Bungarotoxins are a group of closely related neurotoxic proteins of the three-finger toxin superfamily found in the venom of kraits including Bungarus multicinctus.[1] α-Bungarotoxin inhibits the binding of acetylcholine (ACh) to nicotinic acetylcholine receptors; β- and γ-bungarotoxins act presynaptically causing excessive acetylcholine release and subsequent depletion. Both α and β forms have been characterized, the α being similar to the long or Type II neurotoxins from other elapid venoms.

There are four types:


Banded krait venom began to be studied by Chuan-Chiung Chang and Chen-Yuan Lee of the National Taiwan University in the 1950s;[2] however, it was not until 1963 that its components were separated and isolated.[3]


  1. ^ Bungarotoxins at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH)
  2. ^ Chang C (1999). "Looking back on the discovery of alpha-bungarotoxin". J. Biomed. Sci. 6 (6): 368–75. doi:10.1159/000025412. PMID 10545772. S2CID 84443027.
  3. ^ Chu N (2005). "Contribution of a snake venom toxin to myasthenia gravis: the discovery of alpha-bungarotoxin in Taiwan" (PDF). Journal of the History of the Neurosciences. 14 (2): 138–48. doi:10.1080/096470490881770. PMID 16019658. S2CID 20028814.