IUPAC name
Systematic IUPAC name
Other names
(S)-Tetrahydroberberine; Xanthopuccine
3D model (JSmol)
ECHA InfoCard 100.023.468 Edit this at Wikidata
  • InChI=1S/C20H21NO4/c1-22-17-4-3-12-7-16-14-9-19-18(24-11-25-19)8-13(14)5-6-21(16)10-15(12)20(17)23-2/h3-4,8-9,16H,5-7,10-11H2,1-2H3/t16-/m0/s1
  • O1c2c(OC1)cc3c(c2)CCN5[C@H]3Cc4ccc(OC)c(OC)c4C5
Molar mass 339.391 g·mol−1
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).

(S)-Canadine, also known as (S)-tetrahydroberberine and xanthopuccine, is a benzylisoquinoline alkaloid (BIA), of the protoberberine structural subgroup, and is present in many plants from the family Papaveraceae, such as Corydalis yanhusuo and C. turtschaninovii.


Metabolically, (S)-canadine is derived from (S)-reticuline, a pivotal intermediate in the biosynthesis of numerous BIA structural subgroups, through three enzymatic steps: 1) Berberine bridge enzyme to (S)-scoulerine; 2) (S)-scoulerine 9-O-methyltransferase to (S)-tetrahydrocolumbamine; and 3) (S)-canadine synthase/CYP719A21 to (S)-canadine.[1]

(S)-Canadine is the immediate metabolic precursor of berberine, which is obtained through the action of the enzyme (S)-tetrahydroprotoberberine oxidase.[1] It is also an intermediate in the complex biosynthesis of noscapine, which is likewise a benzylisoquinoline alkaloid, but of the phthalideisoquinoline structural subgroup.[2][3]

(S)-Canadine, berberine, palmatine, and hydrastine are the major alkaloids present in goldenseal.


A number of in vitro effects of (S)-canadine have been reported. It stimulates myogenesis and inhibits muscle protein degradation.[4] (S)-Canadine blocks K(ATP) channels in dopamine neurons.[5][6] (S)-Canadine has displayed antioxidant activity: though it lacked any demonstrable cytotoxic effect in three unique cell cultures, it was observed to possess antioxidant activity against free radical-induced oxidative injury.[7][8] (S)-Canadine can block voltage-dependent calcium channels, but at a level significantly lower than that of verapamil.[9]


  1. ^ a b Hagel, Jillian M.; Morris, Jeremy S.; Lee, Eun-Jeong; Desgagne-Penix, Isabel; Bross, Crystal D.; Chang, Limei; Chen, Xue; Farrow, Scott C.; Zhang, Ye (2015). "Transcriptome analysis of 20 taxonomically related benzylisoquinoline alkaloid-producing plants". BMC Plant Biology. 15: 227. doi:10.1186/s12870-015-0596-0. PMC 4575454. PMID 26384972.
  2. ^ Dang, Thu-Thuy T.; Facchini, Peter J. (2014). "CYP82Y1 is N-Methylcanadine 1-Hydroxylase, a Key Noscapine Biosynthetic Enzyme in Opium Poppy" (PDF). The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 289 (4): 2013–2026. doi:10.1074/jbc.M113.505099. PMC 3900951. PMID 24324259.
  3. ^ Chen, Xue; Facchini, Peter J. (2014). "Short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase catalyzing the final step of noscapine biosynthesis is localized to laticifers in opium poppy". The Plant Journal. 77 (2): 173–184. doi:10.1111/tpj.12379. PMID 24708518.
  4. ^ Lee, Hyejin; Lee, Sang-Jin; Bae, Gyu-Un; Baek, Nam-In; Ryu, Jae-Ha (2017). "Canadine from Corydalis turtschaninovii Stimulates Myoblast Differentiation and Protects against Myotube Atrophy". International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 18 (12): 2748. doi:10.3390/ijms18122748. PMC 5751347. PMID 29258243.
  5. ^ Wu, Chen; Yang, Kechun; Liu, Qiang; Wakui, Matoko; Jin, Guo-zhang; Zhen, Xuechu; Wu, Jie (2010). "Tetrahydroberberine blocks ATP-sensitive potassium channels in dopamine neurons acutely-dissociated from rat substantia nigra pars compacta". Neuropharmacology. 59 (7–8): 567–72. doi:10.1016/j.neuropharm.2010.08.018. PMID 20804776. S2CID 27386799.
  6. ^ Wu, Jie; Jin, Guo Zhang (1997). "Tetrahydroberberine blocks membrane K+ channels underlying its inhibition of intracellular message-mediated outward currents in acutely dissociated CA1 neurons from rat hippocampus". Brain Research. 775 (1–2): 214–8. doi:10.1016/s0006-8993(97)00960-8. PMID 9439847. S2CID 42250453.
  7. ^ Correché, Estela R.; Andujar, Sebastian A.; Kurdelas, Rita R.; Lechón, María J. Gómez; Freile, Mónica L.; Enriz, Ricardo D. (2008). "Antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of canadine: Biological effects and structural aspects". Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry. 16 (7): 3641–51. doi:10.1016/j.bmc.2008.02.015. PMID 18295494.
  8. ^ Mari, Giacomo; Catalani, Simona; Antonini, Elena; De Crescentini, Lucia; Mantellini, Fabio; Santeusanio, Stefania; Lombardi, Paolo; Amicucci, Antonella; Battistelli, Serafina (2018). "Synthesis and biological evaluation of novel heteroring-annulated pyrrolino-tetrahydroberberine analogues as antioxidant agents". Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry. 26 (18): 5037–44. doi:10.1016/j.bmc.2018.08.038. PMID 30196978.
  9. ^ Yang, S; Miao, Y.S.; Han, Q; Jiang, M.H.; Jin, G.Z. (1993). "Effects of (-)-stepholidine and tetrahydroberberine on high potassium-evoked contraction and calcium influx in rat artery". Zhongguo Yao Li Xue Bao. 14 (3): 235–7. PMID 8237399.