Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs
Seal of the United States Department of State
Bureau overview
Formed1961; 61 years ago (1961)
Preceding bureau
  • Bureau of Educational and Cultural Relations
JurisdictionExecutive branch of the United States
HeadquartersHarry S. Truman Building, Washington, D.C., U.S.
Employees455 (as of 2011)[1]
Annual budget$634 million (FY 2017)[2]
Bureau executive
Parent departmentU.S. Department of State
Websiteeca.state.gov[3]

The Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs (ECA) of the United States Department of State fosters mutual understanding between the people of the United States and the people of other countries around the world. It is responsible for the United States Cultural Exchange Programs.[4][5][6]

Lee Satterfield, confirmed by the United States Senate on November 18, 2021,[7] began service as Assistant Secretary of State for the Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs on November 23, 2021.[8][9][10]

History

In 1940, Nelson Rockefeller began the exchange of persons program with Latin America, as the Coordinator of Commercial and Cultural Affairs for the American Republics. This program sent 130 journalists from Latin America to the United States.

In 1942, The United States Office of War Information (OWI) was created out of the United States Government's need for a centralized location for information. OWI was disbanded under the Truman administration, though a small element of the original structure was maintained within the State Department as the Office of International Information and Cultural Affairs (OIC), which was renamed the Office of International Information and Educational Exchange.

In 1948, the Smith–Mundt Act sought to "promote a better understanding of the United States in other countries, and to increase mutual understanding." The educational and cultural exchange aspects of the State Department were removed from the Bureau of Public Affairs and entered the newly created Bureau of Educational and Cultural Relations (CU) in 1959.[11]

In 1961, the 87th United States Congress passed the Fulbright-Hays Act (Mutual Educational and Cultural Exchange Act) to establish a program to "strengthen the ties which unite us with other nations by demonstrating the educational and cultural interests, developments, and achievements of the people of the United States and other nations".[12][6] In 1978, the United States International Communication Agency (USICA) absorbed the bureau with the understanding that USICA was in charge of United States public diplomacy. Ronald Reagan renamed USICA to the United States Information Agency in 1982, and in 1999, USIA was absorbed by the State Department.[13]

Programs

See also

References

  1. ^ "Inspection of the Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs" (PDF). Inspector General of the Department of State. February 2012. Retrieved April 1, 2016.
  2. ^ "FY 2019 Congressional Budget Justification - Department of State, Foreign Operations, and Related Programs" (PDF). U.S. Department of State. February 12, 2018. Archived from the original (PDF) on February 12, 2018. Retrieved February 24, 2018.
  3. ^ "Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs (ECA) | U.S. Department of State". www.loc.gov (Web archive). Library of Congress. Retrieved December 8, 2021.
  4. ^ a b c "Programs and Initiatives: Our Exchange Programs". eca.state.gov. Retrieved December 8, 2021. Our exchange programs engage youth, students, educators, artists, athletes, and rising leaders in the United States and more than 160 countries. ECA is well known for its flagship exchange programs such as The Fulbright Program and International Visitor Leadership Program.
  5. ^ "Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs: Exchange Programs". exchanges.state.gov. Retrieved December 8, 2021.
  6. ^ a b "ECA Fact Sheet" (PDF). eca.state.gov. 2019. Retrieved December 8, 2021.
  7. ^ "PN546 - Nomination of Lee Satterfield for Department of State, 117th Congress (2021-2022)". www.congress.gov. November 18, 2021. Retrieved December 8, 2021.
  8. ^ "Biographies: Lee Satterfield". www.state.gov. United States Department of State. Retrieved December 8, 2021.
  9. ^ "About the Bureau: Senior Leadership". eca.state.gov. Retrieved December 8, 2021.
  10. ^ "Under Secretary for Public Diplomacy and Public Affairs: Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs". www.state.gov. United States Department of State. Retrieved December 8, 2021.
  11. ^ "History and Mission of ECA". U.S. Department of State. Retrieved December 10, 2015.
  12. ^ https://www2.ed.gov/about/offices/list/ope/iegps/fulbrighthaysact.pdf[bare URL PDF]
  13. ^ "History of the Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs". Retrieved April 27, 2011.
  14. ^ "EducationUSA". Archived from the original on June 30, 2007. Retrieved June 22, 2007.
  15. ^ "Educational Information and Resources: U.S. Students - Gilman International Scholarship Program". Archived from the original on June 30, 2007. Retrieved June 24, 2007.