|Service type||Inter-city rail |
Higher speed rail (Northeast Corridor only)
|Locale||Midwestern United States |
Southeastern United States
|Predecessor||James Whitcomb Riley|
|First service||October 30, 1977|
|End||New York City|
|Distance travelled||1,146 miles (1,844 km)|
|Average journey time||27 hours, 13 minutes (Chicago to NYC)|
28 hours, 15 minutes (NYC to Chicago)
|Service frequency||Three round trips per week|
|Sleeping arrangements||Viewliner Roomette (2 beds)|
Viewliner Bedroom (2 beds)
Viewliner Bedroom Suite (4 beds)
Viewliner Accessible Bedroom (2 beds)
|Catering facilities||Dining car and on-board café (combined car)|
|Baggage facilities||Checked baggage available at selected stations|
|Track gauge||4 ft 8+1⁄2 in (1,435 mm) standard gauge|
Norfolk Southern Railway
The Cardinal is a long distance passenger train operated by Amtrak between New York Penn Station and Chicago Union Station, with major intermediate stops at Philadelphia, Washington, D.C., Charlottesville, Charleston, Huntington, Cincinnati, and Indianapolis. It is one of three trains linking the Northeast to Chicago, the others being the Capitol Limited and Lake Shore Limited.
The Cardinal operates three round trips weekly. Trains depart New York City on Sundays, Wednesdays, and Fridays; and depart Chicago on Tuesdays, Thursdays, and Saturdays. The 1,146-mile (1,844 km) trip between Chicago and New York City takes 281⁄4 hours.
The Hoosier State previously provided service between Indianapolis and Chicago on the four days a week that the Cardinal did not. On June 30, 2019, that train was discontinued when the state of Indiana ceased funding of the route.
During fiscal year 2019, the Cardinal carried 108,935 passengers, increase 12.5% from fiscal year 2018. Overall, Amtrak recorded 31.7 million passenger trips in 2016-2017, an increase of 1.5% over the previous year, with total revenue of $3.2 billion, up 1.1% over the same time period. In FY2016, the train had a total revenue of $7,658,608, an increase of 0.2% over FY2015.
The Cardinal brings in approximately $7–8 million per year in ticket revenue; most recent figures show revenue of $7,658,608 in fiscal year 2015-2016, relatively unchanged from the five years prior.
The Cardinal is the successor of several previous trains, primarily the New York Central (later Penn Central) James Whitcomb Riley and the Chesapeake and Ohio Railway (C&O) George Washington. The James Whitcomb Riley was a daytime all-coach train which operated between Chicago and Cincinnati (via Indianapolis). The George Washington, the C&O's flagship train, was a long-distance sleeper that ran between Cincinnati and–via a split in Charlottesville, Virginia–Washington, D.C. and Newport News, Virginia. Until the late 1950s, the Riley carried the Washington's sleeper cars between Cincinnati and Chicago. Both routes survived until the formation of Amtrak in 1971.: 51, 93
Amtrak kept service mostly identical through the spring and summer of 1971. It slowly began integrating the trains that summer. The two trains began exchanging through Washington–Chicago and Newport News–Chicago coaches at Cincinnati on July 12, and a through sleeping car began September 8. On November 14, the Riley and George Washington merged into a single long-distance Chicago-Washington train, with the eastbound train (train 50) known as the George Washington and the westbound train (train 51) known as the Riley.: 38 The eastern terminus was briefly extended to Boston, giving the Northeast Corridor a one-seat ride to Chicago. However, it was truncated back to Washington in 1972. On May 19, 1974, Amtrak fully merged the George Washington into the Riley.
During the early Amtrak era, the Riley was plagued by the poor condition of ex-New York Central track in Indiana. In 1973, it was moved to ex-Pennsylvania Railroad track through Indianapolis.: 256 By 1974, Amtrak rerouted it off Penn Central track altogether; by then, the trackage had deteriorated so badly that the Riley was limited to 10 mph (16 km/h) for much of its route through Indiana. The Newport News section ended in 1976, replaced by the Boston–Newport News Colonial. A number of long-distance trains running along former Penn Central trackage in the Midwest were plagued by similar problems.
The James Whitcomb Riley was renamed the Cardinal on October 30, 1977, as the cardinal was the state bird of all six states through which it ran. However, due to poor track conditions in Indiana, the train was rerouted numerous times, first over various Penn Central/Conrail routings that had once been part of the Pennsylvania Railroad, then ultimately over the former Baltimore and Ohio route via Cottage Grove by 1980.
