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8
Chessboard480.svg
a8 black rook
c8 black circle
e8 black king
g8 black circle
h8 black rook
a1 white rook
c1 white circle
e1 white king
g1 white circle
h1 white rook
8
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66
55
44
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Initial positions of kings and rooks. Kings may castle to the indicated squares.
abcdefgh
8
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c8 black king
d8 black rook
h8 black rook
a1 white rook
f1 white rook
g1 white king
8
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White has castled kingside; Black has castled queenside.

Castling is a move in chess. It consists of moving one’s king two squares toward a rook on the same rank and then moving the rook to the square that the king passed over.[2] Castling is permitted only if neither the king nor the rook has previously moved; the squares between the king and the rook are vacant; and the king does not leave, cross over, or end up on a square attacked by an opposing piece. Castling is the only move in chess in which two pieces are moved at once.[3]

Castling with the king's rook is called castling kingside, and castling with the queen's rook is called castling queenside. In both algebraic and descriptive notation, castling kingside is written as 0-0 and castling queenside as 0-0-0.

Castling originates from the king's leap, a two-square king move added to European chess between the 14th and 15th centuries, and took on its present form in the 17th century; however, local variations in castling rules were common, persisting in Italy until the late 19th century. Castling does not exist in Asian games of the chess family, such as shogi, xiangqi, and janggi, but it commonly appears in variants of Western chess.

Rules

Description

During castling, the king is shifted two squares toward a rook of the same color on the same rank, and the rook is transferred to the square crossed by the king. There are two forms of castling:[4]

Requirements

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e8 black king
a1 white rook
b1 white knight
e1 white king
h1 white rook
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White cannot castle queenside because the knight is in the way. White can castle kingside.
abcdefgh
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a8 black rook
e8 black king
h8 black rook
b5 white queen
e1 white king
8
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66
55
44
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abcdefgh
Black cannot castle on either side because he is in check by the white queen.
abcdefgh
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e8 black king
c6 black queen
a1 white rook
e1 white king
h1 white rook
8
77
66
55
44
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abcdefgh
White cannot castle queenside because Black's queen controls c1. White can castle kingside even though the h1-rook is under attack.
abcdefgh
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a8 black rook
e8 black king
h8 black rook
f4 white queen
e1 white king
8
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Black cannot castle kingside, as the white queen attacks f8. Black can castle queenside despite the white queen's attack on b8.

Castling is permitted provided all of the following conditions are met:[5]

  1. Neither the king nor the rook has previously moved.
  2. There are no pieces between the king and the rook.
  3. The king is not currently in check.
  4. The king does not pass through or finish on a square that is attacked by an enemy piece.

Conditions 3 and 4 can be summarized by the mnemonic: A player may not castle out of, through, or into check.

Castling rules often cause confusion, even occasionally among high-level players.[6] To clarify:

Tournament rules

See also: Rules of chess and Touch-move rule

Under the rules used by FIDE and enforced in most tournaments, castling is considered a king move, so the king must be touched first; if the rook is touched first, a rook move must be made instead. As usual, the player may choose another legal destination square for the king until releasing it. When the two-square king move is completed, however, the player is committed to castling if it is legal, and the rook must be moved accordingly. The entire move must be completed with one hand. A player who illegally attempts to castle must return the king and the rook to their original places and then make a legal king move if possible (which may include castling on the other side). If there is no legal king move, the touch-move rule does not apply to the rook.[7]

Under US Chess Federation rules, a player who intends to castle and touches the rook first would suffer no penalty and would be permitted to castle, provided castling is legal in the position. These tournament rules are not commonly enforced in informal play or commonly known by casual players.[8][9]

Castling rights

An unmoved king has castling rights with an unmoved rook of the same color on the same rank. In the context of threefold and fivefold repetition, two positions with different castling rights are considered to be different positions.

