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New Testament manuscripts in Greek are categorized into five groups,[1] according to a scheme introduced in 1981 by Kurt and Barbara Aland in The text of the New Testament. The categories are based on how each manuscript relates to the various text-types. Generally speaking, earlier Alexandrian manuscripts are category I, while later Byzantine manuscripts are category V. Aland's method involved considering 1000 passages where the Byzantine text differs from non-Byzantine text. The Alands did not select their 1000 readings from all of the NT books; for example, none were drawn from Matthew and Luke.[2]

Description of categories

The Alands' categories do not simply correspond to the text-types; all they do is demonstrate the 'Byzantine-ness' of a particular text; that is, how much it is similar to the Byzantine text-type, from least (Category I) to most similar (Category V). Category V can be equated with the Byzantine text-type, but the other categories are not necessarily representative of a text-type. Even though most texts in Category I agree with the Alexandrian text-type, they are not necessarily Alexandrian themselves; they are just very non-Byzantine.[3]

The Alands introduced the following categories (Aland & Aland category description according to the 1989 English translation, p. 106, between quotation marks):[3]

Distribution of Greek manuscripts by century and category

See Aland, pp. 159–162.

Date (CE) I II III IV V
150 𝔓52, 𝔓90, 𝔓104
200 𝔓32, 𝔓46, 𝔓64/67, 𝔓66, 𝔓75, 𝔓77, 0189,
250 𝔓1, 𝔓4, 𝔓5, 𝔓9, 𝔓12, 𝔓15, 𝔓20, 𝔓22, 𝔓23, 𝔓27, 𝔓28, 𝔓29, 𝔓30, 𝔓39, 𝔓40, 𝔓45, 𝔓47, 𝔓49, 𝔓53, 𝔓65, 𝔓70, 𝔓80, 𝔓87, 0220 0212 𝔓48, 𝔓69
300 𝔓13, 𝔓16, 𝔓18, 𝔓37, 𝔓72, 𝔓78, 0162, 𝔓115 𝔓38, 0171
350 𝔓10, 𝔓24, 𝔓35, 01, 03 𝔓6, 𝔓8, 𝔓17, 𝔓50, 𝔓62, 𝔓71, 𝔓81, 𝔓86, 0185 𝔓88, 058 (?), 0169, 0188, 0206, 0207, 0221, 0228, 0231, 0242
400 057 𝔓19, 𝔓51, 𝔓57, 𝔓82, 𝔓85, 0181, 0270 𝔓21, 059, 0160, 0176, 0214, 0219
450 02 (except Gospels), 0254 𝔓14, 04, 016, 029, 048, 077, 0172, 0173, 0175, 0201, 0240, 0244, 0274 02 (Gospels), 032, 062, 068, 069, 0163, 0165 (?), 0166, 0182, 0216, 0217, 0218, 0226, 0227, 0236, 0252, 0261 05 026, 061
500 𝔓56, 071, 076, 088, 0232, 0247 𝔓54, 𝔓63, 072, 0170, 0186, 0213
550 𝔓33, 06, 08, 073, 081, 085, 087, 089, 091, 093 (1 Peter), 094, 0184, 0223, 0225, 0245 𝔓2, 𝔓36, 𝔓76, 𝔓83, 𝔓84, 06, 015, 035, 040, 060, 066, 067, 070, 078, 079, 082, 086, 0143, 0147, 0159, 0187, 0198, 0208, 0222, 0237, 0241, 0251, 0260, 0266 022, 023, 024, 027, 042, 043, 064, 065, 093 (Acts), 0246, 0253, 0265 (?)
600 𝔓26 𝔓43, 𝔓44, 𝔓55, 083 𝔓3, 0164, 0199
650 𝔓74, 098 𝔓11, 𝔓31, 𝔓34, 𝔓79, 0102, 0108, 0111, 0204, 0275 𝔓59, 𝔓68, 096, 097, 099, 0106, 0107, 0109, 0145, 0167, 0183, 0200, 0209, 0210, 0239, 0259, 0262 𝔓73, 0103, 0104, 0211
700 𝔓42, 𝔓61 𝔓60
750 019, 0101, 0114, 0156, 0205, 0234 𝔓41, 095, 0126, 0127, 0146, 0148, 0161, 0229, 0233, 0238, 0250, 0256 07, 047, 054 (?), 0116, 0134
800 044 (Catholic epistles) 044 (except Catholic epistles)
850 33 (except Gospels) 010, 038, 0155, 0271, 33 (Gospels), 892, 2464 012, 025 (except Acts, Rev), 037, 050, 0122, 0128, 0130, 0131, 0132, 0150, 0269, 565 09, 011, 013, 014, 017, 018, 020, 021, 025 (Acts, Rev), 030, 031, 034, 039, 041, 045, 049, 053 (?), 063, 0120, 0133, 0135, 0136 (?), 0151, 0197, 0248, 0255, 0257, 0272, 0273 (?), 461
900 1841 0115, 1424 (Mark) 1424 (except Mark), 1841
950 1739 (Catholic epistles, Paul) 0177, 0243 (?), 1739 (Acts), 1891, 2329 051, 075, 0105, 0121a, 0121b, 0140, 0141, 0249, 307, 1582, 1836, 1845, 1874, 1875, 1912, 2110, 2193, 2351 028, 033, 036, 046, 052, 056, 0142, 1874, 1891
1050 1175, 1243, 2344 81, 323, 945, 1006, 1854, 1962, 2298 28, 104, 181, 323, 398, 424, 431, 436, 451, 459, 623, 700, 788, 1243, 1448, 1505, 1838, 1846, 1908, 2138, 2147, 2298, 2344, 2596 (?) 103, 104, 181 (Rev), 398, 431, 451, 459, 945, 1006, 1448, 1505, 1846, 1854, 2138, 2147, 2298
1100 256, 1735 1735, 1910 256
1150 1241 (Catholic epistles) 36, 1611, 2050, 2127 1 (Gospels), 36, 88, 94 (?), 157, 326, 330, 346, 378, 543, 610, 826, 828, 917, 983, 1071, 1241 (Gospels, Acts, Paul), 1319, 1359, 1542b, 1611, 1718, 1942, 2030, 2412, 2541, 2744 1 (except Gospels), 180, 189, 330, 378, 610, 911, 917, 1010, 1241, 1319, 1359, 1542b (?), 2127, 2541
1200 1573 1573 (?)
1250 2053, 2062 442, 579, 1292, 1852 6 (Catholic epistles, Paul), 13, 94, 180, 206, 218 (epistles), 263, 365, 441, 614, 720, 915, 1398, 1563, 1641, 1852, 2374, 2492, 2516, 2542, 2718 (?) 6 (Gospels, Acts), 94 (?), 180, 206, 218 (except epistles), 263, 365, 597, 720, 1251 (?), 1292, 1398, 1642, 1852, 2374, 2400, 2492 (?), 2516
1300 1342
1350 1067, 1409, 1506, 1881 5, 209, 254, 429 (except Paul), 453, 621, 629, 630, 1523, 1534, 1678 (?), 1842, 1877, 2005, 2197, 2200, 2377 5 (?), 189, 209, 254, 429 (Paul), 1067, 1409, 1506, 1523, 1524, 1877, 2200
1400 2495
1450 322 69, 205, 322, 467, 642, 1751, 1844, 1959, 2523, 2652 69, 181, 205, 429 (Rev.), 467, 642, 886, 2523, 2623, 2652 (?)
1500 61 (epistles, Rev), 522, 918, 1704, 1884 61 (Gospels, Acts), 522, 918, 1704
1550- 849, 2544 (Paul) 2544 (except Paul)

