In software engineering, CI/CD or CICD is the combined practices of continuous integration (CI) and continuous delivery (CD) or, less often, continuous deployment.[1] They are sometimes referred to collectively as continuous development or continuous software development.[2]


Continuous integration
Frequent merging of several small changes into a main branch.
Continuous delivery
When teams produce software in short cycles with high speed and frequency so that reliable software can be released at any time, and with a simple and repeatable deployment process when deciding to deploy.
Continuous deployment
When new software functionality is rolled out completely automatically.


CI/CD bridges the gaps between development and operation activities and teams by enforcing automation in building, testing and deployment of applications. CI/CD services compile the incremental code changes made by developers, then link and package them into software deliverables.[3] Automated tests verify the software functionality, and automated deployment services deliver them to end users.[4] The aim is to increase early defect discovery, increase productivity, and provide faster release cycles. The process contrasts with traditional methods where a collection of software updates were integrated into one large batch before deploying the newer version. Modern-day DevOps practices involve:

of software applications throughout its development life cycle. The CI/CD practice, or CI/CD pipeline, forms the backbone of modern day DevOps operations.

See also


  1. ^ Sacolick, Isaac (2020-01-17). "What is CI/CD? Continuous integration and continuous delivery explained". InfoWorld. Retrieved 2021-06-01.
  2. ^ "What is Continuous Development and How Does It Work? | Synopsys".
  3. ^ Rossel, Sander (October 2017). Continuous Integration, Delivery, and Deployment. Packt Publishing. ISBN 978-1-78728-661-0.
  4. ^ Gallaba, Keheliya (2019). "Improving the Robustness and Efficiency of Continuous Integration and Deployment". 2019 IEEE International Conference on Software Maintenance and Evolution (ICSME). pp. 619–623. doi:10.1109/ICSME.2019.00099. ISBN 978-1-7281-3094-1. S2CID 208879679.