Bu-Nao
Bunu
Buod Nuox
Native toChina
RegionGuangxi, Yunnan, and Guizhou[1]
EthnicityBunu
Native speakers
390,000 (2001)[1]
Dialects
  • Dongnu (Tung Nu)
  • Nunu (Nu Nu)
  • Bunuo (Pu No)
  • Baonao (Nao Klao)
  • Numao (Nu Mhou)
Latin script
Language codes
ISO 639-3bwx
Glottologbuna1273

Bu-Nao, or Bunu proper (Chinese: 布努语 Bùnǔyǔ), is a Hmongic (Miao) dialect cluster spoken in Guangxi, Yunnan, and Guizhou in China. Its speakers are among the Bunu (Chinese: 布努): ethnic Yao (Mien) speakers of Miao languages.

Classification

The Bunu people are the Yao people who speak Hmongic languages. That is, Bunu in the broad sense is a cultural rather than linguistic group. Strecker (1987) had classified Bu-Nao (Bunu proper) as a Western (Chuanqiandian) Hmongic language, and the other Bunu languages—Younuo (Yuno), Wunai (Hm Nai), and Jiongnai (Kiong Nai)—as distinct branches of Hmongic. Matisoff (2001) grouped all of these together in a Bunu branch of Hmongic (that is, outside Western Hmongic). Ratliff (2010) returned Bu-Nao to Western Hmongic, and moved Jiongnai to its own peripheral branch of Hmongic, but did not address Younuo or Wunai.[2] Chinese sources generally do not treat the languages as Hmongic because the speakers are not ethnic Miao, but Wang & Deng (2003) classify Bunao as a cousin of Western Hmongic, and Jiongnai and Younuo as independent branches.[3]

Varieties

Bu-Nao dialects include:[1]

These add up to a total number of 390,000 speakers.

The Guizhou Province Gazetteer (2002) lists the following autonyms for these villages in Libo County, Guizhou.[6]

The Yunnan Province Gazetteer (1989) reports that a Bunu dialect known as pu55 ʐa11 (布咋) is spoken by about 7,000 people in Guichao 归朝乡 and Dongbo 洞波瑶族乡 (including in Dadongzhai 大洞寨, Saxiangdong Village 三湘洞村[7]) townships of Funing County, Yunnan.

The Shaoyang Prefecture Gazetteer (1997:533) reports that the Miao of Xinning County, Hunan, speak a Bunu-branch language.

Intelligibility among these varieties is difficult, and they may be separate languages. Strecker (1987) went so far as to suggest they may not form a group at all, but separate languages within West Hmongic.[8]

Others

The following peoples may also speak Bunu languages.[9]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c Meng, Chaoji 蒙朝吉 (2001). Yáozú Bùnǔyǔ fāngyán yánjiū 瑤族布努语方言研究 [A Study of the Bunu Dialects of the Yao People] (in Chinese). Beijing: Minzu chubanshe.
  2. ^ Ratliff, Martha (2010). Hmong-Mien Language History. Canberra: Pacific Linguistics. hdl:1885/146760. ISBN 978-0-85883-615-0.
  3. ^ 王士元、邓晓华,《苗瑶语族语言亲缘关系的计量研究——词源统计分析方法》,《中国语文》,2003(294)。
  4. ^ Meng, Youyi 蒙有义 (2011). "Lóngmá Bùnǔyǔ yǔyīn xìtǒng" 龙麻布努语语音系统 [On Phonetic System of Bunu Language in Longma]. Sānxiá lùntán (Sānxiá wénxué. Lǐlùn bǎn) 三峡论坛(三峡文学.理论版) (in Chinese). 2011 (5): 61–65, 148. Archived from the original on 2021-06-24. Retrieved 2013-02-13.
  5. ^ a b c "Bùnǔ Yáo zhī xì zhǔyào bāokuò nǎxiē fēnzhī?" 布努瑶支系主要包括哪些分支?. Yáozú bǎikē 瑶族百科 (in Chinese). 2011-09-24. Archived from the original on 2011-12-10. Retrieved 2012-11-23.
  6. ^ Guizhou Province Gazetteer: Ethnic Gazetteer [贵州省志. 民族志] (2002). Guiyang: Guizhou Ethnic Publishing House [貴州民族出版社].
  7. ^ "Fùníng Xiàn Dòngbō Yáozú Xiāng Sānxiāngdòng Cūnwěihuì Shàngdàdòng" 富宁县洞波瑶族乡三湘洞村委会上大洞 [Shangdadong, Sanxiangdong Village Committee, Dongbo Yao Ethnic Township, Funing County]. ynszxc.gov.cn (in Chinese). Archived from the original on 2017-09-26. Retrieved 2017-09-26.
  8. ^ Strecker, David (1987). "Some Comments on Benedict's "Miao–Yao Enigma: The Na-e Language"" (PDF). Linguistics of the Tibeto-Burman Area. 10 (2): 22–42.
  9. ^ "China". Asia Harvest. Archived from the original on 2013-08-01. Retrieved 2013-07-19.
  10. ^ "Beidalao" (PDF) – via Asia Harvest.
  11. ^ "Beidongnuo" (PDF) – via Asia Harvest.
  12. ^ a b Bradley, David (2007). "East and Southeast Asia". In Moseley, Christopher (ed.). Encyclopedia of the World's Endangered Languages. New York: Routledge.
  13. ^ "Changpao" (PDF) – via Asia Harvest.
  14. ^ "Youmai" (PDF) – via Asia Harvest.
  15. ^ Li, Yunbing 李云兵 (2000). Miáoyǔ fāngyán huàfēn yíliú wèntí yánjiū 苗语方言划分遗留问题研究 (in Chinese). Beijing Shi: Zhongyang minzu daxue chubanshe.