Example of castling rights

Karpov vs. Miles, 1986
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8
Chessboard480.svg
a8 black rook
e8 black king
f8 black bishop
h8 black rook
f7 black pawn
g7 black pawn
h7 black pawn
e6 black pawn
b5 white knight
e4 white pawn
a2 white pawn
b2 black knight
d2 white bishop
e2 white king
g2 white pawn
h2 white pawn
a1 white rook
h1 white rook
8
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Position after 22.Nb5

In a 1986 game between Anatoly Karpov and Tony Miles,[10] play continued from the diagrammed position as follows:

22... Ra4 23. Nc3 Ra8 24. Nb5 Ra4 25. Nc3 Ra8 26. Nb5

With his 26th move, Karpov attempted to claim a draw by threefold repetition, thinking that the positions after his 22nd, 24th, and 26th moves were the same. However, it was pointed out to him that the position after his 22nd move had different castling rights than the positions after his 24th and 26th moves, rendering his claim illegal. As a result, Karpov was penalized three minutes on his clock. The game ended in a draw.

Notation

Both algebraic notation and descriptive notation indicate kingside castling as 0-0 and queenside castling as 0-0-0 (with the digit zero). Portable Game Notation and some publications instead use O-O for kingside castling and O-O-O for queenside castling (with the letter O). ICCF numeric notation indicates castling based on the starting and ending squares of the king; thus, castling kingside is written as 5171 for White and 5878 for Black, and castling queenside is written as 5131 for White and 5838 for Black.

History

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b8 black cross
c8 black circle
e8 black king
g8 black circle
h8 black cross
a7 black cross
c7 black circle
d6 black circle
e6 black circle
f6 black circle
d3 white circle
e3 white circle
f3 white circle
a2 white cross
c2 white circle
b1 white cross
c1 white circle
e1 white king
g1 white circle
h1 white cross
8
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Castling under medieval rules. Symbol color corresponds to king color. Circles represent English, Spanish, French, and Lombardy movement; crosses represent Lombardy movement only.

Castling has its roots in the king's leap. There were two forms of the leap: the king would move once like a knight, or the king would move two squares on its first move. The knight move might be used early in the game to get the king to safety or later in the game to escape a threat. This second form was played in Europe as early as the 13th century. In North Africa, the king was transferred to a safe square by a two-move procedure: the king moved to the player's second rank, and the rook and king moved to each other's original squares.[11]

Various forms of castling were developed due to the spread of rule sets during the 15th and 16th centuries which increased the power of the queen and bishop, allowing these pieces to attack from a distance and from both sides of the board, thus increasing the importance of king safety.[12]

The rule of castling has varied by location and time. In medieval England, Spain, and France, the white king was allowed to jump to c1, c2, d3, e3, f3, or g1[13] if no capture was made and the king was not in check and did not move over check; the black king might move analogously. In Lombardy, the white king might also jump to a2, b1, or h1, with corresponding squares applying to the black king. Later, in Germany and Italy, the rule was changed such that the king move was accompanied by a pawn move.

In the Göttingen manuscript (c. 1500) and a game published by Luis Ramírez de Lucena in 1498, castling consisted of moving the rook and then moving the king on separate moves.

The current version of castling was established in France in 1620 and in England in 1640.[14]

In Rome, from the early 17th century until the late 19th century, the rook might be placed on any square up to and including the king's square, and the king might be moved to any square on the other side of the rook. This was called free castling.

In the 1811 edition of his chess treatise, Johann Allgaier introduced the 0-0 notation. He differentiated between 0-0r (right) and 0-0l (left). The 0-0-0 notation for queenside castling was introduced in 1837 by Aaron Alexandre.[15] The practice was adopted in the first edition (1843) of the influential Handbuch des Schachspiels and soon became standard. In English descriptive notation, the word "Castles" was originally spelled out, adding "K's R" or "Q's R" if disambiguation was necessary; eventually, the 0-0 and 0-0-0 notation was borrowed from the algebraic system.

