Bridgewater State University
Bridgewater State University seal.jpg
MottoNot to be Ministered Unto but to Minister
TypePublic university
Established1840; 182 years ago (1840)
AccreditationNECHE
Academic affiliations
Space-grant
Endowment$54 million (2019)
PresidentFrederick W. Clark
Students10,651 [1]
Undergraduates9,028 [2]
Postgraduates1,623 [3]
Location, ,
United States

41°59′19.04″N 70°57′57.62″W / 41.9886222°N 70.9660056°W / 41.9886222; -70.9660056
CampusSuburban
Colors    Red, white, & black
NicknameBears
Sporting affiliations
NCAA D-III (ECAC, MASCAC, LEC, NEWLA,)[1]
Websitebridgew.edu
Bridgewater State University logo.svg

Bridgewater State University is a public university with its main campus in Bridgewater, Massachusetts. It is the largest of nine state universities in Massachusetts. Including its off-campus sites in New Bedford, Attleboro, and Cape Cod, BSU has the fourth-largest campus of the 29 institutions in the Massachusetts Public Higher Education System. BSU's sports teams are called the Bears. School colors are crimson, white, and black.

History

Foundation

Nicholas Tillinghast
Nicholas Tillinghast

Bridgewater State University was founded by Horace Mann as Bridgewater Normal School. It opened on September 9, 1840,[2][3] making it the oldest permanently-located institution of public higher education in Massachusetts. As one of the first normal schools in the nation, its initial mission was to train school teachers. Today Bridgewater, which is regarded as the "home of teacher education in America", has the largest enrollment of teacher education students in the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. Since the 1960s, the school has expanded its program to include liberal arts, business, and aviation science. It became a university and took on its present name in 2010. During its history, it has also been known as Bridgewater State College, Bridgewater Teachers College, Bridgewater State Teachers College, and State Teachers College at Bridgewater.

The normal school opened in the basement of the Old Bridgewater Town Hall, in a 40-foot by 50-foot space, divided into three rooms: an ante-room for students, an apparatus room, and a classroom. The first class consisted of 21 women and seven men.[4] Nicholas Tillinghast, the first principal (1840–53) was initially the only instructor.[4] The school year consisted of two 14-week terms. Students were not required to attend consecutively.[4]

In 1845, the Commonwealth of Massachusetts finally agreed to construct a building for Bridgewater State Normal School, the first building ever erected in America for the preparation of teachers. This two-story wooden building, 64 feet by 42 feet, accommodating 84 students, was to be the institution's educational plant for almost half a century.[4] There were small and large classrooms, with blackboards in each. Since changes were made to the school, the board of education required people to attend three terms for fourteen consecutive weeks, establishing a year's course.[4] The building was dedicated on August 19, 1846, with Horace Mann saying on the occasion: "Among all the lights and shadows that ever crossed my path, this day’s radiance is the brightest...I consider this event as marking an era in the progress of education—which as we all know is the progress of civilization-on this western continent, and throughout the world. It is the completion of the first normal schoolhouse ever erected in Massachusetts,—in the Union,—in this hemisphere. It belongs to that class of events which may happen once, but are not capable of being repeated. Coiled up in this institution, as in a spring, there is a vigor whose uncoiling may wheel the spheres."[3] This first normal school established a professional standard for the preparation of teachers, breaking away from traditional academics for attendance. It was the next step toward establishing educational institutions for specific purposes.

Bridgewater Normal School trained its students in elementary-school subjects; expansion subjects above the elementary level including mathematics, philosophy, and literature; and pedagogy, including philosophy of teaching and discipline based on child psychology, and as much practical experience under constant supervision as possible at the model school.[3]

1924 fire

The campus in 1901. Tillinghast, Woodward, and Normal were severely damaged in the 1924 fire.
The campus in 1901. Tillinghast, Woodward, and Normal were severely damaged in the 1924 fire.
Boyden Hall opened in June 1926.
Boyden Hall opened in June 1926.