The Cardinal was eventually extended to run along the Northeast Corridor again in an effort to improve the Cardinal's cost recovery ratio, but this time with the eastern terminus moved to New York. Previously, the Broadway Limited ran from New York to Chicago along the Northeast Corridor, but only as far south as Philadelphia. The train was discontinued on September 30, 1981, but revived on January 8, 1982, per a mandate initiated by Senator Robert C. Byrd. While the Cardinal and its predecessors had run daily, the revived Cardinal ran only three times per week. The revived train followed another new route, via Richmond and Muncie, Indiana. This arrangement lasted until April 27, 1986, when the train was finally moved to its current route via Indianapolis. On October 29, 1995, the Cardinal was truncated to Washington, D.C. after the consist was updated with Superliners. On October 27, 2002, after derailments on other routes depleted available Superliner cars, the Superliners were replaced with Viewliners. The Cardinal continued to operate the Chicago-Washington D.C. schedule. Service to New York was restored on Sunday's westbound Cardinal on October 27, 2003. Full service to New York resumed on April 26, 2004.
From March 29, 2018, to November 8, 2018, due to continuing construction at New York Penn Station, the Cardinal's eastern terminus was temporarily moved to Washington. Cardinal passengers needing to travel to or from points north of Washington were transferred to a Northeast Regional.
With the Indianapolis routing, the Cardinal began operating jointly with the Chicago–Indianapolis Hoosier State. The Hoosier State operated to Indianapolis on the days the Cardinal did not, assuring seven-day service between Chicago and Indianapolis. This pattern ceased on October 25, 1987, when the Hoosier State became a full-fledged daily train once again. The Hoosier State was dropped on September 8, 1995, but resumed again on July 19, 1998, again running on days that the Cardinal did not run.
On December 17, 1999, Amtrak extended the Hoosier State to Jeffersonville, Indiana, (and later to Louisville, Kentucky) and renamed the train the Kentucky Cardinal. This new train was a daily service; on days when the Cardinal operated, the two trains ran combined between Indianapolis and Chicago. Amtrak ultimately discontinued the Kentucky Cardinal on July 4, 2003, and brought back the Hoosier State on the pre-1999 schedule.
After Indiana discontinued its subsidy, Amtrak suspended the Hoosier State as of June 30, 2019. Passengers who booked trips after that date were compensated with Cardinal tickets.
In the July 2010 issue of Trains magazine, the Cardinal was noted as being one of five routes under consideration for performance improvement. For the Cardinal, the proposed changes included increasing service from thrice-weekly to daily operation, and changing the western terminus to St. Louis, Missouri. Railfan and Railroad magazine also suggested that the train be rerouted to St. Louis, with a separate section bound for Chicago.
In early October 2010, Amtrak released a report detailing plans to increase the Cardinal's service from thrice-weekly to daily service, as well as increasing the train's on-time performance and food service. The January 2011 issue of Trains later revealed that Amtrak would scrap re-routing and Superliner conversion and instead adopt not only daily service, but also purchasing dome cars to be used along the Chicago-Washington, D.C., portion of the trip. In addition, the routing into Chicago Union Station would be changed and station platforms along the route containing coal dust would be scrubbed and cleaned.
However, obstacles to a daily Cardinal persist. Track capacity is limited on the Buckingham Branch Railroad, a short line railroad between Orange and Clifton Forge, Virginia where the Cardinal operates along former C&O/CSX trackage, preventing frequent freight trains from passing a daily Cardinal. This problem also applied to the planned-but-failed Greenbrier Presidential Express train, which would also have traversed the Buckingham Branch on a weekly basis. The Buckingham Branch requires additional funding to expand several sidings before allowing additional service. Another obstacle is freight congestion in Chicago particularly at the 75th Street Corridor on Chicago's South Side. The third obstacle is capacity at the Long Bridge in Washington, D.C.. Infrastructure improvements are being made at all three. The Orange Branch between Orange and Gordonsville raised train speed after the completion of a track and signal project in 2017. The Chicago Region Environmental and Transportation Efficiency Program (CREATE) has received funding under a public–private partnership (P3) for the 75th Street Corridor with construction beginning in October 2018 and is scheduled to be finished by 2025. A parallel span of the Long Bridge is full funded and moving towards engineering design and financing.
Starting on October 1, 2019, traditional dining car services were removed and replaced with a reduced menu of 'Flexible Dining' options. As a result, the changes to the consist of the train will have the dining car serve as a lounge car for the exclusive use of sleeping car passengers.
