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Calapan
City of Calapan
Downtown area
Downtown area
Flag of Calapan
Official seal of Calapan
Nicknames: 
Gateway to the Golden Isle
Golden Grains City
Motto: 
Fly High As One Calapan
Map of Oriental Mindoro with Calapan highlighted
Map of Oriental Mindoro with Calapan highlighted
OpenStreetMap
Map
Calapan is located in Philippines
Calapan
Calapan
Location within the Philippines
Coordinates: 13°24′50″N 121°10′48″E / 13.414°N 121.18°E / 13.414; 121.18
CountryPhilippines
RegionMimaropa
ProvinceOriental Mindoro
District 1st district
FoundedJanuary 2, 1917
CityhoodMarch 21, 1998
Barangays62 (see Barangays)
Government
[1]
 • TypeSangguniang Panlungsod
 • MayorMarilou F. Morillo
 • Vice MayorRommel Rodolfo A. Ignacio
 • RepresentativeArnan C. Panaligan
 • City Council
Members
 • Electorate100,921 voters (2022)
Area
 • Total250.06 km2 (96.55 sq mi)
Elevation
87 m (285 ft)
Highest elevation
2,576 m (8,451 ft)
Lowest elevation
0 m (0 ft)
Population
 (2020 census)[3]
 • Total145,786
 • Density580/km2 (1,500/sq mi)
 • Households
35,147
Demonym(s)Calapeños (Male)
Calapeñas (Female)
Economy
 • Income class3rd city income class
 • Poverty incidence
24.70
% (2021)[4]
 • Revenue₱ 1,107 million (2020)
 • Assets₱ 1,707 million (2020)
 • Expenditure₱ 1,009 million (2020)
 • Liabilities₱ 482.1 million (2020)
Service provider
 • ElectricityOriental Mindoro Electric Cooperative (ORMECO)
Time zoneUTC+8 (PST)
ZIP code
5200
PSGC
IDD:area code+63 (0)43
Native languagesTagalog
Websitewww.cityofcalapan.gov.ph

Calapan, officially the City of Calapan (Filipino: Lungsod ng Calapan), is a 3rd class component city in the province of Oriental Mindoro, Philippines. According to the 2020 census, it has a population of 145,786 people.[3] The city is the capital of the province of Oriental Mindoro.

The city serves as the gateway to the Oriental Mindoro province with the implementation of the Strong Republic Nautical Highway (SRNH) an integrated ferry project of then President Gloria Macapagal Arroyo that extends further to the southern part of the Philippines. The Calapan City Seaport is the largest and busiest seaport on Mindoro Island, which is just 45 minutes away by ferry boats and roll-on/roll-off (RORO) ships to and from Batangas City International Seaport.

Calapan is one of two cities in the Mimaropa region, the other being Puerto Princesa in Palawan. Calapan serves as the region's administrative center.[5] It is also the center of commerce, industry, transport, communication, religious activities and education in the entire province of Oriental Mindoro.

Etymology

The derivation of the name of Calapan cannot be traced with certainty. Some opined that it comes from the word “Kalap” which means to gather logs. Thus “Kalapan” was supposed to be a place where logs were gathered. In the old records, however, there was never a mention of Calapan as a place where logs were produced or exported. Furthermore, huge forest trees where logs were produced certainly did not grow near the town, which was swampy. Another theory states that Calapan was originally pronounced as “Kalapang” which, according to an old Tagalog dictionary, was a synonym for “sanga” or branch. It could then refer to the settlement of Kalapang as a branch of its mother town of Baco, an adjoining town. The name was later hispanized as Calapan.[citation needed]

History

Calapan was formerly a small village before the establishment of the first Religious District in Baco. The District convent was transferred to Calapan in 1733 and began its jurisdiction over the Northern Mindoro Ecclesiastical Area.[6]

In the early 18th century, the town only occupied a strip of land stretching from Ibaba to Ilaya in a cross-shape facing the present Santo Niño Cathedral and cut off by the river. Later on, succeeding barriers were founded.