An early-morning fire on Wednesday December 10, 1924, destroyed three of the college's buildings, over half of the campus:[3][5][6] Tillinghast Hall, the Training School, and old Woodward dormitories. The Normal School and the boiler room were saved.[4] The fire was so large that other towns' fire departments had to be called to assist.[4] The cause of the fire was not definitely established, but it is believed to have been either "rats or mice" gnawing in the heating ducts,[7] or a spontaneous combustion.[8] There were reportedly no injuries.[8]

The Normal School and boiler room were repaired immediately.[4] Tillinghast Hall was rebuilt and a new Woodward dorm built. The training school was housed in a different building temporarily and later a new building was built for it exemplifying a well equipped elementary school, with a gym and playground. The total State appropriation for the Normal School repairs and rebuilding of the training school was $606,566, in addition to $86,500 from the town.[3] The Normal Building and Tillinghast Hall were rebuilt and opened in June 1926, now renamed as Boyden Hall and Harrington Hall.[9]

Mid twentieth century to present

In the 1950s, many veterans of the Korean War enrolled and proms were the highlight of the year for them.[4] In 1957 the John J. Kelly Gym was built and in 1959 SAT scores were required to be submitted for the first time.[10]

During the 1960s the liberal arts curriculum was introduced.[10] The Ivy Exercises, in which the junior class would form an archway with ivy leaves leading up to the school on graduation day, were dying out. In 1960 Pope Hall was built as an all women's dorm. Scott Hall was built in 1961 as an all men's dorm. The Marshall Conant Science Building was built in 1964 and was named after the school's second principal. In 1967 Shea and Durgin Halls were built as co-ed dorms.[4]

In 1971 The Clement C. Maxwell Library was completed. In 1976 the tennis courts opened and students could enjoy movies on Sundays and Tuesdays for 25 to 75 cents.[4] From 1970 to 1990 the college expanded and enrollment quadrupled. The number of faculty tripled. During this time, Education became the most popular major, and remains so today.[10]

In 1992 the college established the School of Education and Allied Studies and the School of Arts and Sciences. In 1995 the Moakley Center opened. From 1999 to 2002 the college had an endowment campaign to raise 10 million dollars to support academics.[10]

In 2010 Bridgewater State was one of the Massachusetts state colleges that chose to become a university. This would boost its popularity, attract more contributions, increase student applications and enrollment, and give the school a higher profile. On July 22, 2010, the Massachusetts House of Representatives and Senate voted to give the college university status and change its name to Bridgewater State University. The measure was signed into law by Massachusetts Governor Deval Patrick on July 28, 2010.[11][12][13] Today the university is considered the "Birthplace of teacher education in America", and has one of the most prominent and distinguished Teaching & Education programs in the country. It has the largest teacher enrollment in the Commonwealth of Massachusetts.[10]

Presidents

Academics

Bridgewater State University is among America's oldest teacher education institutions, the first to have a building devoted to education of teachers.[14] Bridgewater continues today to lead in the preparation of educators as the largest producer of Massachusetts teachers, holding the highest national ranking available (Title II first quartile).[14] It is one of seven universities accredited in Massachusetts for teacher education according to the National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education (NCATE)[15] The university is also accredited by the New England Association of Schools and Colleges, The National Association of State Directors of Teacher Education and Certification (NASDTEC), the Board of Higher Education.[16]

The university has 108 majors in 35 areas of studies starting with the popular education, aviation, psychology, accounting, criminal justice and many others.[17] The university has 30 academic departments ranging from Accounting and Finance to Theatre and Dance.[18]

BSU is the second most affordable state university when it comes to undergraduate in-state tuition.[19] Bridgewater State University is accredited by the New England Commission of Higher Education.[20]

Schools to colleges

On July 1, 2010, the former School of Arts and Sciences was split into the School of Humanities and Social Sciences and the School of Science and Mathematics. In October 2010, the School of Humanities and Social Sciences, the School of Science and Mathematics, the Ricciardi School of Business and the School of Graduate Studies, were all renamed colleges, and the Department of Social Work was renamed the School of Social Work. The College of Humanities and Social Sciences currently consist of fifteen academic departments, the Bartlett College of Science and Mathematics has six departments, the College of Education and Health Sciences has five departments, and the Ricciardi College of Business has three.[21]

Fine arts

The university has had active arts programs since the late 19th century. There are three main buildings dedicated to the Arts, the oldest of which is the Art Center (1906) which was originally built as a gymnasium. The Wallace Anderson Gallery on the ground floor of the center was made possible by the Class of 1936. The gallery holds changing exhibitions throughout the year, one exhibition being the student show. The Rondileau Campus Center houses the university's theater department, which puts on six shows a year. Next to and beneath the auditorium stage are classrooms and departmental offices and facilities, including a script library. Attached to the Rondileau Campus Center is the auditorium, which holds 1,300 people. In addition to Bridgewater's own performances, it has hosted the New York City Opera, the Martha Graham Dance Company, and Tony Bennett. A dance studio has been added to Burnell Hall.