In June 2021, Senator Jon Tester of Montana added an amendment to the Surface Transportation Investment Act of 2021 which would require the Department of Transportation (not Amtrak itself) to evaluate daily service on all less frequent long-distance trains, meaning the Cardinal and Sunset Limited. The bill passed the Senate Commerce Committee with bipartisan support, and was later rolled into President Biden's Infrastructure Investment and Jobs Act, which Congress passed on November 5, 2021. The report must be delivered to Congress within two years.
In the early 1990s, the Cardinal ran with the usual Amtrak long-distance consist of two F40s/E60 plus several material handling cars (MHC) and baggage cars, followed by several Amfleet coaches, an Amfleet lounge, a Heritage diner, two or three Heritage 10-6 sleepers, a slumbercoach, and finally, a baggage dormitory car. Following the delivery of the Superliner II fleet, however, the Cardinal was re-equipped with Superliner cars in 1995. As a result, its route was truncated to end in Washington D.C.; then, as now, Superliners could not operate north of Washington due to low clearances in Baltimore and New York City. With the Superliner equipment, the consist would usually be two Superliner sleeping cars, a diner, a Sightseer Lounge, a baggage coach, and a coach.
In 2002, two derailments on other routes took numerous Superliner cars out of service. Because of this, insufficient Superliner equipment was available for use on the Cardinal. The Cardinal was re-equipped with a consist of single-level long-distance cars, including dining, lounge, sleeping, and dormitory cars, although service to New York was not restored until 2004. Subsequent fleet shortages shortened the Cardinal further, and at one point, the train was running with two or three Amfleet II coaches and a combined diner-lounge car. While the sleeping car was later restored, the Cardinal has not had a dormitory car or a diner since. Similarly, though the baggage car was also removed, it was restored in response to an upturn in patronage in mid-2010. In 2016, Amtrak added business class service to the Cardinal.
The Cardinal's current typical consist includes a single locomotive, three Amfleet II long-distance coaches, a single Amfleet II Diner-Lite diner-lounge car, one or two Viewliner I sleeping cars, and a Viewliner II baggage-dorm car.
Amtrak bills the Cardinal's route as one of the most scenic in its system. After an early morning departure from New York and traveling south down the Northeast Corridor, the train passes through Virginia's rolling horse country, across the Blue Ridge and the Shenandoah Valley. It then climbs the Allegheny Mountains and stops at the resort town of White Sulphur Springs, home to The Greenbrier, a famous luxury resort. The Cardinal descends on tracks through New River Gorge National Park and Preserve, a unit of the National Park Service protecting the longest deepest river gorge in the Eastern U.S. The river is popular for white water rafting, and the cliffs attract rock climbers. The forests blaze with autumn foliage and the train usually sells out during the peak season. The Cardinal will often add the only remaining full-length dome car in Amtrak service, car number 10031, to the consist in the autumn to try to accommodate the leaf peepers.
The schedules are timed to provide a daylight transit of the New River Gorge almost all year. So westbound, the train travels at night from Charleston, West Virginia, on to Indianapolis, where it arrives about dawn, reaching Chicago in mid-morning. Eastbound the Cardinal departs late afternoon, reaching Indianapolis before midnight, Charleston mid-morning, and NYC in the late evening. Unfortunately, Cincinnati is served both directions with stops after midnight, yet about 15,000 passengers a year arrive or depart from this station.
The Cardinal is one of only two of Amtrak's 15 long-distance trains to operate only three days a week, the other being the Sunset Limited. Like other long-distance trains, passengers are not allowed to travel only between stations on the Northeast Corridor on the Cardinal. Eastbound trains only stop to discharge passengers from Alexandria northward, and westbound trains only stop to receive passengers from Newark to Washington. This policy aims to keep seats available for passengers making longer trips; passengers traveling between Northeast Corridor stations can use the more frequent Acela Express or Northeast Regional services.
The Cardinal operates over Amtrak, CSX Transportation, Norfolk Southern Railway, Buckingham Branch Railroad, Canadian National Railway, Union Pacific Railroad, and Metra trackage:
The Buckingham Branch trackage is the only Class III railroad used in the Amtrak system.