Strategic and tactical concepts

Strategy

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8
Chessboard480.svg
a8 black rook
d8 black queen
f8 black rook
g8 black king
a7 black pawn
b7 black pawn
d7 black bishop
e7 black pawn
f7 black pawn
g7 black bishop
h7 black pawn
c6 black knight
d6 black pawn
f6 black knight
g6 black pawn
c4 white bishop
d4 white knight
e4 white pawn
c3 white knight
e3 white bishop
f3 white pawn
a2 white pawn
b2 white pawn
c2 white pawn
d2 white queen
g2 white pawn
h2 white pawn
c1 white king
d1 white rook
h1 white rook
8
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Position after 10.0-0-0: Opposite castling in the Yugoslav Attack

Castling is generally an important goal in the opening: it moves the king to safety away from the center of the board, and it moves the rook to a more active position in the center of the board.

The choice regarding to which side one castles often hinges on an assessment of the trade-off between king safety and activity of the rook. Kingside castling is generally slightly safer because the king ends up closer to the edge of the board and can usually defend all of the pawns on the castled side. In queenside castling, the king is placed closer to the center and does not defend the pawn on the a-file; for these reasons, the king is often subsequently moved to the b-file. In addition, queenside castling is initially obstructed by more pieces than kingside castling; therefore, it takes longer to set up than kingside castling. On the other hand, queenside castling places the rook more efficiently on the central d-file, where it is often immediately active; meanwhile, with kingside castling, a tempo may be required to move the rook to a more effective square.

One may forgo castling for various reasons. In positions where one's opponent cannot organize an attack on one's centralized king, castling may be unnecessary or even detrimental. In addition, a rook can be more active near the edges of the board than in the center in certain situations, such as if it is able to fight for control of an open or semi-open file.

Kingside castling occurs more frequently than queenside castling. It is common for both players to castle kingside, somewhat uncommon for one player to castle kingside and the other queenside, and rare for both players to castle queenside. If one player castles kingside and the other queenside, it is called opposite castling or opposite-side castling. Castling on opposite sides usually results in a fierce fight, as each player's pawns are free to advance to attack the opposing king's castled position without exposing the player's own castled king. Opposite castling is a common feature of many openings, such as the Yugoslav Attack.

Tactics involving castling

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8
Chessboard480.svg
b8 black rook
c8 black bishop
d8 black king
h8 black rook
a7 black pawn
f7 black pawn
g7 black bishop
h7 black pawn
c6 black pawn
e6 black pawn
c5 black pawn
f4 white pawn
c3 white pawn
e3 white bishop
g3 white pawn
a2 white pawn
b2 white pawn
h2 white pawn
a1 white rook
e1 white king
g1 white knight
h1 white rook
8
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Black to play

Tactical patterns involving castling are rare. One pattern involves castling queenside to deliver a double attack: the king attacks a rook (on b2 for White or b7 for Black), while the rook attacks a second opposing piece (usually the king). In the example on the right, from the game Mattison–Millers, Königsberg 1926, Black played 13...Rxb2?? and resigned after 14.0-0-0+, which wins the rook.[16]

Chess historian Edward Winter has proposed the name "Thornton castling trap" for this pattern, in reference to the earliest known example, Thornton–Boultbee, published in the Brooklyn Chess Chronicle in 1884. Other chess writers such as Gary Lane have since adopted this term.[17]

abcdefgh
8
Chessboard480.svg
d8 black rook
e8 black king
g8 black knight
h8 black rook
a7 black pawn
b7 white pawn
c7 black pawn
g7 black pawn
h7 black pawn
f6 black pawn
b5 black queen
g5 white bishop
b4 black bishop
e4 black pawn
c3 white knight
a2 white pawn
b2 white pawn
f2 white pawn
g2 white pawn
h2 white pawn
a1 white rook
d1 white queen
e1 white king
h1 white rook
8
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White to play

