a combination of 5 2nd Gen C-100s and 4 Innovia APM 100s.[15]
McCarran International Airport (Las Vegas, Nevada) McCarran International Airport People Movers 1985 Original C-100s replaced with Innovia APM 100s in 2009.[16]
Miami International Airport Concourse E People Mover 1980 System decommissioned in 2016. Replaced with a MiniMetro system by Leitner-Poma in 2016.[17]
Orlando International Airport Orlando International Airport People Movers 1981 Airsides 2 & 4 only. Airsides 1 & 3's original Westinghouse 2nd Gen C-100 were replaced by Mitsubishi Crystal Movers in 2017.[18]
Sacramento International Airport SMF Automated People Mover 2011
San Francisco International Airport AirTrain 2003
Seattle-Tacoma International Airport Satellite Transit System 1973 Original 1st Gen C-100s replaced by Innovia APM 100s in 2003.[19]
Tampa International Airport Tampa International Airport People Movers 1971 Original 1st Gen C-100s replaced with Innovia APM 100s in 1995.[20]

Urban lines

Miami Metromover

Main article: Metromover

The Bombardier Innovia APM 100 is used on the Metromover in Miami, Florida, United States. This was the first application of Westinghouse's people mover technology outside of an airport. The system's original Westinghouse C-100s were replaced with the current Innovia APM 100s in 2008.[21] The Metromover remains one of the world's few rail systems that uses the Innovia APM 100 for non-airport operations.

Bukit Panjang LRT

Main article: Bukit Panjang LRT Line

Interior of a new Innovia APM 100 car on the Bukit Panjang LRT.
Interior of a new Innovia APM 100 car on the Bukit Panjang LRT.

The Innovia APM 100 (C801) began operations on the Bukit Panjang LRT Line in 1999. These cars are similar to the C-100s formerly used at Singapore Changi Airport's Skytrain system in the early 1990s, jointly built by Westinghouse and Adtranz (acquired by Bombardier). Most of the new features available in newer MRT train cars are found here as well.

Bukit Panjang LRT's windows when not 'misted'.
Bukit Panjang LRT's windows when not 'misted'.
Bukit Panjang LRT's windows when 'misted', to prevent passengers from peering into apartments as the trains pass by.
Bukit Panjang LRT's windows when 'misted', to prevent passengers from peering into apartments as the trains pass by.

Instead of metal wheels on metal tracks, rubber-tired wheels on a concrete track are used, which makes it run very quiet. The windows are smart glass and are programmed to automatically mist within 6 metres (20 ft) of (mostly) HDB apartment blocks ensuring residents' privacy. 19 individual cars (which can be coupled in pairs if necessary during peak hours) were purchased.

The line suffered numerous technical problems in its initial years, and subsequent LRT lines in Singapore used the Crystal Mover instead. SMRT also announced that they will upgrade the LRT system with full cost paid by the company.

13 more trainsets for the Bukit Panjang LRT Line (C801A) have been progressively introduced since late-2014 to ease the 100% peak hour congestion. As of 4 September 2015, all C801A trains are on revenue service.

Guangzhou APM Line

Main article: Zhujiang New Town Automated People Mover System

The Zhujiang New Town Automated People Mover System, or officially known as the Guangzhou Metro APM Line, is operated by a fleet of 14 Innovia APM 100 rolling stock. It serves the Zhujiang New Town area in Guangzhou, the new CBD of the city. The system began operations in November 2010 and is completely underground. In terms of construction cost per kilometre, it is the most expensive APM system in the world, yet it is the shortest and least used line in the Guangzhou Metro network.[citation needed]

Technical specifications

See also

References

  1. ^ "A Look at America's Airport Automated People Mover Addiction". Airline Geeks. Retrieved 12 November 2021.
  2. ^ "The Pittsburgh Press - Google News Archive Search". google.com.
  3. ^ "Landside/Airside Terminal 1961-1979". Juan's Tampa International Airport Page. Retrieved 26 October 2021.
  4. ^ "Satellite Transit System Really Moving". McGraw-Hill Northwest Construction. November 2003. Archived from the original on 18 March 2006. Retrieved 13 February 2008.
  5. ^ Sproule, William J. "Airport Development with Automated People Mover Systems" (PDF). Retrieved 22 November 2021.
  6. ^ "Alstom to provide new signalling technology and other upgrades for Metromover automated people mover system in Miami, Florida". Alstom. Retrieved 13 November 2021.
  7. ^ Elliott, Dennis M.; Norton, Jack. "An Introduction To Airport Apm Systems". Wiley Online Library. Retrieved 23 November 2021.
  8. ^ "Bombardier and London Gatwick Airport Celebrate the Completion of the New INNOVIA APM 100 System". Eurotransport Magazine. Retrieved 6 March 2015.
  9. ^ Simons, Graham; Bowman, Martin (2011). London’s Airports. Pen & Sword Aviation. pp. 135–136.
  10. ^ "Westinghouse C-100 Automated People Mover". Southeastern Railway Museum. Retrieved 5 November 2021.
  11. ^ "Automated People Mover "Crystal Mover" for Singapore Changi International Airport" (PDF). Mitsubishi Heavy Industries.
  12. ^ "Westinghouse C-100 Automated People Mover". Southeastern Railway Museum. 1 April 2019. Retrieved 21 January 2020.
  13. ^ "Bombardier Signs 32 Million Euro Contract for Automated People Mover System at London Gatwick Airport, United Kingdom ; New APM Will Replace Existing Inter-Terminal Transit System Previously Supplied by Bombardier - CCNMatthews Newswire | HighBeam Research". highbeam.com. 2 November 2012. Archived from the original on 2 November 2012. Retrieved 20 January 2020.
  14. ^ Bombardier Transportation – London Gatwick Airport Archived 22 November 2008 at the Wayback Machine
  15. ^ "24. BAA Stansted, Airport Transit System, TTS – The Track Transit System" (PDF). Cambridge University/BAA. Archived from the original (PDF) on 19 July 2011. Retrieved 11 July 2008.
  16. ^ Automated people mover system - Las Vegas, USA (Bombardier Transportation) Archived 2008-11-22 at the Wayback Machine
  17. ^ "In+Motion_Spring 2017". rciccone-leaelliott-com.cld.bz. Retrieved 20 January 2020.
  18. ^ Storey, Ken. "Orlando International Airport retires its original people mover trams after 35 years". Orlando Weekly. Retrieved 20 January 2020.
  19. ^ "Sea-Tac Satellite Transit: Complex system delivered under schedule, budget" (PDF). Centerlines. Spring 2005. Archived from the original (PDF) on 10 August 2009. Retrieved 20 January 2020
  20. ^ "Monorails, Maglevs and 'Cabin' Transports". www.citytransport.info. Retrieved 20 January 2020.
  21. ^ Blake, Scott (19 March 2014). "Transit tax path still debated". Miami Today News. Retrieved 22 March 2014.