Cao Xiong
IssueCao Bing
Posthumous name
Prince Huai (懷王)
HouseHouse of Cao
FatherCao Cao
MotherEmpress Wuxuan

Cao Xiong (fl. 220s) was a son of Cao Cao, a warlord who rose to power towards the end of the Han dynasty and laid the foundation of the state of Cao Wei in the Three Kingdoms period of China. Not much was recorded in history about Cao Xiong, except that he died at a relatively young age.[1] His mother was Lady Bian, who also bore Cao Cao another three sons – Cao Pi, Cao Zhang and Cao Zhi. Cao Xiong was the youngest of the four.[2]

In 221, after Cao Pi ended the Han dynasty and established Wei, he granted Cao Chong the posthumous title "Duke Huai of Xiao" (蕭懷公). In 229, during the reign of Cao Pi's son Cao Rui, Cao Xiong was posthumously elevated to the status of a prince, so his posthumous title became "Prince Huai of Xiao" (蕭懷王).[3]


See also: Cao Wei family trees § Lady Bian

In 234, Cao Xiong's son, Cao Bing (曹炳), was granted a princedom with 2,500 taxable households. The princedom was named "Xiao" (蕭), per Cao Xiong's posthumous title. Cao Bing died six years later and his princedom was abolished because he had no heir. He was given the posthumous name "Prince Ai" (哀王).[4]

In Romance of the Three Kingdoms

Cao Xiong was briefly mentioned in the 14th-century historical novel Romance of the Three Kingdoms. In 220, when Cao Cao died, Cao Xiong refused to go to Luoyang to attend his father's funeral. Acting on Hua Xin's suggestion, Cao Pi sent a messenger to reprimand his brother, but the messenger returned later and reported that Cao Xiong had hanged himself for fear of receiving punishment. Cao Pi had his brother buried with full honours and gave him the posthumous title "Prince Huai of Xiao".[5]

See also


  1. ^ (蕭懷王熊,早薨。) Sanguozhi vol. 19.
  2. ^ (武皇帝二十五男:卞皇后生文皇帝、任城威王彰、陳思王植、蕭懷王熊, ...) Sanguozhi vol. 20.
  3. ^ (黃初二年追封謚蕭懷公。太和三年,又追封爵為王。) Sanguozhi vol. 19.
  4. ^ (青龍二年,子哀王炳嗣,食邑二千五百戶。六年薨,無子,國除。) Sanguozhi vol. 19.
  5. ^ Sanguo Yanyi ch. 79.