India shares borders with several sovereign countries; it shares land borders with China, Bhutan, Nepal, Pakistan, Bangladesh and Myanmar.[1] Bangladesh and Pakistan share both land borders as well as maritime borders, while Sri Lanka shares only a maritime border. India's Andaman and Nicobar Islands share a maritime border with Thailand, Myanmar and Indonesia.

Land borders of India

India shares land borders with seven sovereign nations. The state's Ministry of Home Affairs also recognizes a 106 kilometres (66 mi) land border with an eighth nation, Afghanistan, as part of its claim of the Kashmir region (see Durand Line).[2]

Land Border Country Length (m) and (mi) Force Comments
Bangladesh 4,096 kilometres (2,545 mi) Border Security Force Most India–Bangladesh enclaves exchanged in 2015.
Bhutan 578 kilometres (359 mi)[3] Sashastra Seema Bal Open border
China 3,488 kilometres (2,167 mi) Indo-Tibetan Border Police and Special Frontier Force Also see McMahon Line.
Myanmar 1,643 kilometres (1,021 mi) Assam Rifles and Indian Army Also see India-Myanmar barrier
Nepal 1,752 kilometres (1,089 mi)[4] Sashastra Seema Bal Open border.
Pakistan 3,310 kilometres (2,060 mi) Border Security Force Also see Radcliffe Line, Operation Meghdoot and Sir Creek.
Sri Lanka 0.1 kilometres (0.062 mi) Border Security Force Also see Ram Setu.

Maritime borders of India

See also: Exclusive economic zone of India

Maritime borders of India are the maritime boundary recognized by the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea entails boundaries of territorial waters, contiguous zones, and exclusive economic zones. India, with its claim of a 12-nautical-mile (22 km; 14 mi) territorial maritime zone and 200-nautical-mile (370 km; 230 mi) exclusive economic zone, has a more than 7,000-kilometre (4,300 mi) maritime border shared with seven nations.

Maritime Border Country Length (km) and (mi) Force Comments
Bangladesh Indian Navy New Moore Island
Indonesia Indian Navy Indira Point
Myanmar Indian Navy Landfall Island
Pakistan Indian Navy Sir Creek
Thailand Indian Navy Similan Islands
Sri Lanka >400 kilometres (250 mi)[5] Indian Navy Katchatheevu
Maldives Indian Navy Maliku Kandu

Border ceremonies

India co-hosts the joint ceremonies with the neighbouring nations at the following border crossings. the most attended and emotionally-charged among these is the one at Wagha-Attari Border near Amritsar-Lahore.

India-Pakistan border

At the following border crossing sites the beating retreat flag ceremonies are jointly held by the military of both nations every day at 6 pm, which are open to public as tourist attractions.[6][7] No special permit or ticket is needed. From north to south, the ceremony sites are as follows:

India-China border

India and China have five Border Personnel Meeting point (BPM points) where they hold the flag meeting to discuss the military matters as well as the ceremonial BPMs for cultural exchange to improve bilateral relations by celebrating New Year's Day (January 1),[11] India's Republic Day (January 26), Harvest Festival (April 14),[12] May 15 PLA Day and Indian Independence Day (August 15).[13] These meetings include the playing of each country's national anthem and saluting of their respective flags, and ceremonial addresses by representative of both armies.[12] On Indian side only Indian citizens are allowed to visit only 2 passes out of these several BPM passes/sites, Bum La Pass and Nathu La, only on Wednesdays, Thursdays, Saturdays, and Sundays, only after obtaining Inner Line Permit (ILP) one day in advance.[14]

These BPM passes and border posts where these meetings are held, from east to west, are as follows:

India-Bangladesh border

Petrapole-Benapole Border Ceremony, a similar but much friendlier ceremony than Indo-Pak Attari-Wagah ceremony, is held daily jointly by India's BSF and Border Guards Bangladesh at India-Bangladesh border from 4.30 to 5 pm. It is open to civilians without any ticket or special permit.[16][17] The Petrapole-Benapole joint retreat ceremony results in lowering of national flags of India and Bangladesh.[18]

Designated crossings with ICP & LCS

The map of ICP and LCS.

Integrated Check Posts (ICP)

India has 7 functional ICPs, and plans are underway to upgrade 13 more LCS to ICP, including 7 at borders taking total of border ICP to 14, at the cost of 3,000 crore (US$400 million) (c. Oct 2017).[19][20] Designated Integrated Check Posts (ICP), with both customs and immigration facilities are:[21]

India–Bangladesh border

India–Bhutan border

India–Myanmar border

India–Nepal border

India–Pakistan border

See also: Transport between India and Pakistan

Land Customs Stations (LCS)

India–Bangladesh border

Designated Land Customs Stations (LCS) are (no immigration facilities):[31]

India–Pakistan border

Border bazaars and haats

See also: India-Bangladesh Border Haat

This proposed list of border bazaars and haats is in varying stages of implementation, as suggested by State Governments to the Ministry of External Affairs for setting up Border Haats.[21]

India–Bangladesh

India–Bangladesh border Haats areasfollows.

India-Bhutan

This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (August 2021)

India-Bhutan Border Haat on India-Bhutan border are in operation.