In 1837, the capital of the province was moved from Puerto Galera to Calapan. When Mindoro became a part of Marinduque on June 13, 1902, the provincial capital was once again moved to Puerto Galera. On November 10, 1902, Mindoro was detached from Marinduque. In 1903, Calapan once again became the provincial capital.[6]

When Mindoro was detached from Marinduque on November 10, 1902, Baco, Puerto Galera and San Teodoro were annexed to Calapan in 1905 under Act No. 1280, adding a total area of 843 square kilometres (325 sq mi) of land.[7] In 1902, under Act No. 2824, the three municipalities gained their independence.

In 1919, the boundary dispute between Calapan and Naujan was adjudicated by Presidentes (Mayors) Agustin Quijano of Calapan and Agustin Garong of Naujan over a portion of the territory of what is now the present boundary. The agricultural area was awarded to Naujan, thus making the area of Calapan much smaller compared to that of Naujan, which is now considered the biggest municipality in the province.

Cityhood

Main article: Cities of the Philippines

In the year 1998, Calapan was converted from a municipality into a component city by virtue of Republic Act No. 8475.[8] The law was authored in Congress by Rep. Renato V. Leviste and was signed by President Fidel Ramos on February 2, 1998. On March 21, 1998, the people of Calapan ratified the creation of the City of Calapan in a plebiscite marking that same day as the city's foundation day. Incumbent Mayor Arnan C. Panaligan became the last Municipal Mayor and the first City Mayor of Calapan. To date, it is the first and only city in the whole island of Mindoro.[6]

Calapan was reclassified from a 4th class city in 2007 to a 3rd class city in 2010, on account of its innovations in public service, modernization programs, increased revenue collection, and overall economic improvement.[citation needed]

Geography

Calapan is bounded to the north and north-east by the Calapan Bay, south and southeast by Naujan, and to the west by the Baco. The city lies at the quadrangle bounded by 13°12.6 and 13°27’ north latitudes and 121°17’ east longitudes. It is approximately 28 nautical miles (52 km; 32 mi) from the nearest point of Batangas, 45 kilometres (28 mi) south of Batangas City and 130 kilometres (81 mi) south of Manila.

The city has an area of 250.06 km2 (96.55 sq mi) and is composed of 62 barangays of which 22 are classified as urban and 40, rural. The city also has jurisdiction over the Baco Islands and the two Silonay Islets on Calapan Bay.

The overall land characteristic is a wide plain with rivers, interspersed with wetlands at the seacoast periphery. The highest elevation is 187 m (614 ft) above sea level at Bulusan Hill, a 6-kilometre (3.7 mi) long landform east of the city, which interrupts the mostly flat terrain north-east of the Halcon-Baco Mountain Range.

Barangays

Calapan is divided into 62 barangays. Each barangay consists of puroks and some have sitios.

These barangays are grouped into congressional districts where each district is represented by a congressman in the country's House of Representatives.

Climate

Calapan's climate is described as mild. It is relatively dry from November to April and wet during the rest of the year. February and March have the least rainfall while October and November are the months of greatest rainfall. Average yearly rainfall is 2,500 to 4,500 millimetres (98 to 177 in) at the city's south-west portion. The average daily temperature is 22.9 to 28.3 °C (73.2 to 82.9 °F).

Wind direction throughout the year is variable; Northeast monsoons prevail from August, November, December and January to March; East to Northeast on April; Southeast to South on May and June; Northeast to South on July and September, and Easterly on October.

Climate is favorable for vegetation throughout the year under the Type III climate type of the Philippine weather bureau, PAGASA, with relative humidity at 81%.