Another example of tactical castling is illustrated in the diagrammed position from the correspondence game Gurvich–Pampin, 1976. After 1.Qxd8+ Kxd8 2.0-0-0+ Ke7 3.Nxb5, White wins a rook by castling with check and simultaneously unpinning the knight.[18]

abcdefgh
8
Chessboard480.svg
a8 black rook
c8 black bishop
e8 black king
h8 black rook
a7 black pawn
h7 white rook
c6 black pawn
d6 black pawn
f6 black bishop
g6 black pawn
c5 black pawn
g5 white knight
e4 white pawn
c3 white pawn
d3 white pawn
a2 white pawn
b2 white pawn
g2 white pawn
h2 white pawn
a1 white rook
b1 white knight
h1 white king
8
77
66
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Black to play

Such a double attack can also be made by castling kingside, though this is much rarer. In this position from the blindfold game KarjakinCarlsen, 2007, the move 19...0-0 indirectly threatens both to deliver back-rank mate and to win the h7-rook. Black will thus win the g5-knight next move; 20.Rh6 Bxg5 21.Rxg6+ Kh7 22.Rxg5 would not work, as it would be met by 22...Rf1#.[19]

Examples

Averbakh vs. Purdy

Averbakh vs. Purdy, 1960
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8
Chessboard480.svg
a8 black rook
e8 black king
f8 black bishop
h8 black rook
a7 black pawn
g7 black pawn
h7 black pawn
c6 black pawn
e6 black bishop
f6 black pawn
e5 black pawn
c4 white pawn
c3 white pawn
a2 white pawn
d2 white knight
e2 white pawn
f2 white pawn
h2 white pawn
b1 white rook
c1 white bishop
e1 white king
h1 white rook
8
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Black to move castled queenside, with the rook going over the attacked b8-square.

In the game Yuri AverbakhCecil Purdy (1960),[23] when Purdy castled queenside, Averbakh queried the move, pointing out that the rook had passed over an attacked square. Purdy indicated e8 and c8 and said, "The king", in an attempt to explain that this was forbidden only for the king. Averbakh replied, "Only the king? Not the rook?". Averbakh's colleague Vladimir Bagirov then explained the castling rules to him in Russian, and the game continued.[24][25][26]

Edward Lasker vs. Thomas

Ed. Lasker vs. Thomas, 1912
abcdefgh
8
Chessboard480.svg
a8 black rook
b8 black knight
f8 black rook
a7 black pawn
b7 black bishop
c7 black pawn
d7 black pawn
e7 black queen
g7 black pawn
b6 black pawn
e6 black pawn
f6 white knight
d4 white pawn
g4 white knight
h4 white pawn
g3 white pawn
a2 white pawn
b2 white pawn
c2 white pawn
e2 white bishop
f2 white pawn
h2 white rook
a1 white rook
e1 white king
g1 black king
8
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66
55
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Position after 17...Kg1

In the game Edward LaskerSir George Thomas (London 1912),[27] White could have checkmated with 18.0-0-0#, but he instead played 18.Kd2#.[28] (See Edward Lasker's notable games.)

Prins vs. Day

Prins vs. Day, 1968
abcdefgh
8
Chessboard480.svg
a8 black rook
e8 black king
b7 black bishop
d7 black pawn
f7 black pawn
a6 black pawn
e6 black pawn
e5 white king
g5 black pawn
c4 white pawn
e4 black queen
a3 white pawn
e3 white pawn
b2 white pawn
e2 white bishop
a1 white rook
c1 white rook
e1 white queen
8
77
66
55
44
33
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abcdefgh
White to play

The diagram shows the final position of the game Lodewijk PrinsLawrence Day (1968), where White resigned.[29] Had the game continued, Black could have checkmated by castling:

29. Kf6 Qf5+ 30. Kg7 Qg6+ 31. Kh8 0-0-0#

(See Lawrence Day's notable chess games.)