|Illinois||Chicago||Chicago Union Station|| Amtrak (long-distance): California Zephyr, Capitol Limited, City of New Orleans, Empire Builder, Lake Shore Limited, Southwest Chief, Texas Eagle|
Amtrak (intercity): Blue Water, Hiawatha, Illini and Saluki, Illinois Zephyr and Carl Sandburg, Lincoln Service, Pere Marquette, Wolverine
Metra: ■ BNSF, ■ Milwaukee District North, ■ Milwaukee District West, ■ North Central Service, ■ Heritage Corridor, ■ SouthWest Service
Chicago "L": (at Clinton), (at Quincy)
CTA Bus, Pace Bus
Thruway Motorcoach to Madison, Rockford (Van Galder), Louisville (Greyhound)
Amtrak Thruway Motorcoach (Burlington Trailways)
|South Shore||South Portsmouth–South Shore|
|Ashland||Ashland|| Ashland Bus System|
|West Virginia||Huntington||Huntington||Tri-State Transit Authority|
|Charleston||Charleston||Amtrak Thruway Motorcoach to Sutton/Flatwoods, Weston, Clarksburg, Fairmont, Morgantown (Barons Bus Lines)|
|Montgomery||Montgomery||Kanawha Valley Regional Transportation Authority|
|White Sulphur Springs||White Sulphur Springs|
|Virginia||Clifton Forge||Clifton Forge|
|Staunton||Staunton||Staunton Free Trolley, Coordinated Area Transportation Services (at Staunton Visitor Center)|
|Charlottesville||Charlottesville|| Amtrak: Crescent, Northeast Regional|
Amtrak Thruway Motorcoach to Richmond (James River Transportation), Washington, D.C.
Charlottesville Area Transit
|Culpeper||Culpeper||Amtrak: Crescent, Northeast Regional|
|Manassas||Manassas|| Amtrak: Crescent, Northeast Regional|
VRE: ■ Manassas Line
PRTC: Manassas Metro Direct, OmniLink Manassas
|Alexandria||Alexandria|| Amtrak: Crescent, Northeast Regional, Silver Meteor, Silver Star|
VRE: ■ Fredericksburg Line, ■ Manassas Line
Metro: Blue Line, Yellow Line
|Washington||Washington Union Station|| Amtrak: Acela, Capitol Limited, Carolinian, Crescent, Palmetto, Northeast Regional, Silver Meteor, Silver Star, Vermonter|
MARC: ■ Brunswick Line, ■ Camden Line, ■ Penn Line
VRE: ■ Manassas Line, ■ Fredericksburg Line
Metro: Red Line
DC Streetcar: H Street/Benning Road Line
Metrobus, DC Circulator, MTA Maryland, Loudoun County Transit, OmniRide
Intercity bus: Greyhound Lines, Megabus, BoltBus, BestBus, Peter Pan, OurBus
|Maryland||Baltimore||Baltimore|| Amtrak: Acela, Carolinian, Crescent, Palmetto, Northeast Regional, Silver Meteor, Silver Star, Vermonter|
MARC: ■ Penn Line
MTA Maryland, Charm City Circulator
|Delaware||Wilmington||Wilmington|| Amtrak: Acela, Carolinian, Crescent, Palmetto, Northeast Regional, Silver Meteor, Silver Star, Vermonter|
SEPTA Regional Rail: ■ Wilmington/Newark Line
DART First State
|Pennsylvania||Philadelphia||30th Street Station|| Amtrak: Acela, Carolinian, Crescent, Keystone Service, Northeast Regional, Palmetto, Pennsylvanian, Silver Meteor, Silver Star, Vermonter|
SEPTA Regional Rail: all lines
NJ Transit: ■ Atlantic City Line
SEPTA City Transit:
SEPTA City Bus, SEPTA Suburban Bus
|New Jersey||Trenton||Trenton|| Amtrak: Acela, Carolinian, Crescent, Keystone Service, Northeast Regional, Pennsylvanian, Silver Meteor, Silver Star, Vermonter|
NJ Transit: ■ Northeast Corridor Line, ■ River Line
SEPTA Regional Rail: ■ Trenton Line
NJ Transit Bus, SEPTA Suburban Bus
|Newark||Newark Penn Station|| Amtrak: Acela, Carolinian, Crescent, Keystone Service, Northeast Regional, Palmetto, Pennsylvanian, Silver Meteor, Silver Star, Vermonter|
NJ Transit: ■ North Jersey Coast Line, ■ Northeast Corridor Line, ■ Raritan Valley Line
Newark Light Rail
NJ Transit Bus
|New York||New York City||New York Penn Station|| Amtrak (long-distance): Acela, Adirondack, Crescent, Lake Shore Limited, Palmetto, Pennsylvanian, Silver Meteor, Silver Star|
Amtrak (intercity): Carolinian, Empire Service, Ethan Allen Express, Keystone Service, Maple Leaf, Northeast Regional, Vermonter
LIRR: ■ Main Line, ■ Port Washington Branch
NJ Transit: ■ North Jersey Coast Line, ■ Northeast Corridor Line, ■ Gladstone Branch, ■ Montclair-Boonton Line, ■ Morristown Line
NYC Transit Bus
|Ridership||Change over previous year||Ticket Revenue||Change over previous year|