Climate data for Calapan, Oriental Mindoro (1991–2020, extremes 1949–2020)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 33.5
(92.3)
34.0
(93.2)
35.2
(95.4)
36.5
(97.7)
37.2
(99.0)
37.1
(98.8)
36.5
(97.7)
37.6
(99.7)
36.8
(98.2)
35.5
(95.9)
35.0
(95.0)
34.0
(93.2)
37.6
(99.7)
Mean daily maximum °C (°F) 29.6
(85.3)
30.3
(86.5)
31.4
(88.5)
32.8
(91.0)
33.3
(91.9)
32.7
(90.9)
31.9
(89.4)
32.0
(89.6)
32.0
(89.6)
31.6
(88.9)
31.0
(87.8)
29.9
(85.8)
31.5
(88.7)
Daily mean °C (°F) 25.9
(78.6)
26.3
(79.3)
27.2
(81.0)
28.4
(83.1)
28.8
(83.8)
28.3
(82.9)
27.8
(82.0)
27.9
(82.2)
27.9
(82.2)
27.6
(81.7)
27.2
(81.0)
26.3
(79.3)
27.5
(81.5)
Mean daily minimum °C (°F) 22.2
(72.0)
22.4
(72.3)
23.1
(73.6)
24.1
(75.4)
24.3
(75.7)
23.9
(75.0)
23.6
(74.5)
23.7
(74.7)
23.7
(74.7)
23.5
(74.3)
23.4
(74.1)
22.8
(73.0)
23.4
(74.1)
Record low °C (°F) 17.5
(63.5)
16.2
(61.2)
18.4
(65.1)
16.4
(61.5)
14.0
(57.2)
14.7
(58.5)
19.0
(66.2)
17.6
(63.7)
19.4
(66.9)
18.4
(65.1)
16.2
(61.2)
18.0
(64.4)
14.0
(57.2)
Average rainfall mm (inches) 113.1
(4.45)
69.8
(2.75)
82.5
(3.25)
100.8
(3.97)
193.4
(7.61)
276.8
(10.90)
279.6
(11.01)
201.3
(7.93)
212.4
(8.36)
306.6
(12.07)
297.4
(11.71)
274.6
(10.81)
2,408.3
(94.81)
Average rainy days (≥ 1.0 mm) 14 9 8 8 10 14 16 13 13 15 17 19 156
Average relative humidity (%) 86 84 83 81 82 84 86 86 86 86 87 88 85
Source: PAGASA[9][10]

Demographics

Population census of Calapan
YearPop.±% p.a.
1903 5,554—    
1918 13,571+6.14%
1939 17,158+1.12%
1948 22,340+2.98%
1960 33,060+3.32%
1970 47,532+3.69%
1975 55,608+3.20%
1980 67,370+3.91%
1990 85,898+2.46%
1995 96,506+2.21%
2000 105,910+2.01%
2007 116,976+1.38%
2010 124,173+2.20%
2015 133,893+1.45%
2020 145,786+1.69%
Source: Philippine Statistics Authority[11][12][13][14]

Calapan has a population of 145,786 as of the 2020 census.[11]

Economy

Poverty incidence of Calapan

5
10
15
20
25
30
2006
21.60
2009
22.96
2012
7.11
2015
9.27
2018
7.15
2021
24.70

Source: Philippine Statistics Authority[15][16][17][18][19][20][21][22]

Calapan City Downtown Area
Vast ricefields such as this one in Barangay Bayanan II is a common scenery in Calapan.

The city's economy is dependent on agriculture and fishing. However, a growing industry in machinery and tourism has contributed well to the city's annual income, making it one of the fastest growing new cities in the country for the last 10 years.

Since 1998, the city has experienced rapid development. The establishment of a special development area, particularly an eco-zone for light industries located at the Urban Development Area (Lumangbayan and Guinobatan), has been promoted and now serves as growth area which generates employment and spurs economic opportunities. Such industries focus on agro-industrial based activities such as food processing, handicraft making, furniture making and other related activities.

Calapan plays a major role in the Philippine economy as one of the major food suppliers in the country. The city is also a major exporter of rice supplying to Metro Manila and major parts of Luzon making it both an agriculturally-progressive and urbanized city. The five major crops are rice, citrus, banana, rambutan and lanzones. The top five industries in Calapan are trading, tourism, services, marine and aquatic, and food processing.

Calapan serves as the province's industrial hub. It plays a pivotal role in the economic development of the province and its adjacent areas.

Trade and commerce

Trading and commercial activities are mainly confined in wholesale and retail trade. Other thriving industries are manufacturing, financing, tourism, food and beverages and services. In recent years, the city has witnessed the influx of private investments that increase income and employment opportunities. The City Investment Code encourages new and existing entrepreneurs to increase their investments. All business establishments are also required to employ bonafide residents of the city to at least 70% of the job opportunities that they will generate.

Agriculture

Majority of the vast agricultural lands of Calapan is devoted to rice production. Other crops grown in the area are citrus fruits such as calamansi, banana, lanzones, rambutan, mango, coconut and vegetables.