Honors program

To be accepted into the Honors Program, an upcoming freshman must have a high school GPA of 3.3 or higher, and once inducted, the student must maintain that 3.3. If the GPA were to fall below that mark, then he or she would be put on probation for a semester. However, if GPA were to fall below 2.7, then he or she would automatically be removed from the program.

More than eighty percent of the honors student's academic work is completed in non-honors classes. To graduate with honors, a student must have twelve honors credits. A regular honors course is three credits, and the honors colloquia are worth one credit but only meet once a week for fifty minutes. Once in junior year, a student must take departmental honors classes, which are classes that specify in his or her major.

The honors students receive numerous perks, such as their own section in the academic achievement center. There are five computers located in there, all hooked up to a color printer that is free. The honors students also enjoy private events such as a biannual dinner, a fall book club, and an honors thesis workshop for those who are beginning to work on their thesis.

Scott Hall is the home to the residential Honors first-year living-learning community. Weygand Hall is the home to the residential Honors upperclassman living-learning community[22]

Research

The Adrian Tinsley Program (ATP) is the university's undergraduate research program.[23]

Campus

West Campus

Gates House
Gates House
Tillinghast Hall
Tillinghast Hall
The Art Center
The Art Center
Hunt Hall
Hunt Hall
Clifford House
Clifford House
Dr. Edward W. Minnock Institute for Global Engagement
Dr. Edward W. Minnock Institute for Global Engagement
Former Christian Fellowship Center
Former Christian Fellowship Center
Maxwell Library
Maxwell Library
Rondileau Student Union (RSU), back
Rondileau Student Union (RSU), back

East Campus

Moakley Center
Moakley Center
East Campus Commons
East Campus Commons
Adrian Tinsley Center
Adrian Tinsley Center
MBTA Stop
MBTA Stop

Residential life

Normal schools, because they were state institutions, received no bequests from wealthy alumni.[3] After the Civil War, in 1869, the first college dormitory was constructed, called Normal Hall. This was a coed dormitory which was split half and half. Boys on one side, girls on the other. Students would contribute a specific amount of money for food, and the principal would then purchase supplies at the nearest wholesale. Any surplus amount of money at the end of the year was split up between those who had paid. In the 1890s this procedure was discontinued and a set price for board was established.[4]

In later years, as enrollment grew beginning in 1933,[3] new dormitories were constructed: Woodward Hall and Tillinghast. In the post-war period, more dormitories were built: Pope Hall, Scott Hall, Durgin Hall, and Shea Hall.[4]

West Campus

Woodward Hall
Woodward Hall
Scott Hall
Scott Hall
Pope Hall
Pope Hall

East Campus

Great Hills Student Apartments
Great Hills Student Apartments
Crimson Hall
Crimson Hall

Student life

Clubs and organizations

Bridgewater State University has over 160 clubs and organizations.[24]

Four sororities, three fraternities and one co-educational fraternity are offered at BSU: Alpha Sigma Tau, founded in 2014,[citation needed] Delta Phi Epsilon, founded on December 8, 2010,[25] Gamma Phi Beta, founded November 22, 1987, Phi Sigma Sigma, founded in 1989,[26] Kappa Delta Phi, founded on April 14, 1900,[27] Phi Kappa Theta, founded in 1889,[28] Sigma Pi,[29] and Phi Pi Delta.[30]

Bridgewater State's Student Government Association (SGA) is an organization of students who represent the Bridgewater State community. Through SGA, the student body can express their academic and social wants and needs. SGA is made up of five different boards: the policy board, finance board, events board, election board, and media board.[31]

Campus media

The Comment

The Comment had its start in 1927. At the time The Comment served “as bulletin of school affairs and to make each class better acquainted with the activities and interests of other classes."[32] Today, The Comment has about 20 staff writers and prints nine newspapers per semester printing 1100 copies each time. It is funded by the SGA (Student Government Association). The Comment has a website that is updated daily with news about the school and sports at Bridgewater State University, but also with current news of the nation. Their main motive is to relate the stories back to Bridgewater students. With that being said, it is a common occurrence to see faces and stories of students in the newspaper. The Comment focuses on upcoming events rather than reviews to catch hold of the reader's interest.[33]

WBIM

Main article: WBIM-FM

WBIM-FM/91.5, (originally known as “We're Bridgewater Instructional Media”) is one of the longest running and one of few fully student-run college radio stations in the Northeast and has been on the air since November, 1972. WBIM-FM specializes in up-and-coming artists, alternative rock, and indie rock. The station promotes the programs through Facebook, Twitter, and their website, which also streams the music live during every show.

