Cellular agriculture focuses on the production of agriculture products from cell cultures using a combination of biotechnology, tissue engineering, molecular biology, and synthetic biology to create and design new methods of producing proteins, fats, and tissues that would otherwise come from traditional agriculture.[1] Most of the industry is focused on animal products such as meat, milk, and eggs, produced in cell culture rather than raising and slaughtering farmed livestock which is associated with substantial global problems of detrimental environmental impacts (e.g. of meat production), animal welfare, food security and human health[2][3][4].[5] Cellular agriculture is field of the biobased economy. The most well known cellular agriculture concept is cultured meat.

A video by New Harvest / Xprize explaining the development of cultured meat and a "post-animal bio-economy, driven by lab grown protein (meat, eggs, milk)". (Runtime 3:09)

History

Main article: Timeline of cellular agriculture

Although cellular agriculture is a nascent scientific discipline, cellular agriculture products were first commercialized in the early 20th century with insulin and rennet.[6]

On March 24, 1990, the FDA approved a bacterium that had been genetically engineered to produce rennet, making it the first genetically engineered product for food.[7] Rennet is a mixture of enzymes that turns milk into curds and whey in cheese making. Traditionally, rennet is extracted from the inner lining of the fourth stomach of calves. Today, cheese making processes use rennet enzymes from genetically engineered bacteria, fungi, or yeasts because they are unadulterated, more consistent, and less expensive than animal-derived rennet.[8]

In 2004, Jason Matheny founded New Harvest, whose mission is to "accelerate breakthroughs in cellular agriculture."[9] New Harvest is the only organization focused exclusively on advancing the field of cellular agriculture and provided the first PhD funding specifically for cellular agriculture, at Tufts University.[10]

By 2014, IndieBio, a synthetic biology accelerator in San Francisco, has incubated several cellular agriculture startups, hosting Muufri (making milk from cell culture, now Perfect Day Foods), The EVERY Company (making egg whites from cell culture), Gelzen (making gelatin from bacteria and yeast, now Geltor), Afineur (making cultured coffee beans) and Pembient (making rhino horn). Muufri and The EVERY Company were both initially sponsored by New Harvest.

In 2015, Mercy for Animals created The Good Food Institute, which promotes plant-based and cellular agriculture.[11]

Also in 2015, Isha Datar coined the term "cellular agriculture" (often shortened to "cell ag") in a New Harvest Facebook group.[12][13]

On July 13, 2016, New Harvest hosted the world's first international conference on cellular agriculture in San Francisco, California.[9] The day after the conference, New Harvest hosted the first closed-door workshop for industry, academic, and government stakeholders in cellular agriculture.[14]

Research tools

Several key research tools are at the foundation of research in cellular agriculture. These include:

Cell lines

A fundamental missing piece in the advancement of cultured meat is the availability of the appropriate cellular materials. While some methods and protocols from human and mouse cell culture may apply to agricultural cellular materials, it has become clear that most do not. This is evidenced by the fact that established protocols for creating human and mouse embryonic stem cells have not succeeded in establishing ungulate embryonic stem cell lines.[15][16][17]

The ideal criteria for cell lines for the purpose of cultured meat production include immortality, high proliferative ability, surface independence, serum independence, and tissue-forming ability. The specific cell types most suitable for cellular agriculture are likely to differ from species to species.[18][19]

Growth media

Conventional methods for growing animal tissue in culture involves the use of fetal bovine serum (FBS). FBS is a blood product extracted from fetal calves. This product supplies cells with nutrients and stimulating growth factors, but is unsustainable and resource-heavy to produce, with large batch-to-batch variation.[20] Cultured meat companies have been putting significant resources into alternative growth media.

After the creation of the cell lines, efforts to remove serum from the growth media are key to the advancement of cellular agriculture as fetal bovine serum has been the target of most criticisms of cellular agriculture and cultured meat production. It is likely that two different media formulations will be required for each cell type: a proliferation media, for growth, and a differentiation media, for maturation.[21]

Scaling technologies

As biotechnological processes are scaled, experiments start to become increasingly expensive, as bioreactors of increasing volume will have to be created. Each increase in size will require a re-optimization of various parameters such as unit operations, fluid dynamics, mass transfer, and reaction kinetics.