Feuer vs. O'Kelly

Feuer vs. O'Kelly, 1934
abcdefgh
8
Chessboard480.svg
b8 black rook
c8 black bishop
d8 black queen
e8 black king
f8 black bishop
h8 black rook
c7 black pawn
e7 black knight
g7 black pawn
a6 black pawn
c6 black pawn
d6 black pawn
f6 black pawn
e5 black pawn
h5 black pawn
d4 white pawn
e4 white pawn
h4 white pawn
c3 white knight
d3 white queen
e3 white bishop
f3 white knight
a2 white pawn
b2 white pawn
c2 white pawn
f2 white pawn
g2 white pawn
a1 white rook
e1 white king
h1 white rook
8
77
66
55
44
33
22
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abcdefgh
Feuer–O'Kelly, 1934 Belgian championship. The game ended 10....Rxb2 11.dxe5 dxe5?? 12.Qxd8+ Kxd8 13.0-0-0+ and O'Kelly resigned since the rook is lost.

In the 1934 Belgian Championship,[30] Otto Feuer caught Albéric O'Kelly in the Thornton castling trap. In the position in the diagram, the game continued 10...Rxb2 11.dxe5 dxe5?? 12.Qxd8+ Kxd8 13.0-0-0+, and O'Kelly resigned. Feuer's last move simultaneously gave check and attacked the rook on b2.

Fischer vs. Najdorf

Fischer vs. Najdorf
Varna Olympiad, 1962
abcdefgh
8
Chessboard480.svg
a8 black rook
d8 black queen
e8 black king
h8 black rook
d7 black knight
f7 black pawn
h7 black pawn
a6 black pawn
f6 black pawn
c5 black bishop
e5 black pawn
f5 white knight
a4 white queen
c4 white bishop
e4 black pawn
h3 white pawn
a2 white pawn
b2 white pawn
f2 white pawn
g2 white pawn
a1 white rook
c1 white bishop
g1 white king
8
77
66
55
44
33
22
11
abcdefgh
White to play

The diagram illustrates the consequences of losing castling rights. Fischer, with the white pieces, played 16.Ng7+ Ke7 17.Nf5+ Ke8.[31] Although all the pieces were now on the same squares, the two positions were not considered identical, as Black, having moved his king, no longer had the right to castle. White now had time to build pressure on the black king without worrying that the king could escape by castling.

Artificial castling

Artificial castling, also known as castling by hand,[32] is a maneuver whereby a player achieves a castled position without the use of castling.[33]

Example of artificial castling

abcdefgh
8
Chessboard480.svg
a8 black rook
c8 black bishop
d8 black queen
e8 black king
g8 black knight
h8 black rook
a7 black pawn
b7 black pawn
c7 black pawn
d7 black pawn
f7 black pawn
g7 black pawn
h7 black pawn
c6 black knight
b5 white bishop
c5 black bishop
e5 black pawn
e4 white pawn
f3 white knight
a2 white pawn
b2 white pawn
c2 white pawn
d2 white pawn
f2 white pawn
g2 white pawn
h2 white pawn
a1 white rook
b1 white knight
c1 white bishop
d1 white queen
e1 white king
h1 white rook
8
77
66
55
44
33
22
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abcdefgh
White to play
abcdefgh
8
Chessboard480.svg
a8 black rook
c8 black bishop
d8 black queen
e8 black king
h8 black rook
a7 black pawn
b7 black pawn
c7 black pawn
d7 black pawn
e7 black knight
f7 black pawn
g7 black pawn
h7 black pawn
b5 white bishop
e5 black knight
e4 white pawn
a2 white pawn
b2 white pawn
c2 white pawn
d2 white pawn
g2 white pawn
h2 white pawn
a1 white rook
b1 white knight
c1 white bishop
d1 white queen
f1 white rook
g1 white king
8
77
66
55
44
33
22
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abcdefgh
Position after 4.Kg1

In the first diagram:

1. Nxe5 Bxf2+?!

Black sees that if he plays 1...Nxe5, White responds with 2.d4, winning back the minor piece with a fork and taking control of the center. Instead of allowing this, Black hopes to cause trouble for White by returning the piece while depriving White of the right to castle. However, White can easily castle artificially. For example:

2. Kxf2 Nxe5 3. Rf1

White begins castling artificially.