India–Myanmar

India–Myanmar border Haats are.[35] [36]

In popular media

Pradeep Damodaran's book "Borderlands: travels across India's boundaries" chronicles all land borders of India.[37] The bollywood director J. P. Dutta has specialised in making Hindi movies with India's border as key element of the theme, his movies are Border (1997 film), Refugee (2000 film), LOC: Kargil, Paltan (film), etc.[38]

See also

References

  1. ^ "Neighbouring Countries of India 2020: Map, Capitals, Connected States". www.careerpower.in.
  2. ^ https://www.mha.gov.in/sites/default/files/BMIntro-1011.pdf
  3. ^ SSB to strengthen presence on India-Bhutan border, Times of India, 20 Dec 2017.
  4. ^ "doklam: SSB to strengthen presence on India-Bhutan border | India News - Times of India". The Times of India.
  5. ^ "Fishing rights disputes between India and Sri Lanka". Archived from the original on 2017-12-22. Retrieved 2017-12-20.
  6. ^ a b c d 5 crossing points in India: All you need to know, India Today, 10 OCt 2016.
  7. ^ a b c d Beating Retreat Wagah India, CHanging Guards, accessed 8 July 2021.
  8. ^ Sadqi retreat ceremony, nic.in, accessed 8 July 2021.
  9. ^ Second Wagah: India, Pak agree to new ceremony, beating retreat on Punjab border, Hindustan Times, 201 April 2017.
  10. ^ At Sadiqi border, strained Indo-Pak ties dampen spirits, The Tribune, 17 April 2019.
  11. ^ "Indian, Chinese armies decide to improve ties at functional level". News18. Retrieved September 14, 2017.
  12. ^ a b Yusuf, Jameel (April 14, 2016). "India, China officials meet on Ladakh border, pledge to maintain LAC sanctity". Deccn Chronicle. Retrieved November 24, 2017.
  13. ^ "Bonhomie, friendship between Indian and Chinese border personnel at Nathu La". sify.com. Archived from the original on December 1, 2017. Retrieved November 24, 2017.
  14. ^ Envis Team (4 June 2006). "Ecodestination of India-Sikkim Chapter" (PDF). Eco-destinations of India. The Environmental Information System (ENVIS), Ministry of Environment and Forest, Government of India. p. 45. Archived from the original (PDF) on 19 June 2007. Retrieved 1 December 2006.
  15. ^ Vinayak, G (28 July 2004). "Nathu La: closed for review". The Rediff Special. Rediff.com. Archived from the original on 22 February 2006. Retrieved 26 November 2006.
  16. ^ "Retreat Ceremony at Indo–Bangladesh Border". PIB. Press Information Bureau. Retrieved 9 April 2016.
  17. ^ Kumar, Satish (14 July 2015). India's National Security: Annual Review 2014. Routledge India. p. 512. ISBN 978-1138927438.
  18. ^ "PETRAPOLE SET TO HAVE A SPECTACULAR RETREAT CEREMONY" (PDF). PRESS RELEASE. BORDER SECURITY FORCE. Archived from the original (PDF) on 22 July 2014. Retrieved 9 April 2016.
  19. ^ a b c d e f g [1], Indian Express, Oct 2017.
  20. ^ a b c "India plans to construct 7 integrated check posts on border with Bangladesh". Dhaka Tribune. October 18, 2017.
  21. ^ a b "Ministry of Development of North Eastern Region, North East India". mdoner.gov.in.
  22. ^ Dawki ICP foundation stone laid.
  23. ^ India opens two border crossing points with Myanmar, Bangladesh, Business Line.
  24. ^ a b "12th Five Year Plan".
  25. ^ a b c d e f Delhi approves Sutarkandi integrated check post along Indo-Bangla border, North East News, 7 Jan 2019.
  26. ^ a b c d e f Indo-Nepal and Indo-Bhutan border to have more ICP, Oct 2016.
  27. ^ a b India opens two border crossing points with Myanmar, Bangladesh, Times of India, 1 Oct 2017.
  28. ^ $107 Million World Bank Project to Connect Mizoram with Bangladesh and Myanmar via Roads, World Bank.
  29. ^ India's north east opened up, PowerUpConstruction.Com
  30. ^ "सीतामढ़ी के भिठ्ठामोड़ में भारत-नेपाल सीमा के नो-मेंस लैंड पर बनेगा इंटीग्रेटेड चेकपोस्ट". Hindustan (in Hindi). Retrieved 2021-01-17.
  31. ^ ICP and LCS
  32. ^ "Tripura opens new land customs station along Bangladesh border". bdnews24.com.
  33. ^ "India opens two border crossing points with Myanmar, Bangladesh". @businessline.
  34. ^ Meghalaya border haats, megindustry.gov.in, accessed 28 Aug 2021.
  35. ^ Closer economic ties with neighbours vital, The Hindu, 7 May 2019.
  36. ^ Border haats of India
  37. ^ What will you see if you visit the precise point where India ends and Sri Lanka begins?, Scroll.in, 1 March 2017.
  38. ^ Adrian M. Athique, 2010, A Line in the Sand: The India–Pakistan Border in the Films of J.P. Dutta, Centre for Critical and Cultural Studies, University of Queensland, Pages 472-499.

Further reading