Scaffold materials

For cells to form tissue, it is helpful for a material scaffold to be added to provide structure. Scaffolds are crucial for cells to form tissues larger than 100 µm across. An ideal scaffold must be non-toxic for the cells, edible, and allow for the flow of nutrients and oxygen. It must also be cheap and easy to produce on a large scale without the need for animals.

3D tissue systems

The final phase for creating cultured meat involves bringing together all the previous pieces of research to create large (>100 µm in diameter) pieces of tissue that can be made of mass-produced cells without the need for serum, where the scaffold is suitable for cells and humans.

Applications

While the majority of discussion has been around food applications, particular cultured meat, cellular agriculture can be used to create any kind of agricultural product, including those that never involved animals to begin with, like Ginkgo Biowork's fragrances.

Meat

Cultured meat (also known by other names, see below) is a meat produced by in vitro cell cultures of animal cells. It is a form of cellular agriculture, with such agricultural methods being explored in the context of increased consumer demand for protein.

Cultured meat is produced using tissue engineering techniques traditionally used in regenerative medicines. The concept of cultured meat was introduced to wider audiences by Jason Matheny in the early 2000s after he co-authored a paper on cultured meat production and created New Harvest, the world's first nonprofit organization dedicated to in-vitro meat research.

Cultured meat may have the potential to address substantial global problems of the environmental impact of meat production, animal welfare, food security and human health. Specifically, it can be thought of in the context of the mitigation of climate change.

In 2013, professor Mark Post at Maastricht University pioneered a proof-of-concept for cultured meat by creating the first hamburger patty grown directly from cells. Since then, other cultured meat prototypes have gained media attention: SuperMeat opened a farm-to-fork restaurant called "The Chicken" in Tel Aviv to test consumer reaction to its "Chicken" burger, while the "world's first commercial sale of cell-cultured meat" occurred in December 2020 at the Singapore restaurant "1880", where cultured meat manufactured by the US firm Eat Just was sold.

While most efforts in the space focus on common meats such as pork, beef, and chicken which comprise the bulk of consumption in developed countries, some new companies such as Orbillion Bio have focused on high end or unusual meats including Elk, Lamb, Bison, and the prized Wagyu strain of beef. Avant Meats has brought cultured grouper fish to market as other companies have started to pursue cultivating additional fish species and other seafood.

The production process is constantly evolving, driven by multiple companies and research institutions. The applications of cultured meat have led to ethical, health, environmental, cultural, and economic discussions. In terms of market strength, data published by the non-governmental organization Good Food Institute found that in 2021 cultivated meat companies attracted $140 million in Europe alone. (Full article...)

In 2021, researchers presented a bioprinting method to produce steak-like cultured meat.[22][23]
In 2021, researchers presented a bioprinting method to produce steak-like cultured meat.[22][23]

In 2020, the world's first regulatory approval for a cultivated meat product was awarded by the Government of Singapore. The chicken meat was grown in a bioreactor in a fluid of amino acids, sugar, and salt.[24] The chicken nuggets food products are ~70% lab-grown meat, while the remainder is made from mung bean proteins and other ingredients. The company pledged to strive for price parity with premium "restaurant" chicken servings.[25][26]

For an overview of start-up companies and non-profit organisations working on cellular meat, see Cultured meat § Companies.