Commuting

[34] Commuters pay an estimated total of $7,553 a year to attend Bridgewater.[35] The cost of the parking decal for part-time students is $65 and full-time students is $160. A full-time student has 12 or more credits and a part-time student has 11 or less credits.[36]

Students can choose from several lots to park in, depending on the time of day. Spring Street Lot is located off of Spring Street and can be accessed by taking Route 104 or Route 18. The lot is located right behind the railroad tracks, a short distance from campus. One is located near the bookstore and Crimson Hall Dormitories. West Campus lots are not available to commuters prior to 4pm. Hooper Street Lot is located near Burnell Hall and Hart Hall. Swenson Field Lot is located in front of the Bridgewater State football field.[37] The newest addition to the parking lots is the parking garage, which opened in January 2012. The garage has approximately 840 parking spaces for students.[38] The parking garage is for commuters and is located behind Crimson Hall and Shea-Durgin Hall and is adjacent to the BSU Police Station.[37] All commuter lots close at 2AM daily.[36]

The Railroad is another way commuters travel to the school campus. Bridgewater State is served by the MBTA Commuter Rail. The train station is located at 85 Burrill Avenue; commuters cut through the MBTA parking lot from the train station for easy access to the campus. The railroad tracks divide the campus in half between East and West campus. There is a small walkway underpass beneath the rail line which allows students to walk between East and West campus, along with an at-grade railroad crossing on Plymouth St., next to the Welcome Center, for motorists to drive between campuses. The stops on the line go all the way from South Station to Lakeville. The Commuter Rail takes about 45 minutes to get to South Station in Boston. [39]

Athletics

Main article: Bridgewater State Bears

Bridgewater State University fields 22 varsity athletic teams (10 men's 12 women's) competing at the NCAA Division III level.

Future expansion

West Campus

The college had planned a $100 million renovation and expansion of the 1964 Marshall Conant Science Building (99,700 square feet (9,260 m2)), but the plans changed, and instead most of the old building was demolished and replaced with a new facility, which opened in 2011.

Additions to Pope and Scott Halls opened in fall 2009, increasing their capacity by 150 beds each.

Renovations and additions to the Rondileau Campus Center (RCC) began in spring 2013 and were finished by December. The project cost the school more than $3.5 million and included lowering the main entrance on Park Avenue to street level, with the stairs being replaced by ramps for improved accessibility, installation of larger, more energy-efficient windows and doors, and interior upgrades.[40]

In April 2014, construction began on a new Welcome Center on Plymouth Street. The building is a two-story, 15,000-square-foot facility, and it houses the undergraduate and transfer admissions offices, along with the university's financial aid offices. Construction of the Welcome Center was completed in the Spring of 2015.[41]

Renovations and additions to Woodward Hall began in June 2014 and finished shortly before the Fall 2014 semester commenced. The renovation included the installation of new floors, ceilings and walls, along with new bedroom furniture and the installation of an elevator & entrance stairs.[41]

East Campus

Crimson Hall, a new 400-bed residence hall on the East Campus, opened in the fall of 2007.

The college has constructed a new 600-space parking area, the Tower Lot, behind the Operations Center. The lot where the new residence hall is being built was a 1,000-spot parking lot. The new building has taken 400 of those 1,000. The Tower Lot has been built in an attempt to regain some parking spots lost during the construction. There has been a discussion of building a fine and performing arts center in the distant future.[42]

A new residence hall, Weygand Hall, was constructed on East Campus in 2013. The building uses geothermal and solar energy to minimize energy usage.

The roughly 200-space parking lot next to the MBTA railroad underpass on East Campus has been converted into a park to balance the construction of a parking garage behind Crimson Hall. Construction on the park was completed in late 2012.

