The Republic of India shares borders with several sovereign countries; it shares land borders with China, Bhutan, Nepal, Pakistan, Bangladesh, and Myanmar.[1] Bangladesh, Myanmar, and Pakistan share both land borders as well as maritime borders, while Sri Lanka shares only a maritime border through Ram Setu. India's Andaman and Nicobar Islands share a maritime border with Thailand, Myanmar, and Indonesia.

Land borders of India

See also: List of disputed territories of India, Indian subcontinent, Greater India, Indosphere, and Look East policy (India)

India shares land borders with six sovereign nations. The state's Ministry of Home Affairs also recognizes a 106 kilometres (66 mi) land border with a seventh nation, Afghanistan, as part of its claim of the Kashmir region (see Durand Line).[2]

Land Border Country Dispute Length (Km) and (mi) Force Comments
Bangladesh N 4,096 kilometres (2,545 mi) Border Security Force Most of the India–Bangladesh enclaves exchanged in 2015. See Bangladesh Liberation War and Bangladesh–India relations.
Bhutan N 578 kilometres (359 mi)[3] Sashastra Seema Bal Open border. See Bhutan–India relations.
China Y 3,488 kilometres (2,167 mi) Indo-Tibetan Border Police and Special Frontier Force Also see Ardagh–Johnson Line, Macartney–MacDonald Line, McMahon Line, Sino-Indian border dispute and China–India relations.
Myanmar N 1,643 kilometres (1,021 mi) Assam Rifles and Indian Army See India-Myanmar relations.
Nepal Y 1,752 kilometres (1,089 mi)[4] Sashastra Seema Bal Open border. See Kalapani territory, Susta territory and India-Nepal relations.
Pakistan Y 3,310 kilometres (2,060 mi) Border Security Force Also see Radcliffe Line, Line of Control, Actual Ground Position Line and Sir Creek. See Partition of India, Indo-Pakistani wars and conflicts and India-Pakistan relations.
Afghanistan Y 106 kilometres (66 mi) Border Security Force see Durand Line

Maritime borders of India

See also: Exclusive economic zone of India

EEZs in the Atlantic and Indian Oceans

Maritime borders of India are the maritime boundary recognized by the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea entails boundaries of territorial waters, contiguous zones, and exclusive economic zones. India, with its claim of a 12-nautical-mile (22 km; 14 mi) territorial maritime zone and 200-nautical-mile (370 km; 230 mi) exclusive economic zone, has a more than 7,000-kilometre (4,300 mi) maritime border shared with seven nations.

Maritime Border Country Length (km) and (mi) Force Comments
Bangladesh Indian Navy New Moore Island in Bay of Bengal
Indonesia 555 kilometres (345 mi) Indian Navy Indira Point in Andaman Sea
Myanmar Indian Navy Landfall Island in Andaman Sea
Pakistan Indian Navy Sir Creek in Arabian Sea
Thailand Indian Navy Similan Islands in Andaman Sea
Sri Lanka >400 kilometres (250 mi)[5] Indian Navy Katchatheevu in Palk Strait
Maldives 1,009 kilometres (627 mi) Indian Navy Maliku Kandu in Laccadive Sea

Border ceremonies

India co-hosts the joint ceremonies with the neighbouring nations at the following border crossings. The most attended and emotionally charged among these is the one at Wagha-Attari Border near Amritsar-Lahore.

India-Pakistan border

Border ceremony at Attari–Wagah border.

At the following border crossing sites the beating retreat flag ceremonies are jointly held by the military of both nations every day at 6 pm, which are open to the public as tourist attractions.[6][7] No special permit or ticket is needed. From north to south, the ceremony sites are as follows:

India-China border

Nathu La border in Sikkim.