Transportation

The Port of Calapan

Port of Calapan is the primary seaport serving the city which connected through routes to the Batangas International Port in mainland Luzon. Motorized tricycles are a common mode of transport and jeepneys and vans served as transportation options to other municipalities within Oriental Mindoro which passes through the mostly concreted pronvincial road spanning the province.

The city also has an airport, the Calapan Airport, classified as a secondary airport and is used for general aviation handling mostly small planes and choppers with regular trips from Ninoy Aquino International Airport (NAIA).

Tourism

Calapan is bounded by the Calapan Bay on the north and Suki Beach on the east. While the northern shores is built up with houses, locals and tourists would flock on the eastern shores' black sand beach of Suki which is doted by a number of resorts.

Calapan also has two museums. The Mindoro Heritage Museum at the city center was also the former site of the "Kuta" or Spanish Fortress. The museum hosts geological, ethnographical, and political history of Mindoro. Calapan City Museum is found at the City Hall.[23]

In the area of eco-tourism, Calapan has two mangrove parks, at Mahal na Pangalan Marine Park and Silonay Mangrove Conservation Park, as well as the Bulusan Nature Park.[24][25]

Education

Institutions of higher learning

The city is host to numerous higher educational institutions. The Divine Word College of Calapan, a Catholic college run by the Divine Word Missionaries is currently the largest institution of higher learning in the city and the province of Oriental Mindoro. Other private institutions of higher learning include the St. Anthony College Calapan City (Information Technology, Nursing and Tourism), Luna Goco Colleges (Nursing), Southwestern Luzon Maritime Institute Foundation and Filipino Academy of Scientific Trades (Maritime Studies), AMA Computer Learning Center (Information Technology), and CLCC Institute of Computer Arts and Technology (Information Technology).

There are currently two public institutions of higher learning in the city. One is the Mindoro State University (Calapan Campus) while the other is the City College of Calapan which was opened last June 2008 through the initiative of City Mayor Salvador Leachon.[26]

Basic education

Calapan has nine national high schools (NHS), one of which is the Oriental Mindoro National High School (OMNHS) the main campus of the school and the largest public high school in Oriental Mindoro. Other public high schools include the Mamerta Gargullo Tolentino Memorial National High School (former Parang NHS), Ceriaco A. Abes Memorial MNHS, Canubing NHS, Managpi NHS, Pedro V. Panaligan MNHS, the Community Vocational High School, the LEMNAHIS Bucayao Annex, and the Nag-iba National High School (former LEMNAHIS Annex Nag-iba).

The Catholic Church also runs the Holy Infant Academy, while DWCC also maintains a Basic Education Department.

Public elementary schools meanwhile are organized into three districts. They are the Calapan West, Calapan South (Pedro Tolentino Memorial School (PTMS) and Calapan East Districts.

Healthcare

The city is served primarily by the Oriental Mindoro Medical Center which is also the largest hospital in the province. There are also numerous private hospitals in the city such as the Medical Mission Group Hospital and Health Services Cooperative which is the only tertiary level hospital in the region, Maria Estrella General Hospital, Santa Maria Village Hospital, Hospital of the Holy Cross and the Luna-Goco Medical Center.

In addition, the city has public health centers providing free health check-ups and basic medicine supplies to all residents. These public centers are being funded and supported by the City Health and Sanitation Department.

Government

Elected officials

Members of the Calapan City Council
(2019–2022)[27]
Position Name
District Representative
(1st Legislative District of the Province of Oriental Mindoro)
Paulino Salvador C. Leachon
Chief Executive of the City of Calapan Mayor Arnan C. Panaligan
Presiding Officer of the City Council of Calapan Vice Mayor Gil G. Ramirez
Members of the City Council Mary Pauline Mylene A. de Jesus
Charles O. Pansoy
Rafael E. Panaligan Jr.
Genie R. Fortu
Farrah Fay C. Ilano
Jocelyn U. Neria
Ronalee E. Leachon
Roberto L. Concepcion
Rius Anthony C. Agua
Marian Teresa G. Tagupa

