Bureau of National Investigations
Bureau of National Investigations (BNI) logo.jpg
Established1996; 26 years ago (1996)
Legal statusActive
Region served
AffiliationsMinistry of National Security Ghana, Presidency of Ghana

The Bureau of National Investigations (BNI) is the internal intelligence agency of Ghana.[1] The BNI is an integral part of the National Security Council which oversees matters of the counterintelligence and internal security of Ghana.[1] The BNI has investigative jurisdiction to arrest or detain and interrogate over a wide range of criminal offenses.[1]

Among the duties of the Bureau of National Investigations are dealing with organized crime and financial crime, espionage, sabotage, terrorism, hijacking, piracy, drug trafficking and providing intelligence to counter threats to Ghana's national security[1] and also perform such other functions as may be directed by the President or the council.[2] The BNI is legally a creature of, The Security and Intelligence Agencies Act (Act 526) 1996, having been continued in existence by Section 10 of that Act.[1] The BNI has undisclosed offices in all the sixteen regions of Ghana .[1] In November 2020 the name was officially changed to the National Intelligence Bureau.[3]


During Ghana's decolonization, it obtained India's help in setting up two intelligence services: The Foreign Service Research Bureau (external intelligence) and the Special Branch (domestic intelligence).[4]


The Bureau of National Investigations, previously known as the "Special Branch," is a counterintelligence and internal security agency, composed of civilian personnel whose role is to establish close surveillance over opponents of the Republic of Ghana and the Government of Ghana.[5] The BNI has power to interrogate and detain people whom they suspect of subversion without trial indefinitely, on grounds of national security of the Republic of Ghana.[6] The BNI has overriding statutory authority over other security services

The organization investigates crimes of any shape or form as enshrined in the constitution of Ghana.


  1. ^ a b c d e f The Security and Intelligence Agencies Act (Act 526) 1996, Ghana.
  2. ^ "Functions Of The Intelligence Agencies". laws.ghanalegal.com. Archived from the original on 2017-06-19. Retrieved 2017-05-17.
  3. ^ "BNI changes name to National Intelligence Bureau (NIB)". Graphic Online. Retrieved 2020-11-23.
  4. ^ Paliwal, Avinash (2021-02-22). "Colonial Sinews of Postcolonial Espionage - India and the Making of Ghana's External Intelligence Agency, 1958-61". The International History Review. doi:10.1080/07075332.2021.1888768. ISSN 0707-5332.
  5. ^ Ghana: Information on the Bureau of National Investigations and the Criminal Investigation Department (CID)
  6. ^ Adjorlolo, Ruth Abla. "BNI presents proposal to Parliament". www.gbcghana.com. Retrieved 2019-05-25.