Bungarotoxins are a group of closely related neurotoxic proteins of the three-finger toxin superfamily found in the venom of kraits including Bungarus multicinctus. α-Bungarotoxin inhibits the binding of acetylcholine (ACh) to nicotinic acetylcholine receptors; β- and γ-bungarotoxins act presynaptically causing excessive acetylcholine release and subsequent depletion. Both α and β forms have been characterized, the α being similar to the long or Type II neurotoxins from other elapid venoms.
There are four types:
Banded krait venom began to be studied by Chuan-Chiung Chang and Chen-Yuan Lee of the National Taiwan University in the 1950s; however, it was not until 1963 that its components were separated and isolated.