Cape Cod campus

In November 2013, the university announced plans to open a satellite campus on Cape Cod. The opening of this satellite campus helped to accommodate the high number of students who commute daily to the main campus from Cape Cod. Approximately 600 Bridgewater State students reside on or commute from Cape Cod to the main campus in Bridgewater. The campus is located in the former MacArthur School in South Yarmouth, Massachusetts. This satellite campus opened in January 2015, offering undergraduate and graduate courses in Early Childhood Education, Educational Leadership, Secondary Education, Reading, and Special Education, along with certificate programs in Business and Social Work. The campus offers a number of undergraduate credit courses in History beginning in Summer 2015.[43][44]

Media

Bridgewater State University has a student-run radio station, 91.5 WBIM FM.[45]

Bridgewater State University has had its own student-run newspaper since 1927, called The Comment.

The Bridge, Bridgewater State University's student journal of literature and fine art, was established in 2004. The journal has won many national awards, including multiple Gold Crown and Gold Circle awards from the Columbia Scholastic Press Association, and the 2006 and 2011 National Pacemaker Award for collegiate magazines from the Associated Collegiate Press.

Notable people

Alumni

Faculty

References

  1. ^ bsubears.com
  2. ^ Albert Gardner Boyden, History and Alumni Record of the State Normal School: Bridgewater, Mass., to July, 1876, Boston: Noyes and Snow, 1876, OCLC 3802318, pp. 10, 25.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g Arthur C. Boyden, The History of Bridgewater Normal School, Bridgewater, Massachusetts: Bridgewater Normal Alumni Association, 1933, OCLC 976973.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Bridgewater State College: As We Were ... As We Are, 1840–1976. Bridgewater, Massachusetts: Alumni Association, Bridgewater State College, 1976. ISBN 9780884920151.
  5. ^ Frank W. Wright, "Our Normal Schools," The Massachusetts Teacher 5 (1925) p. 15.
  6. ^ "Public Ownership at Bridgewater, Massachusetts, and the Improvements Made after Purchase by the Town," Journal of the New England Water Works Association 41 (1927) p. 1.
  7. ^ "Principal New England Losses," The Standard: A Weekly Insurance Newspaper December 20, 1924, p. 1155.
  8. ^ a b Normal Offering 1925. Blanchard Print, 1925.
  9. ^ "The Fire". “$1,000,000 Blaze at Bridgewater”: A Campus Transformed. Bridgewater State University. Retrieved 4 June 2020.
  10. ^ a b c d e "Bridgewater State University Timeline Archived 2012-05-12 at the Wayback Machine". Bridgewater State University, n.d. Retrieved 5 Dec 2011.
  11. ^ "Public Relations - News". Web.fsc.edu. 2010-07-22. Archived from the original on 2013-08-20. Retrieved 2011-10-05.
  12. ^ "Salem State University: University Designation". Salemstate.edu. 2010-07-28. Archived from the original on 2011-09-27. Retrieved 2011-10-05.
  13. ^ BrainTrack Staff, "Massachusetts Colleges Become Universities", BrainTrack.com, 2010. Retrieved 5 Dec 2011.
  14. ^ a b ""Message from the Dean Dr Anna Bradfield : College of Education and Allied Studies : Bridgewater State University." Bridgewater State University, Bridgewater, Massachusetts. Web. 15 Dec. 2011". Archived from the original on 2012-05-16. Retrieved 2011-12-19.
  15. ^ ""Accredited Institutions by State". NCATE: Home. N.p., n.d. Web. 19 Dec. 2011". Retrieved Apr 1, 2020.
  16. ^ "Public Higher Education Campuses / Massachusetts Board of Higher Education." Massachusetts Department of Higher Education. N.p., n.d. Web. 19 Dec. 2011.
  17. ^ "Bridgewater State University - Acalog ACMS™. Web. 15 Dec. 2011". Catalog.bridgew.edu. Retrieved 2020-04-01.
  18. ^ "Bridgewater State University - Acalog ACMS™. Web. 19 Dec. 2011". Catalog.bridgew.edu. Retrieved 2020-04-01.
  19. ^ "Cheapest Colleges in Massachusetts 2020 - CollegeStats.org". collegestats.org. Retrieved Apr 1, 2020.
