Brassica carinata
Scientific classification Edit this classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Tracheophytes
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Eudicots
Clade: Rosids
Order: Brassicales
Family: Brassicaceae
Genus: Brassica
B. carinata
Binomial name
Brassica carinata

Brassica timoriana F.Muell.
Sinabraca carinata (A.Braun) G.H.Loos
Sinapis abyssinica A.Braun ex Regel

Brassica carinata is a species of flowering plant in the Brassicaceae family.[1][2] It is referred to by the common names Ethiopian rape or Ethiopian mustard.[3] It is believed to be a hybrid between Brassica nigra and Brassica oleracea.[4]

The flowers attract honey bees to collect pollen and nectar.

Leaf uses

The plant has a mild flavor, and is eaten as a leaf vegetable. It is known as (Oromo: Raafuu); habesha gomen, (Amharic: ሐበሻ ጎመን).[5] Named varieties include Texsel, which is particularly adapted to temperate climates.[6] Cultivation of Ethiopia mustard as leaf vegetable is limited to small-scale production but it is slowly gaining popularity in rural as well as urban areas where commercial production is taking place.[7]

Seed uses

Although Brassica carinata is cultivated as an oilseed crop in Ethiopia,[8] it has high levels of undesirable glucosinolates and erucic acid.[9] The closely related Brassica napus (rapeseed) is considered a better oilseed crop in comparison.

Brassica carinata has been used to develop an aviation biofuel for jet engines.[10] On October 29, 2012, the first flight of a jet aircraft powered completely by biofuel, made from Brassica carinata, was completed.[11][12] The byproduct of Brassica carinata oil production is utilized in protein meal for animal fodder.[13]

Industrial application

The oil quality profile includes a high percentage of erucic acid (40–45 %) making it highly desirable as a biofuel and for industrial applications such as production of plastics, lubricants, paints, leather tanning, soaps, and cosmetics.[14]


  1. ^ a b "Brassica carinata A.Braun". Plants of the World Online. The Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. n.d. Retrieved September 23, 2020.
  2. ^ "Brassica carinata A.Braun". World Flora Online. The World Flora Online Consortium. n.d. Retrieved September 23, 2020.
  3. ^ BSBI List 2007 (xls). Botanical Society of Britain and Ireland. Archived from the original (xls) on 2015-06-26. Retrieved 2014-10-17.
  4. ^ Prakash, S. and Hinata, K. (1980), "Taxonomy, cytogenetics and origin of crop Brassicas, a review", Opera Botanica, 55:1-57
  5. ^ Zemede Asfaw, "Conservation and use of traditional vegetables in Ethiopia" Archived 2012-07-07 at the Wayback Machine, Proceedings of the IPGRI International Workshop on Genetic Resources of Traditional Vegetables in Africa (Nairobi, 29–31 August 1995)
  6. ^ Plants for a Future (2008-06-10). "Brassica carinata".
  7. ^ Bihn, Elizabeth A.; Reiners, Stephen (2018-02-16), "Good Agricultural Practices and Good Manufacturing Practices for Vegetable Production", Handbook of Vegetables and Vegetable Processing, Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, pp. 109–134, doi:10.1002/9781119098935.ch5, ISBN 978-1-119-09893-5, retrieved 2020-09-29
  8. ^ Alemaheyu, N. and Becker, H. (2002), "Genotypic diversity and patterns of variation in a germplasm material of Ethiopian mustard (Brassica carinata A. Braun)", Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution, 49(6):573-582
  9. ^ Getinet, A., Rakow, G., Raney, J. P. and Downey, R. K.(1997) "Glucosinolate content in interspecific crosses of Brassica carinata with B. juncea and B. napus", Plant Breeding 116 (1):39–46
  10. ^ Lane, James (18 April 2012), "Tinker, tailor, sailor, fly", BioFuels Digest, retrieved 31 January 2015
  11. ^ "First solely-biofuel jet flight raises clean travel hopes". Archived from the original on 2012-11-14.
  12. ^ "NRC Flies World's First Civil Jet Powered by 100 Percent Biofuel". Aero-news Network. 7 November 2012. Retrieved 21 November 2012.
  13. ^ Pratt, Sean (11 May 2017). "Firm eager to ride the 'canola train' with carinata". The Western Producer. Retrieved 29 January 2018.
  14. ^ Kumar, Shivendra; Seepaul, Ramdeo; Mulvaney, Michael J.; Colvin, Blaire; George, Sheeja; Marois, Jim J.; Bennett, Rick; Leon, Ramon; Wright, David L.; Small, Ian M. (August 2020). "Brassica carinata genotypes demonstrate potential as a winter biofuel crop in South East United States". Industrial Crops and Products. 150: 112353. doi:10.1016/j.indcrop.2020.112353.