3... Ne7 4. Kg1 (second diagram)

White has achieved a normal castled position via several moves. With the bishop pair and a central pawn majority, White has a slight advantage.

Castling in chess variants

abcdefghij
8
a8 black rook
b8
c8 black circle
d8
e8
f8 black king
g8
h8
i8 black circle
j8 black rook
8
7
a7
b7
c7
d7
e7
f7
g7
h7
i7
j7
7
6
a6
b6
c6
d6
e6
f6
g6
h6
i6
j6
6
5
a5
b5
c5
d5
e5
f5
g5
h5
i5
j5
5
4
a4
b4
c4
d4
e4
f4
g4
h4
i4
j4
4
3
a3
b3
c3
d3
e3
f3
g3
h3
i3
j3
3
2
a2
b2
c2
d2
e2
f2
g2
h2
i2
j2
2
1
a1 white rook
b1
c1 white circle
d1
e1
f1 white king
g1
h1
i1 white circle
j1 white rook
1
abcdefghij
Castling in Capablanca chess

Variants of Western chess often include castling in their rule sets, sometimes in a modified form.

In variants played on a standard 8×8 board, castling is often the same as in standard chess. This includes variants which replace the king with a different royal piece, as is the case with the knight in Knightmate. Some variants, however, have different rules; for example, in Chess960, the king may move more or fewer than two squares (including none) while castling, depending on the starting position.

Castling can also be adapted to variants with different board sizes and shapes. Some such variants, like Capablanca chess (10×8) or chess on a really big board (16×16), preserve the castling movement of the rooks, meaning that the king moves a different distance along the back rank. Conversely, other games, like Dragonfly (7×7), specify that the king still castles two squares in each direction, and the rook is the piece that moves differently. In a few variants, most notably Wildebeest chess (11×10), the player may choose to move the king any distance and move the rook accordingly.

Castling sometimes features in chess variants not played on a square grid, such as masonic chess, triangular chess, Shafran's and Brusky's hexagonal chess, and millennium 3D chess. In 5D Chess with Multiverse Time Travel, castling is possible within the spatial dimensions but not across time or between timelines.

Some chess variants do not feature castling, such as losing chess, where the king is not royal, and Grand Chess, where the rooks have significantly more opening mobility.

In a handicap game with rook odds, the player giving odds may castle with the absent rook, moving only the king.[34][35]

Chess without castling

Writing in 2019, former world chess champion Vladimir Kramnik proposed a variant of chess where players would not have the ability to castle. This variant would reduce king safety, theoretically leading to more dynamic games, as it would be considerably harder to force a draw and the pieces would be forced to engage in a mêlée.[36] In 2021, former world champion Viswanathan Anand defeated Kramnik in a no-castling exhibition match under classical time controls 2½–1½.[37]

Castling in chess problems

Castling features in some chess problems. The earliest known study containing castling was published in 1843 by Julius Mendheim.[38]

Retrograde analysis

Castling is common in retrograde analysis problems. By chess problem convention, if a player's king and rook are on their original squares, the player is assumed to have castling rights unless it can be proven otherwise. In some retrograde analysis problems, one of the players (usually White) may castle or capture en passant in order to prove that the opponent has previously moved their king or rook and therefore cannot castle.