Dairy

Eggs

Gelatin

Coffee

In 2021, media outlets reported that the world's first synthetic coffee products have been created by two biotechnology companies, still awaiting regulatory approvals for near-term commercialization.[45][46][47] Such products – which can be produced via cellular agriculture in bioreactors[47] and for which multiple companies' R&D have acquired substantial funding – may have equal or highly similar effects, composition and taste as natural products but use less water, generate less carbon emissions, require less labor[46][additional citation(s) needed] and cause no deforestation.[45] Products that equal naturally grown coffee on the chemical molecular level technically wouldn't be "coffee substitutes" but differ only in their method of production – and hence be "lab-grown coffee".[46]

Organizations working on cellular coffee include:

This list is incomplete; you can help by adding missing items. (October 2021)

Horseshoe crab blood

Fish

Cellular agriculture could be used for commercial fish feed.

Fragrances

Silk

This section may contain material unrelated or insufficiently related to the topic of the article. Please help improve this section or discuss this issue on the talk page. (October 2021) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

See also: § Similar fields of research and production

Leather

Pet food

Issues

See also: Synthetic biology § Ethics

Degrowth, green growth and circular economy

Further information: Degrowth

The bioeconomy has largely been associated with visions of "green growth".[65] A study found that a "circular bioeconomy" may be "necessary to build a carbon neutral future in line with the climate objectives of the Paris Agreement".[66] However, some are concerned that with a focus or reliance on technological progress a fundamentally unsustainable socioeconomic model might be maintained rather than be changed.[67] Some are concerned it that may not lead to a ecologization of the economy but to an economization of the biological, "the living" and caution that potentials of non-bio-based techniques to achieve greater sustainability need to be considered.[67] A study found that the, as of 2019, current EU interpretation of the bioeconomy is "diametrically opposite to the original narrative of Baranoff and Georgescu-Roegen that told us that expanding the share of activities based on renewable resources in the economy would slow down economic growth and set strict limits on the overall expansion of the economy".[68] Furthermore, some caution that "Silicon Valley and food corporations" could use bioeconomy technologies for greenwashing and monopoly-concentrations.[69] The bioeconomy, its potentials, disruptive new modes of production and innovations may distract from the need for systemic structural socioeconomic changes[70][71] and provide a false illusion of technocapitalist utopianism/optimism that suggests technological fixes may make it possible to sustain contemporary patterns and structures.

Unemployment and work reallocation

Further information: Technological unemployment

Many farmers depend on conventional methods of producing crops and many of them live in developing economies.[72] Cellular agriculture for products such as synthetic coffee could, if the contemporary socioeconomic context (the socioeconomic system's mechanisms such as incentives and resource distribution mechanisms like markets) remains unaltered (e.g. in nature, purposes, scopes, limits and degrees), threaten their employment and livelihoods as well as the respective nation's economy and social stability. A study concluded that "given the expertise required and the high investment costs of the innovation, it seems unlikely that cultured meat immediately benefits the poor in developing countries" and emphasized that animal agriculture is often essential for the subsistence for farmers in poor countries.[73] However, not only developing countries may be affected.[74]

Patents, intellectual property and monopolies

Some observers worry that the bioeconomy will become as opaque and accountability-free as the industry it aims to replace (e.g. the current food system). Its core products may be mass-produced, nutritionally dubious meat sold at homogeneous fast-food joints.[69]

The medical community has warned that gene patents can inhibit the practice of medicine and progress of science.[75] This can also apply to other areas where patents and private intellectual property licenses are being used, often entirely preventing the use and continued development of knowledge and techniques for many years or decades. On the other hand, some worry that without intellectual property protection as the type of R&D-incentive, particularly to current degrees and extents, companies would no longer have the resources or motives/incentives to perform competitive, viable biotech research – as otherwise they may not be able to generate sufficient returns from initial R&D investment or less returns than from other expenditures that are possible.[76] "Biopiracy" refers to "the use of intellectual property systems to legitimize the exclusive ownership and control over biological resources and biological products that have been used over centuries in non-industrialized cultures".[77]

Rather than leading to sustainable, healthy, inexpensive, safe, accessible food being produced with little labor locally – after knowledge- and technology transfer and timely, efficient innovation – the bioeconomy may lead to aggressive monopoly-formation and exacerbated inequality.[78][79][69][additional citation(s) needed] For instance, while production costs may be minimal, costs – including of medicine[80] – may be high.