Sister cities

Notable personalities

References

  1. ^ City of Calapan | (DILG)
  2. ^ "2015 Census of Population, Report No. 3 – Population, Land Area, and Population Density" (PDF). Philippine Statistics Authority. Quezon City, Philippines. August 2016. ISSN 0117-1453. Archived (PDF) from the original on May 25, 2021. Retrieved July 16, 2021.
  3. ^ a b Census of Population (2020). "Mimaropa". Total Population by Province, City, Municipality and Barangay. Philippine Statistics Authority. Retrieved July 8, 2021.
  4. ^ "PSA Releases the 2021 City and Municipal Level Poverty Estimates". Philippine Statistics Authority. April 2, 2024. Retrieved April 28, 2024.
  5. ^ Executive Order No. 682 (November 22, 2007), Designating Calapan City as the Regional Center of Region IV-B Otherwise Referred to as the MIMAROPA Region (PDF), The Official Gazette, retrieved December 3, 2023
  6. ^ a b c "About the City - History". Calapan City Government. Archived from the original on February 18, 2009. Retrieved May 17, 2009.
  7. ^ Act No. 1280 (January 4, 1905), An Act Reducing the Fifteen Municipalities of the Province of Mindoro to Eight, Supreme Court E-Library, retrieved December 3, 2023
  8. ^ Republic Act No. 8475 (February 2, 1998), Charter of the City of Calapan, Supreme Court E-Library, retrieved December 3, 2023
  9. ^ "Calapan, Oriental Mindoro Climatological Normal Values 1991–2020" (PDF). Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration. Retrieved May 23, 2022.
  10. ^ "Calapan, Oriental Mindoro Climatological Extremes" (PDF). Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration. Retrieved May 23, 2022.
  11. ^ a b Census of Population (2015). "Region IV-B (Mimaropa)". Total Population by Province, City, Municipality and Barangay. Philippine Statistics Authority. Retrieved June 20, 2016.
  12. ^ Census of Population and Housing (2010). "Region IV-B (Mimaropa)" (PDF). Total Population by Province, City, Municipality and Barangay. National Statistics Office. Retrieved June 29, 2016.
  13. ^ Censuses of Population (1903–2007). "Region IV-B (Mimaropa)". Table 1. Population Enumerated in Various Censuses by Province/Highly Urbanized City: 1903 to 2007. National Statistics Office.((cite encyclopedia)): CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
  14. ^ "Province of". Municipality Population Data. Local Water Utilities Administration Research Division. Retrieved December 17, 2016.
  15. ^ "Poverty incidence (PI):". Philippine Statistics Authority. Retrieved December 28, 2020.
  16. ^ "Estimation of Local Poverty in the Philippines" (PDF). Philippine Statistics Authority. November 29, 2005.
  17. ^ "2003 City and Municipal Level Poverty Estimates" (PDF). Philippine Statistics Authority. March 23, 2009.
  18. ^ "City and Municipal Level Poverty Estimates; 2006 and 2009" (PDF). Philippine Statistics Authority. August 3, 2012.
  19. ^ "2012 Municipal and City Level Poverty Estimates" (PDF). Philippine Statistics Authority. May 31, 2016.
  20. ^ "Municipal and City Level Small Area Poverty Estimates; 2009, 2012 and 2015". Philippine Statistics Authority. July 10, 2019.
  21. ^ "PSA Releases the 2018 Municipal and City Level Poverty Estimates". Philippine Statistics Authority. December 15, 2021. Retrieved January 22, 2022.
  22. ^ "PSA Releases the 2021 City and Municipal Level Poverty Estimates". Philippine Statistics Authority. April 2, 2024. Retrieved April 28, 2024.
  23. ^ "Calapan City Museum". www.travelorientalmindoro.ph. Retrieved December 7, 2023.
  24. ^ "Mahal Na Pangalan Marine Park | Travel Oriental Mindoro". www.travelorientalmindoro.ph. Retrieved December 7, 2023.
  25. ^ "Bulusan Nature Park". Lakbay Oriental Mindoro. Retrieved December 7, 2023.
  26. ^ "Aksyon Agad Programs-Edukasyon" (in Filipino). City Information Office. September 27, 2008. Archived from the original on February 17, 2009. Retrieved May 17, 2009.
  27. ^ "2019 National and Local Elections" (PDF). Commission on Elections. Retrieved March 22, 2022.