The Republic of India shares borders with several sovereign countries; it shares land borders with China, Bhutan, Nepal, Pakistan, Bangladesh and Myanmar. Bangladesh and Pakistan share both land borders as well as maritime borders, while Sri Lanka shares only a maritime border through Ram Setu. India's Andaman and Nicobar Islands share a maritime border with Thailand, Myanmar, and Indonesia.
See also: List of disputed territories of India, Indian subcontinent, Greater India, Indosphere, and Look East policy (India)
India shares land borders with six sovereign nations. The state's Ministry of Home Affairs also recognizes a 106 kilometres (66 mi) land border with a seventh nation, Afghanistan, as part of its claim of the Kashmir region (see Durand Line).
|Land Border Country||Dispute||Length (Km) and (mi)||Force||Comments|
|Bangladesh||N||4,096 kilometres (2,545 mi)||Border Security Force||Most of the India–Bangladesh enclaves exchanged in 2015. See Bangladesh Liberation War and Bangladesh–India relations.|
|Bhutan||N||578 kilometres (359 mi)||Sashastra Seema Bal||Open border. See Bhutan–India relations.|
|China||Y||3,488 kilometres (2,167 mi)||Indo-Tibetan Border Police and Special Frontier Force||Also see Ardagh–Johnson Line, Macartney–MacDonald Line, McMahon Line, Sino-Indian border dispute and China–India relations.|
|Myanmar||N||1,643 kilometres (1,021 mi)||Assam Rifles and Indian Army||See India-Myanmar relations.|
|Nepal||Y||1,752 kilometres (1,089 mi)||Sashastra Seema Bal||Open border. See Kalapani territory, Susta territory and India-Nepal relations.|
|Pakistan||Y||3,310 kilometres (2,060 mi)||Border Security Force||Also see Radcliffe Line, Line of Control, Actual Ground Position Line and Sir Creek. See Partition of India, Indo-Pakistani wars and conflicts and India-Pakistan relations.|
See also: Exclusive economic zone of India
Maritime borders of India are the maritime boundary recognized by the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea entails boundaries of territorial waters, contiguous zones, and exclusive economic zones. India, with its claim of a 12-nautical-mile (22 km; 14 mi) territorial maritime zone and 200-nautical-mile (370 km; 230 mi) exclusive economic zone, has a more than 7,000-kilometre (4,300 mi) maritime border shared with seven nations.
|Maritime Border Country||Length (km) and (mi)||Force||Comments|
|Bangladesh||Indian Navy||New Moore Island in Bay of Bengal|
|Indonesia||Indian Navy||Indira Point in Andaman Sea|
|Myanmar||Indian Navy||Landfall Island in Andaman Sea|
|Pakistan||Indian Navy||Sir Creek in Arabian Sea|
|Thailand||Indian Navy||Similan Islands in Andaman Sea|
|Sri Lanka||>400 kilometres (250 mi)||Indian Navy||Katchatheevu in Palk Strait|
|Maldives||Indian Navy||Maliku Kandu in Laccadive Sea|
India co-hosts the joint ceremonies with the neighbouring nations at the following border crossings. The most attended and emotionally charged among these is the one at Wagha-Attari Border near Amritsar-Lahore.
At the following border crossing sites the beating retreat flag ceremonies are jointly held by the military of both nations every day at 6 pm, which are open to the public as tourist attractions. No special permit or ticket is needed. From north to south, the ceremony sites are as follows:
India and China have five Border Personnel Meeting point (BPM points) where they hold the flag meeting to discuss the military matters as well as the ceremonial BPMs for cultural exchange to improve bilateral relations by celebrating New Year's Day (January 1), India's Republic Day (January 26), Harvest Festival (April 14), May 15 PLA Day and Indian Independence Day (August 15). These meetings include the playing of each country's national anthem and saluting of their respective flags, and ceremonial addresses by representative of both armies. On Indian side only Indian citizens are allowed to visit only 2 passes out of these several BPM passes/sites, Bum La Pass and Nathu La, only on Wednesdays, Thursdays, Saturdays, and Sundays, only after obtaining Inner Line Permit (ILP) one day in advance.
These BPM passes and border posts where these meetings are held, from west to east, are as follows:
Benapole–Petrapole border ceremony, a similar but much friendlier ceremony than the Indo-Pakistani Attari-Wagah ceremony, is held daily jointly by India's Border Security Force and Border Guards Bangladesh at India-Bangladesh border from 4.30 to 5 pm. It is open to civilians without any ticket or special permit. The Benapole–Petrapole joint retreat ceremony results in lowering of national flags of India and Bangladesh.
The map of ICP and LCS.
India has 7 functional ICPs, and plans are underway to upgrade 13 more LCS to ICP, including 7 at borders taking total of border ICP to 14, at the cost of ₹3,000 crore (US$380 million) (c. Oct 2017). Designated Integrated Check Posts (ICP), with both customs and immigration facilities are:
See also: Transport between India and Pakistan
Designated Land Customs Stations (LCS) are (no immigration facilities):
See also: India-Bangladesh Border Haat
This proposed list of border bazaars and haats is in varying stages of implementation, as suggested by State Governments to the Ministry of External Affairs for setting up Border Haats.
India–Bangladesh border Haat areas are as follows:
India-Bhutan Border Haat on India-Bhutan border are in operation.
India–Myanmar border Haats are.
Pradeep Damodaran's book "Borderlands: travels across India's boundaries" chronicles all land borders of India. The Bollywood director J. P. Dutta has specialised in making Hindi movies with India's border as a key element of the theme, his movies are Border (1997 film), Refugee (2000 film), LOC: Kargil, Paltan (film), etc.