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Cannabis in Ghana is illegal without license from the Minister of Health,[1] but the nation is, along with Nigeria, among the top illicit cannabis-producing countries of West Africa.[2] Cannabis in Ghana is known as wee[3] or devil's tobacco.[2]


There are two main theories as to how cannabis came to Ghana:

The first report of illegal cannabis cultivation in Ghana occurred in 1960.[3]


Cannabis remains the most popular illegal drug in Ghana.[6] Ghana is reported as the highest cannabis-using nation in Africa, and third in the world.[7]

In the 1990s, cannabis which had previously been an urban phenomenon in bars and nightclubs, had spread to rural areas as well.[8] Cannabis was associated with youth involved in Rastafari culture, and with students who believed cannabis use would improve their ability to study.[9]


Cannabis from Ghana is transported to other countries in western Africa, as well as to Europe.[8]


  1. ^ 'Cannabis is legal in Ghana but …' - Lawyer | General News 2016-02-27
  2. ^ a b Guy Arnold (13 May 2013). The International Drugs Trade. Routledge. pp. 183–. ISBN 978-1-135-45515-6.
  3. ^ a b Vera Rubin (1 January 1975). Cannabis and Culture. Walter de Gruyter. pp. 101–. ISBN 978-3-11-081206-0.
  4. ^ a b Kima Cargill (1 December 2016). Food Cults: How Fads, Dogma, and Doctrine Influence Diet. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. pp. 222–. ISBN 978-1-4422-5132-8.
  5. ^ Chris Duvall (15 November 2014). Cannabis. Reaktion Books. pp. 99–. ISBN 978-1-78023-386-4.
  6. ^ Anita Kalunta-Crumpton (3 March 2016). Pan-African Issues in Drugs and Drug Control: An International Perspective. Taylor & Francis. pp. 49–. ISBN 978-1-317-08433-4.
  7. ^ "Ghana is 3rd consumer of marijuana globally - Report". GhanaWeb. 2016-06-30. Retrieved 2021-09-09.
  8. ^ a b Paul V. Daly (July 1996). The Supply of Illicit Drugs to the United States: The Nnicc Report. DIANE Publishing. pp. 63–. ISBN 978-0-7881-3942-0.
  9. ^ EMMANUEL AKYEAMPONG; ALLAN G HILL; ARTHUR M KLEINMAN (1 May 2015). The Culture of Mental Illness and Psychiatric Practice in Africa. Indiana University Press. pp. 39–. ISBN 978-0-253-01304-0.