  20. ^ Massachusetts Institutions – NECHE, New England Commission of Higher Education, retrieved May 26, 2021
  21. ^ ""Academic Departments, Schools, and Colleges." Academic Departments. N.p., n.d. Web. 20 Dec. 2011". Retrieved Apr 1, 2020.
  22. ^ "Honors Program". Bridgewater State University. Retrieved Apr 1, 2020.
  23. ^ "Undergraduate Research". Bridgewater State University. Retrieved Apr 1, 2020.
  24. ^ "Organizations Directory" Archived 2011-12-08 at the Wayback Machine. Bridgewater State University. Retrieved Dec 5, 2011.
  25. ^ Delta Phi Epsilon Archived 2012-04-26 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved Dec 5, 2011.
  26. ^ Phi Sigma Sigma - About Us Archived 2012-04-26 at the Wayback Machine, retrieved Dec 6, 2011.
  27. ^ Kappa Delta Phi - About Us Archived 2012-04-26 at the Wayback Machine, retrieved Dec 6, 2011.
  28. ^ Phi Kappa Theta - About Us Archived 2012-04-26 at the Wayback Machine, retrieved Dec 6, 2011.
  29. ^ Sigma Pi Fraternity International - Eta Eta Chapter - About Us Archived 2012-04-26 at the Wayback Machine, retrieved Dec 6, 2011.
  30. ^ Phi Pi Delta - About Us Archived 2012-04-26 at the Wayback Machine, retrieved Dec 6, 2011.
  31. ^ "Student Government Association" Archived 2012-05-16 at the Wayback Machine. Bridgewater State University, retrieved Dec 5, 2011.
  32. ^ The Comment 1927 [Bridgewater, MA], 1 ed. Print.
  33. ^ ""Mission Statement." College Media Network, n.d. Web. 7 Dec. 2011". Archived from the original on 2011-12-03. Retrieved 2011-12-19.
  34. ^ "Gallagher, Colleen E. Commuter Services. Bridgewater State University, 19 Sept. 2011. Web. 30 Nov. 2011". Archived from the original on 2012-01-02. Retrieved 2011-12-18.
  35. ^ "Cost of Attending- Tuition & Fees. Bridgewater State University, 22 Aug. 2011. Web. 5 Dec. 2011". Retrieved Apr 1, 2020.
  36. ^ a b "Parking Guide. Bridgewater State University, 24 Mar. 2011. Web. 30 Nov. 2011". Archived from the original on 2011-10-14. Retrieved 2011-12-18.
  37. ^ a b "Campus Map. Bridgewater State University, 2011. Web. 5 Dec. 2011" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-09-04. Retrieved 2011-12-18.
  38. ^ "New year, New Parking. BSC Comment, 22 Sept. 2011. Web. 30 Nov. 2011". Archived from the original on 2012-04-24. Retrieved 2011-12-18.
  39. ^ "Bridgewater | Stations | MBTA". www.mbta.com. Retrieved Apr 1, 2020.
  40. ^ James McCarrick, "Rondileau Campus Center Gets Makeover", The Comment, September 19, 2013.
  41. ^ a b "Summer Jobs | Bridgewater State University". Archived from the original on 2014-07-06.
  42. ^ "Potential for new Fine and Performing Arts Center - Sports - The Comment - Bridgewater State University". Media.www.bsccomment.com. Archived from the original on 2007-12-31. Retrieved 2011-10-05.
  43. ^ "Bridgewater State University Coming to Cape Cod" Archived 2014-12-07 at the Wayback Machine, Bridgewater State University, retrieved December 12, 2014.
  44. ^ Christine Legere, "Bridgewater gets ready to open Cape campus on Jan. 21" Archived December 16, 2014, at the Wayback Machine, Cape Cod Times, November 13, 2014.
  45. ^ "91.5 WBIM-FM Bridgewater". Bridgew.edu. Retrieved 2011-10-05.
  46. ^ Holderer, Michael J. (2017-12-31), ""Japanese Western Classical Music from the Meiji to the Modern Era - Lecture Document"", Rhetoric in Modern Japan, University of Hawaii Press, pp. 25–42, retrieved 2022-03-19
  47. ^ "People". Mass.gov. Retrieved 2011-10-05.
  48. ^ "6-foot-7 hoss Donovan Dijak joins WWE PC". WWE. Retrieved 2018-02-28.
  49. ^ "People". Mass.gov. Retrieved 2011-10-05.
  50. ^ "Education Faculty". SNHU. Retrieved August 14, 2017.
  51. ^ "Debra Mueller - Bio". Bridgewater State University. 2021. Archived from the original on 10 March 2021. Retrieved 3 March 2021.
  52. ^ Ken Young; Andy Milroy, eds. (1 March 2021). "Debbie Mueller". Mattole Valley, California: Association of Road Racing Statisticians. Archived from the original on 9 March 2021. Retrieved 8 March 2021.
  53. ^ "Lakeville man rescued from pond after ATV falls through ice". Retrieved 2 December 2015.