Innovation management, public spending and governance

See also: Strategic planning

It has been argued that public investment would be a tool governments should use to regulate and license cellular agriculture. Private firms and venture capital would likely seek to maximise investor value rather than social welfare.[69] Moreover, radical innovation is considered to be more risky, "and likely involves more information asymmetry, so that private financial markets may imperfectly manage these frictions". Governments may also help to coordinate "since several innovators may be needed to push the knowledge frontier and make the market profitable, but no single company wants to make the early necessary investments". They could also help innovators that lack the network "to naturally obtain the visibility and political influence necessary to obtain public funds" and could help determine relevant laws.[81]


Academic programs

New Harvest Cultured Tissue Fellowship at Tufts University

A joint program between New Harvest and the Tissue Engineering Research Center (TERC), an NIH-supported initiative established in 2004 to advance tissue engineering. The fellowship program offers funding for Masters and PhD students at Tufts university who are interested in bioengineering tunable structures, mechanics, and biology into 3D tissue systems related to their utility as foods.[82]

Conferences

New Harvest Conference

New Harvest brings together pioneers in the cellular agriculture and new, interested parties from industry and academia to share relevant learnings for cellular agriculture's path moving forward. The Conference has been held in San Francisco, California, Brooklyn, New York, and is currently held in Cambridge, Massachusetts. The upcoming next edition will take place July 10 and 11, 2020.[83]

Industrializing Cell-Based Meats & Seafood Summit

The 3rd Annual Industrializing Cell-Based Meats & Seafood Summit is the only industry-led forum uniting key decision-makers from biotech and food tech, leading food and meat companies, and investors to discuss key operational and technical challenges for the development of cell-based meats and seafood. As cellular agriculture companies prepare to scale production and go through the international regulatory approval process this is an annual event not to miss. The upcoming edition will take place in August 2021.[84]

International Scientific Conference on Cultured Meat

The International Scientific Conference on Cultured Meat began in collaboration with Maastricht University in 2015, and brings together an international group of scientists and industry experts to present the latest research and developments in cultured meat. It takes place annually in Maastricht, The Netherlands.[85]

Good Food Conference

The GFI conference is an event focused on accelerating the commercialization of plant-based and clean meat.[86]

Cultured Meat Symposium

The Cultured Meat Symposium is a conference held in Silicon Valley highlighting top industry insights of the clean meat revolution.[87][88]

Alternative Protein Show

The Alternative Protein Show is a "networking event" to facilitate collaboration in the "New Protein Landscape," which includes plant-based and cellular agriculture.[89]

New Food Conference

The New Food Conference is an industry-oriented event that aims to accelerate and empower innovative alternatives to animal products by bringing together key stakeholders. It is Europe's first and biggest conference on new-protein solutions.[90]

In the media

Books

  • Clean Meat: How Growing Meat Without Animals Will Revolutionize Dinner and the World is a book about cellular agriculture written by animal activist Paul Shapiro (author). The book reviews startup companies that are currently working towards mass-producing cellular agriculture products.[91][92][93]
  • Meat Planet: Artificial Flesh and the Future of Food by Benjamin Aldes Wurgaft is the result of five years researching cellular agriculture, and explores the quest to generate meat in the lab, asking what it means to imagine that this is the future of food. It is published by the University of California Press.[94]
  • Where do hot dogs come from? A Children's Book about Cellular Agriculture by Anita Broellochs, Alex Shirazi and Illustrated by Gabriel Gonzalez turns a family BBQ into a scientific story explaining how hot dogs are made with cellular agriculture technologies. The book was launched on Kickstarter on July 20, 2021.[95][96]