India and China have five Border Personnel Meeting point (BPM points) where they hold the flag meeting to discuss the military matters as well as the ceremonial BPMs for cultural exchange to improve bilateral relations by celebrating New Year's Day (January 1),[11] India's Republic Day (January 26), Harvest Festival (April 14),[12] PLA Day ( May 15) and Indian Independence Day (August 15).[13] These meetings include the playing of each country's national anthem and saluting of their respective flags, and ceremonial addresses by representative of both armies.[12] On Indian side only Indian citizens are allowed to visit only 2 passes out of these several BPM passes/sites, Bum La Pass and Nathu La, only on Wednesdays, Thursdays, Saturdays, and Sundays, only after obtaining Inner Line Permit (ILP) one day in advance.[14]

These BPM passes and border posts where these meetings are held, from west to east, are as follows:-

India-Bangladesh border

Indian and Bangladeshi soldiers at Benapole–Petrapole border ceremony.

Benapole–Petrapole border ceremony, a similar but much friendlier ceremony than the Indo-Pakistani Attari-Wagah ceremony, is held daily jointly by India's Border Security Force and Border Guards Bangladesh at India-Bangladesh border from 4.30 to 5 pm. It is open to civilians without any ticket or special permit.[16][17] The BenapolePetrapole joint retreat ceremony results in lowering of national flags of India and Bangladesh.[18]

Designated crossings with ICP & LCS

The map of ICP and LCS.

Integrated Check Posts (ICP)

India has 7 functional ICPs, and plans are underway to upgrade 13 more LCS to ICP, including 7 at borders taking total of border ICP to 14, at the cost of 3,005 crore (US$360 million) (c. June 2024 ).[19][20] Designated Integrated Check Posts (ICP), with both customs and immigration facilities are:[21]

India–Bangladesh border

India–Bhutan border

India–Myanmar border

India–Nepal border

Signage board at Bhitthamore border.

India–Pakistan border

See also: Transport between India and Pakistan

Land Customs Stations (LCS)

India–Bangladesh border

Designated Land Customs Stations (LCS) are (no immigration facilities):[31]

India–Pakistan border

Border bazaars and haats

See also: India-Bangladesh Border Haat

This proposed list of border bazaars and haats is in varying stages of implementation, as suggested by State Governments to the Ministry of External Affairs for setting up Border Haats.[21]

India–Bangladesh

India–Bangladesh border Haat areas are as follows:

India-Bhutan

This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (August 2021)

India-Bhutan Border Haat on India-Bhutan border are in operation.

India–Myanmar

India–Myanmar border Haats are.[35][36]

In popular media

Pradeep Damodaran's book Borderlands: Travels Across India's Boundaries chronicles all land borders of India.[37] The Bollywood director J. P. Dutta has specialised in making Hindi movies with India's border as a key element of the theme, his movies are Border, Refugee, LOC: Kargil, Paltan, etc.[38]