Number of manuscripts by century and category

Century Category I Category II Category III Category IV Category V
II 3
II/III 6
III 25 1 2
III/IV 8 2
IV 5 8 10
IV/V 1 7 7
V 2 16 19 1 2
V/VI 6 6
VI 15 31 12
VI/VII 1 4 3
VII 2 8 17 4
VII/VIII 2 1
VIII 6 12 5
VIII/IX 1 1
IX 3 7 12 5
IX/X 1 2 2
X 1 5 18 10
XI 3 7 24 16
XI/XII 2 2 1
XII 1 5 24 16
XII/XIII 1 1
XIII 2 4 21 18
XIII/XIV 1
XIV 1 4 17 12
XIV/XV 1
XV 1 11 9
XVI 5 4
XVI/XVII 2 1

Limitations

This system of classification prefers the Alexandrian text-type.[citation needed] Manuscripts that represent the Western text-type are classified as Category IV in Gospels, and Category II/III in the Pauline Letters.[citation needed] This is significant because some scholars believe that some or all of the Minuscule text or the Western texts are closer to the original texts.[citation needed] Some manuscripts are not classified.[citation needed] Uncial 055 is not because it is a commentary, and according to some specialists, written in a minuscule hand.[citation needed] 𝔓7, 𝔓89, 𝔓121, Uncial 080, Uncial 0100, Uncial 0118, 0174, 0230, 0263, 0264, 0267, 0268 are too brief to classify.[citation needed] Uncial 0144 and 0196 are not accessible. 𝔓25 is not classified because of the Diatessaric character of text (i.e. the four Gospels combined into a single narrative).[citation needed]

𝔓5 was classified to Category I, but it is not a representative of the Alexandrian text-type. According to Philip Comfort (2001) it is "a good example of what Kurt and Barbara Aland call "normal" (i.e. a relatively accurate text manifesting a normal amount of error and idiosyncrasy).[4]

Waltz (2013) stated:

As a classification scheme, [Aland & Aland's] attempt was at once a success and a failure. A success, in that it has conveniently gathered data about how Byzantine the various manuscripts are. A failure, because it has not been widely adopted, and in any case does not succeed in moving beyond Byzantine/non-Byzantine classification.[3]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Aland: 106f, 332-337.
  2. ^ Wisse, Frederik (1982). The Profile Method for the Classification and Evaluation of Manuscript Evidence, as Applied to the Continuous Greek Text of the Gospel of Luke. Grand Rapids: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company. p. 21. ISBN 0-8028-1918-4.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Waltz, Robert B. (2013). The Encyclopedia of New Testament Textual Criticism. p. 116–133. Retrieved 8 September 2021.
  4. ^ Philip Comfort, The Text of the Earliest New Testament Greek Manuscripts, Tyndale House Publishers 2001, pp. 73–74.

References