Armand Lapierre
abcdefgh
8
Chessboard480.svg
e8 black king
h8 black rook
a7 black pawn
c7 black pawn
e7 black pawn
g7 black pawn
b6 black pawn
e6 white pawn
d4 white rook
g3 white pawn
f2 white pawn
h2 white pawn
a1 white rook
e1 white king
8
77
66
55
44
33
22
11
abcdefgh
White to play and mate in two

The diagram shows a mate in two. 1.Rad1? 0-0 does not work. The key is 1.0-0-0!, demonstrating that the white king had not moved yet and that the rook on d4 must therefore be a promoted piece, which proves that either the black king or black rook has moved to let it off the back rank, invalidating Black's right to castle; after any move by Black, 2.Rd8# is mate.[39]

Novelty problems

Siegfried Hornecker
abcdefgh
8
Chessboard480.svg
e8 black king
h8 black bishop
h7 white pawn
f5 white king
8
77
66
55
44
33
22
11
abcdefgh
Helpmate in three with Koko fairy condition[40] (each piece must end up adjacent to another piece when moving)[41]

Some joke chess problems involve castling with a promoted rook of the opponent's color. In orthodox chess, this would be illegal since the rook would be giving check to the king, but if there are fairy conditions in play that prevent check under some circumstances, such castling would have been legal under the 1993 FIDE Laws, which did not specify that the rook and king had to be of the same color.[citation needed]

The diagrammed problem involves castling with an opposing rook. The solution (Black's move being given first per helpmate convention) is:

1. Bg7 h8=R 2. Bf6 Kg6 3. 0-0 Kh7#

The allowance of castling with a "phantom rook" in handicap games has also been used in joke problems.[citation needed] Many other joke variations on castling are possible.

Vertical castling

C. Staugaard
abcdefgh
8
Chessboard480.svg
g8 white bishop
e7 white pawn
c3 black pawn
d3 black king
c2 white knight
e1 white king
h1 white rook
8
77
66
55
44
33
22
11
abcdefgh
White to play and mate in two

In 1907, C. Staugaard composed a two-mover in which White promotes a pawn to a rook and then castles vertically with the newly promoted rook (placing the king on e3 and the rook on e2), since the rook has not moved. In the position on the right, White plays 1.e8=R, and after the forced move 1...Kxc2 castles vertically with the promoted rook, checkmating Black.

Vertical castling, also known as "Staugaard castling" or "Pam–Krabbé castling", is illegal but has been used in a few novelty chess problems.[42][43] It is unclear whether any historically published sets of rules would technically allow such a move; in any case FIDE rules specify that castling must be done with a rook on the same rank.

Tim Krabbé's 1985 book Chess Curiosities includes a problem featuring vertical castling, along with an incorrect claim that the problem's 1973 publication prompted FIDE to amend the castling laws in 1974 to add the requirement that the king and rook be on the same rank. In reality, the original FIDE Laws from 1930 explicitly stated that castling must be done with a king and a rook on the same rank (traverse in French).[44]

Nomenclature

In most European languages, the term for castling is derived from the Persian rukh (e.g. rochieren, rochada, enroque), while queenside and kingside castling are referred to using the adjectives meaning "long" and "short" (or "big" and "small"), respectively.

