India shares borders with several sovereign countries; it shares land borders with China, Bhutan, Nepal, Pakistan, Bangladesh and Myanmar. Bangladesh and Pakistan share both land borders as well as maritime borders, while Sri Lanka shares only a maritime border though Ram setu. India's Andaman and Nicobar Islands share a maritime border with Thailand, Myanmar and Indonesia.
India shares land borders with seven sovereign nations. The state's Ministry of Home Affairs also recognizes a 106 kilometres (66 mi) land border with an eighth nation, Afghanistan, as part of its claim of the Kashmir region (see Durand Line).
|Land Border Country||Length (Km) and (mi)||Force||Comments|
|Bangladesh||4,096 kilometres (2,545 mi)||Border Security Force||Most India–Bangladesh enclaves exchanged in 2015.|
|Bhutan||578 kilometres (359 mi)||Sashastra Seema Bal||Open border|
|China||3,488 kilometres (2,167 mi)||Indo-Tibetan Border Police and Special Frontier Force||Also see McMahon Line.|
|Myanmar||1,643 kilometres (1,021 mi)||Assam Rifles and Indian Army||Also see India-Myanmar barrier|
|Nepal||1,752 kilometres (1,089 mi)||Sashastra Seema Bal||Open border.|
|Pakistan||3,310 kilometres (2,060 mi)||Border Security Force||Also see Radcliffe Line, Operation Meghdoot and Sir Creek.|
|Sri Lanka||0.1 kilometres (0.062 mi)||Border Security Force||Also see Ram Setu.|
See also: Exclusive economic zone of India
Maritime borders of India are the maritime boundary recognized by the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea entails boundaries of territorial waters, contiguous zones, and exclusive economic zones. India, with its claim of a 12-nautical-mile (22 km; 14 mi) territorial maritime zone and 200-nautical-mile (370 km; 230 mi) exclusive economic zone, has a more than 7,000-kilometre (4,300 mi) maritime border shared with seven nations.
|Maritime Border Country||Length (km) and (mi)||Force||Comments|
|Bangladesh||Indian Navy||New Moore Island|
|Indonesia||Indian Navy||Indira Point|
|Myanmar||Indian Navy||Landfall Island|
|Pakistan||Indian Navy||Sir Creek|
|Thailand||Indian Navy||Similan Islands|
|Sri Lanka||>400 kilometres (250 mi)||Indian Navy||Katchatheevu|
|Maldives||Indian Navy||Maliku Kandu|
India co-hosts the joint ceremonies with the neighbouring nations at the following border crossings. The most attended and emotionally-charged among these is the one at Wagha-Attari Border near Amritsar-Lahore.
At the following border crossing sites the beating retreat flag ceremonies are jointly held by the military of both nations every day at 6 pm, which are open to the public as tourist attractions. No special permit or ticket is needed. From north to south, the ceremony sites are as follows:
India and China have five Border Personnel Meeting point (BPM points) where they hold the flag meeting to discuss the military matters as well as the ceremonial BPMs for cultural exchange to improve bilateral relations by celebrating New Year's Day (January 1), India's Republic Day (January 26), Harvest Festival (April 14), May 15 PLA Day and Indian Independence Day (August 15). These meetings include the playing of each country's national anthem and saluting of their respective flags, and ceremonial addresses by representative of both armies. On Indian side only Indian citizens are allowed to visit only 2 passes out of these several BPM passes/sites, Bum La Pass and Nathu La, only on Wednesdays, Thursdays, Saturdays, and Sundays, only after obtaining Inner Line Permit (ILP) one day in advance.
These BPM passes and border posts where these meetings are held, from west to east, are as follows:
Petrapole-Benapole Border Ceremony, a similar but much friendlier ceremony than Indo-Pak Attari-Wagah ceremony, is held daily jointly by India's BSF and Border Guards Bangladesh at India-Bangladesh border from 4.30 to 5 pm. It is open to civilians without any ticket or special permit. The Petrapole-Benapole joint retreat ceremony results in lowering of national flags of India and Bangladesh.
The map of ICP and LCS.
India has 7 functional ICPs, and plans are underway to upgrade 13 more LCS to ICP, including 7 at borders taking total of border ICP to 14, at the cost of ₹3,000 crore (US$390 million) (c. Oct 2017). Designated Integrated Check Posts (ICP), with both customs and immigration facilities are:
See also: Transport between India and Pakistan
Designated Land Customs Stations (LCS) are (no immigration facilities):
See also: India-Bangladesh Border Haat
This proposed list of border bazaars and haats is in varying stages of implementation, as suggested by State Governments to the Ministry of External Affairs for setting up Border Haats.
India–Bangladesh border Haats areasfollows.
India-Bhutan Border Haat on India-Bhutan border are in operation.
India–Myanmar border Haats are.
Pradeep Damodaran's book "Borderlands: travels across India's boundaries" chronicles all land borders of India. The bollywood director J. P. Dutta has specialised in making Hindi movies with India's border as key element of the theme, his movies are Border (1997 film), Refugee (2000 film), LOC: Kargil, Paltan (film), etc.