Podcasts

Similar fields of research and production

See also: Timeline of biotechnology

References

  1. ^ "A Closer Look at Cellular Agriculture and the Processes Defining It - AgFunderNews". 2016-07-05. Retrieved 2016-08-05.
  2. ^ Bryant, Christopher J (3 August 2020). "Culture, meat, and cultured meat". Journal of Animal Science. 98 (8): skaa172. doi:10.1093/jas/skaa172. ISSN 0021-8812. PMC 7398566. PMID 32745186.
  3. ^ Hong, Tae Kyung; Shin, Dong-Min; Choi, Joonhyuk; Do, Jeong Tae; Han, Sung Gu (May 2021). "Current Issues and Technical Advances in Cultured Meat Production: AReview". Food Science of Animal Resources. 41 (3): 355–372. doi:10.5851/kosfa.2021.e14. ISSN 2636-0772. PMC 8112310. PMID 34017947.
  4. ^ Treich, Nicolas (1 May 2021). "Cultured Meat: Promises and Challenges". Environmental and Resource Economics. 79 (1): 33–61. doi:10.1007/s10640-021-00551-3. ISSN 1573-1502. PMC 7977488. PMID 33758465.
  5. ^ Mattick, CS (January 2018). "Cellular agriculture: The coming revolution in food production". Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists. 74 (1): 32–35. doi:10.1080/00963402.2017.1413059.
  6. ^ "About". Retrieved 2016-08-08.
  7. ^ "FDA approves 1st genetically engineered product for food". 1990-03-24.
  8. ^ "Case Studies: Chymosin". Archived from the original on 2016-05-22.
  9. ^ a b "History".
  10. ^ "Cellular Agriculture at Tufts University". Archived from the original on 2016-08-07.
  11. ^ "News article".
  12. ^ Crosser, Nate. "Cellular agriculture landscape". Fifth Industrial.
  13. ^ "Useful Resources". Cellular Agriculture Australia.
  14. ^ Harvest, New (2016-08-04). "Notes from the 2016 Cellular Agriculture Innovators' Workshop". Medium. Retrieved 2016-08-05.
  15. ^ Keefer, CL; Pant, D; Blomberg, L; Talbot, NC (2007). "Challenges and prospects for the establishment of embryonic stem cells of domesticated ungulates". Animal Reproduction Science. 98 (1–2): 147–68. doi:10.1016/j.anireprosci.2006.10.009. PMID 17097839.
  16. ^ Talbot, NC; Le Ann, Blomberg (2008). "The pursuit of ES cell lines of domesticated ungulates". Stem Cell Rev. 4 (3): 235–54. doi:10.1007/s12015-008-9026-0. PMID 18612851.
  17. ^ Nowak-Imialek, Monika; Niemann, Heiner (2016). Embryonic Stem Cells and Fetal Developmental Models. Fetal Stem Cells in Regenerative Medicine. Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine. pp. 81–99. doi:10.1007/978-1-4939-3483-6_5. ISBN 978-1-4939-3481-2.
  18. ^ Cao, S; Wang, F; Liu, L (2013). Isolation and culture of bovine embryonic stem cells. Epiblast Stem Cells. Methods in Molecular Biology. Vol. 1074. pp. 111–23. doi:10.1007/978-1-62703-628-3_9. ISBN 978-1-62703-627-6. PMID 23975809.
  19. ^ Gandolfi, F; Pennarossa, G; Maffei, S; Brevini, T (2012). "Why is it so difficult to derive pluripotent stem cells in domestic ungulates?". Reprod Domest Anim. 47 Suppl 5: 11–7. doi:10.1111/j.1439-0531.2012.02106.x. PMID 22913556.
  20. ^ Van der Valk, J (2010). "Optimization of chemically defined cell culture media--replacing fetal bovine serum in mammalian in vitro methods". Toxicol in Vitro. 24 (4): 1053–63. doi:10.1016/j.tiv.2010.03.016. hdl:1874/191398. PMID 20362047.