References

  1. ^ a b "FIDE Laws of Chess taking effect from 1 January 2018". FIDE. Retrieved 12 July 2020.
  2. ^ Article 3.8.2 in FIDE Laws of Chess[1]
  3. ^ Pandolfini, Bruce (1992), Pandolfini's Chess Complete: The Most Comprehensive Guide to the Game, from History to Strategy, Simon & Schuster, ISBN 9780671701864, retrieved 13 January 2014
  4. ^ (Hooper & Whyld 1992)
  5. ^ Article 3.8.2 in FIDE Laws of Chess[1]
  6. ^ Korn, Walter (October 1961). "The Rules of Castling" (PDF). Chess Review. Vol. 29. p. 298. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2020-09-18. Retrieved 2022-03-03. on castling, considerable confusion often reigns among beginners
  7. ^ (Just & Burg 2003:13–14, 17–18, 23)
  8. ^ (Just & Burg 2003:13–14, 17–18, 23)
  9. ^ William Hartston notes in Teach Yourself Chess that "most chess players refrain from demonstrations of ambidexterity."
  10. ^ "Karpov vs. Miles, 1986". Chessgames.com. Retrieved 2022-03-25.
  11. ^ (Davidson 1981:48)
  12. ^ (Davidson 1981:16)
  13. ^ c1, c2, c3, d3, e3, f3, g1, g2, or g3 according to H. J. R. Murray
  14. ^ (Sunnucks 1970:66)
  15. ^ Stefan Bücker: "Was bedeutet 0-0?" (What does 0-0 mean?), in: Kaissiber, No. 18, 2002, pp.70–71
  16. ^ https://www.chessgames.com/perl/chessgame?gid=1621031 Mattison-Millers 1926 at chessgames.com
  17. ^ Edward Winter, C.N. 5916 - ‘Thornton castling trap’ (C.N. 4078), 27 December 2008
  18. ^ George Huczek (2017). A to Z Chess Tactics. Batsford. pp. 001–349. ISBN 978-1-8499-4446-5.
  19. ^ Tim Krabbé, Open chess diary, item 391
  20. ^ "Korchnoi vs. Karpov, Moscow 1974". Chessgames.com.
  21. ^ Larry Evans (16 July 1995). "Castling Confuses Even Grandmasters". Sun Sentinel.
  22. ^ "Chess Records". Tim Krabbé. (click on: "Greatest number of castlings")
  23. ^ "Averbakh vs. Purdy, Adelaide 1960". Chessgames.com.
  24. ^ Cecil Purdy, Doesn't Know the Moves!, Chess World, October 1960, p, 198, reproduced by Edward Winter, Chess Notes 9622
  25. ^ (Evans 1970:38–39)
  26. ^ (Lombardy & Daniels 1975:188)
  27. ^ "Ed. Lasker vs. Thomas, London 1912". Chessgames.com.
  28. ^ Edward Lasker, Chess for Fun and Chess for Blood, Dover Publications, 1962, p. 120.
  29. ^ "Prins vs. Day, Lugano 1968". Chessgames.com.
  30. ^ "Feuer vs. O'Kelly, Liege 1934". Chessgames.com.
  31. ^ "Fischer vs. Najdorf, Varna, 1962". Chessgames.com.
  32. ^ Aramil, William (2008-10-07). The Complete Idiot's Guide to Chess Openings: Discover the First-Move Strategies of Champions. Penguin. ISBN 978-1-4406-5185-4.
  33. ^ Bronznik, Valeri (2014-02-18). Techniques of Positional Play: 45 Practical Methods to Gain the Upper Hand in Chess. New In Chess. ISBN 978-90-5691-473-8.
  34. ^ Walker, George (1841). "The Chess Player". p. 74.
  35. ^ Abrahams, Gerald (1948), Chess, Teach Yourself Books, English Universities Press, p. 59
  36. ^ Kramnik (VladimirKramnik), Vladimir. "Kramnik And AlphaZero: How To Rethink Chess". Chess.com. Retrieved 2020-02-05.
  37. ^ "No-Castling Chess: Anand holds Kramnik, wins Sparkassen Trophy". The Times of India. 18 July 2021. Retrieved 27 July 2021.
  38. ^ Hornecker, Siegfried. "Study of the Month - A short history of endgame study castling I". ChessBase. Retrieved 1 May 2022.
  39. ^ "Yet another chess problem database". Yet another chess problem database. Retrieved 28 March 2022.
  40. ^ Hornecker, Siegfried (9 October 2011). "P1204776". Die Schwalbe (in German). Retrieved 13 July 2022.
  41. ^ "Chess Problem Fairy Definitions". StrateGems - US Chess Problem Magazine. Retrieved 28 March 2022.
  42. ^ "Staugaard castling at Die Schwalbe".
  43. ^ "Pam-Krabbé castling at yacpdb".
  44. ^ Règle du Jeu d’Échecs de la F. I. D. E. (édition officielle 1930), (in French), FIDE, 1930 (via wikisource)

Bibliography