See also

References

  1. ^ "Neighbouring Countries of India 2020: Map, Capitals, Connected States". www.careerpower.in.
  2. ^ https://www.mha.gov.in/sites/default/files/BMIntro-1011.pdf [bare URL PDF]
  3. ^ SSB to strengthen presence on India-Bhutan border, Times of India, 20 Dec 2017.
  4. ^ "doklam: SSB to strengthen presence on India-Bhutan border | India News - Times of India". The Times of India. 20 December 2017.
  5. ^ "Fishing rights disputes between India and Sri Lanka". Archived from the original on 2017-12-22. Retrieved 2017-12-20.
  6. ^ a b c d 5 crossing points in India: All you need to know, India Today, 10 OCt 2016.
  7. ^ a b c d Beating Retreat Wagah India, CHanging Guards, accessed 8 July 2021.
  8. ^ Sadqi retreat ceremony, nic.in, accessed 8 July 2021.
  9. ^ Second Wagah: India, Pak agree to new ceremony, beating retreat on Punjab border, Hindustan Times, 201 April 2017.
  10. ^ At Sadiqi border, strained Indo-Pak ties dampen spirits, The Tribune, 17 April 2019.
  11. ^ "Indian, Chinese armies decide to improve ties at functional level". News18. 2 January 2016. Retrieved September 14, 2017.
  12. ^ a b Yusuf, Jameel (April 14, 2016). "India, China officials meet on Ladakh border, pledge to maintain LAC sanctity". Deccn Chronicle. Retrieved November 24, 2017.
  13. ^ "Bonhomie, friendship between Indian and Chinese border personnel at Nathu La". Sify. Archived from the original on December 1, 2017. Retrieved November 24, 2017.
  14. ^ Envis Team (4 June 2006). "Ecodestination of India-Sikkim Chapter" (PDF). Eco-destinations of India. The Environmental Information System (ENVIS), Ministry of Environment and Forest, Government of India. p. 45. Archived from the original (PDF) on 19 June 2007. Retrieved 1 December 2006.
  15. ^ Vinayak, G (28 July 2004). "Nathu La: closed for review". The Rediff Special. Rediff.com. Archived from the original on 22 February 2006. Retrieved 26 November 2006.
  16. ^ "Retreat Ceremony at Indo–Bangladesh Border". PIB. Press Information Bureau. Retrieved 9 April 2016.
  17. ^ Kumar, Satish (14 July 2015). India's National Security: Annual Review 2014. Routledge India. p. 512. ISBN 978-1138927438.
  18. ^ "PETRAPOLE SET TO HAVE A SPECTACULAR RETREAT CEREMONY" (PDF). PRESS RELEASE. BORDER SECURITY FORCE. Archived from the original (PDF) on 22 July 2014. Retrieved 9 April 2016.
  19. ^ a b c d e f g [1], Indian Express, Oct 2017.
  20. ^ a b c "India plans to construct 7 integrated check posts on the border with Bangladesh". Dhaka Tribune. October 18, 2017.
  21. ^ a b "Ministry of Development of North Eastern Region, North East India". mdoner.gov.in.
  22. ^ Dawki ICP foundation stone laid.
  23. ^ India opens two border crossing points with Myanmar, Bangladesh, Business Line.
  24. ^ a b "12th Five Year Plan". Archived from the original on 2013-06-19. Retrieved 2019-06-11.
  25. ^ $107 Million World Bank Project to Connect Mizoram with Bangladesh and Myanmar via Roads, World Bank.
  26. ^ a b c d e f Delhi approves Sutarkandi integrated check post along Indo-Bangla border, North East News, 7 Jan 2019.
  27. ^ a b c d e f Indo-Nepal and Indo-Bhutan border to have more ICP, Oct 2016.
  28. ^ a b India opens two border crossing points with Myanmar, Bangladesh, Times of India, 1 Oct 2017.
  29. ^ India's northeast opened up Archived 2018-11-27 at the Wayback Machine, PowerUpConstruction.Com
  30. ^ "सीतामढ़ी के भिठ्ठामोड़ में भारत-नेपाल सीमा के नो-मेंस लैंड पर बनेगा इंटीग्रेटेड चेकपोस्ट". Hindustan (in Hindi). Retrieved 2021-01-17.
  31. ^ ICP and LCS
  32. ^ "Tripura opens new land customs station along Bangladesh border". bdnews24.com.
  33. ^ "India opens two border crossing points with Myanmar, Bangladesh". @businessline. October 2017.
  34. ^ Meghalaya border haats, megindustry.gov.in, accessed 28 Aug 2021.
  35. ^ Closer economic ties with neighbours vital, The Hindu, 7 May 2019.
  36. ^ Border haats of India
  37. ^ What will you see if you visit the precise point where India ends and Sri Lanka begins?, Scroll.in, 1 March 2017.
  38. ^ Adrian M. Athique, 2010, A Line in the Sand: The India–Pakistan Border in the Films of J.P. Dutta, Centre for Critical and Cultural Studies, University of Queensland, Pages 472-499.