  21. ^ Agapakis, Christina (2012). "Steak of the Art: The Fatal Flaws of In Vitro Meat". Discover Magazine.
  22. ^ "Japanese scientists produce first 3D-bioprinted, marbled Wagyu beef". New Atlas. 25 August 2021. Retrieved 21 September 2021.
  23. ^ Kang, Dong-Hee; Louis, Fiona; Liu, Hao; Shimoda, Hiroshi; Nishiyama, Yasutaka; Nozawa, Hajime; Kakitani, Makoto; Takagi, Daisuke; Kasa, Daijiro; Nagamori, Eiji; Irie, Shinji; Kitano, Shiro; Matsusaki, Michiya (24 August 2021). "Engineered whole cut meat-like tissue by the assembly of cell fibers using tendon-gel integrated bioprinting". Nature Communications. 12 (1): 5059. doi:10.1038/s41467-021-25236-9. ISSN 2041-1723. PMC 8385070. PMID 34429413.
  24. ^ Shanker, Deena (October 22, 2019). "These $50 Chicken Nuggets Were Grown in a Lab". Bloomberg.com. Archived from the original on February 25, 2020. Retrieved February 27, 2020.
  25. ^ Corbyn, Zoë (January 19, 2020). "Out of the lab and into your frying pan: the advance of cultured meat". the Guardian. Archived from the original on February 11, 2020. Retrieved February 27, 2020.
  26. ^ Ives, Mike (2 December 2020). "Singapore Approves a Lab-Grown Meat Product, a Global First". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 22 January 2021. Retrieved 16 January 2021.
  27. ^ "Muufri Milk". Archived from the original on 2016-06-09.
  28. ^ "Perfect Day: All the dairy you love, with none of the dairy cows". Perfect Day.
  29. ^ "FAQs - Perfect Day".
  30. ^ "BRIEF: Kraft Heinz's VC invests in New Culture $3.5m seed round for cell-grown cheese". AgFunderNews. 2019-09-10. Retrieved 2019-09-16.
  31. ^ "Interview: Matt Gibson, CEO of New Culture Foods". www.cell.ag. Archived from the original on 2019-12-22. Retrieved 2019-09-16.
  32. ^ Sheikh, Knvul (2019-08-02). "Got Impossible Milk? The Quest for Lab-Made Dairy". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2019-09-16.
  33. ^ "New Culture". www.newculturefood.com. Retrieved 2021-08-15.
  34. ^ "Real Vegan Cheese |". Retrieved 2019-09-16.
  35. ^ Wohlsen, Marcus (2015-04-15). "Cow Milk Without the Cow Is Coming to Change Food Forever". Wired. ISSN 1059-1028. Retrieved 2019-09-16.
  36. ^ "Real Vegan Cheese!". Indiegogo. Retrieved 2019-09-16.
  37. ^ Murray-Ragg, Nadia (2017-10-01). "Scientists Develop 'Real Vegan Cheese' Made From Lab 'Milk' | News". LIVEKINDLY. Retrieved 2019-09-16.
  38. ^ "Real Vegan Cheese". Real Vegan Cheese. Retrieved 2021-08-15.
  39. ^ "Formo - The Future Dairy from Berlin". formo.bio. Retrieved 2021-08-15.
  40. ^ "Imagindairy plans to cut out the cow and make milk from yeast". New Atlas. 2021-01-08. Retrieved 2021-08-15.
  41. ^ "Blood, brains and burgers: The future is lab-grown everything". New Atlas. 2021-08-11. Retrieved 2021-08-15.
  42. ^ "Clara Foods: egg whites without hens".
  43. ^ "Gelzen Inc. – Making sustainable, animal-free gelatin". December 2, 2015. Archived from the original on August 19, 2016.
  44. ^ "Geltor". gelzen.com.
  45. ^ a b Lavars, Nick (20 September 2021). "Lab-grown coffee cuts out the beans and deforestation". New Atlas. Retrieved 18 October 2021.
  46. ^ a b c "Eco-friendly, lab-grown coffee is on the way, but it comes with a catch". The Guardian. 16 October 2021. Retrieved 26 October 2021.
  47. ^ a b "Sustainable coffee grown in Finland – | VTT News". www.vttresearch.com. Retrieved 18 October 2021.
  48. ^ "Home". AFINEUR.
  49. ^ "Sothic Bioscience: Protecting human lives while preserving an ancient species". Archived from the original on 2016-07-29. Retrieved 2016-08-08.
  50. ^ "Lampstack". Archived from the original on 2018-03-01.
  51. ^ "Finless Foods – Finless Foods". Archived from the original on 2018-09-24. Retrieved 2018-11-22.
  52. ^ "Wild Type raises $3.5M to reinvent meat for the 21st century".
  53. ^ "Home". Wild Type.
  54. ^ "The Organism Company - Ginkgo Bioworks". Ginkgo Bioworks.
  55. ^ "Artificial "Spiber" silk is tougher than Kevlar".
  56. ^ "Spiber株式会社". Spiber株式会社.
  57. ^ "Bolt Threads". boltthreads.com.
  58. ^ Rao, Leena (May 11, 2016). "Bolt Threads Will Bring Its Spider Silk Fabric to Patagonia". Fortune.
  59. ^ "Bolt Threads". boltthreads.com. Retrieved 2021-08-15.
  60. ^ "Modern Meadow – Leather re-imagined". modernmeadow.com.
  61. ^ "Because Animals". Because Animals. Retrieved 2021-08-15.
  62. ^ Sewell, Dawson; shigeta, ron; Faraguna, Carla; Manipula, Melanie; Gomila, Jude; Bethencourt, Ryan; Shirazi, Alex; Scherfner, Erin; Suter, Will. "Wild Earth (company) - Wiki". Golden. Retrieved 2021-08-15.
  63. ^ "Bond Pet Foods - Animal-free & Protein-Rich Pet Food". Bond Pet Foods. Retrieved 2021-08-15.
  64. ^ Holm, Aleksander; Manipula, Melanie; Faraguna, Carla; Sewell, Dawson; Gomila, Jude; Hanel, Meredith; Dean, Alex; Yaman, Robert; Society, Cellular Agriculture. "Cluster: Cell-based and plant-based meat - Wiki". Golden. Retrieved 2021-08-15.
  65. ^ Hausknost, Daniel; Schriefl, Ernst; Lauk, Christian; Kalt, Gerald (April 2017). "A Transition to Which Bioeconomy? An Exploration of Diverging Techno-Political Choices". Sustainability. 9 (4): 669. doi:10.3390/su9040669.
  66. ^ Hoehn, Daniel; Laso, Jara; Margallo, María; Ruiz-Salmón, Israel; Amo-Setién, Francisco José; Abajas-Bustillo, Rebeca; Sarabia, Carmen; Quiñones, Ainoa; Vázquez-Rowe, Ian; Bala, Alba; Batlle-Bayer, Laura; Fullana-i-Palmer, Pere; Aldaco, Rubén (January 2021). "Introducing a Degrowth Approach to the Circular Economy Policies of Food Production, and Food Loss and Waste Management: Towards a Circular Bioeconomy". Sustainability. 13 (6): 3379. doi:10.3390/su13063379.
  67. ^ a b Pietzsch, Joachim (6 March 2020). Bioeconomy for Beginners. Springer Nature. ISBN 978-3-662-60390-1.
  68. ^ Giampietro, Mario (1 August 2019). "On the Circular Bioeconomy and Decoupling: Implications for Sustainable Growth". Ecological Economics. 162: 143–156. doi:10.1016/j.ecolecon.2019.05.001. ISSN 0921-8009. S2CID 201329805.
  69. ^ a b c d "Man v food: is lab-grown meat really going to solve our nasty agriculture problem?". The Guardian. 29 July 2021. Retrieved 26 October 2021.
  70. ^ Forster, Piers M.; Forster, Harriet I.; Evans, Mat J.; Gidden, Matthew J.; Jones, Chris D.; Keller, Christoph A.; Lamboll, Robin D.; Quéré, Corinne Le; Rogelj, Joeri; Rosen, Deborah; Schleussner, Carl-Friedrich; Richardson, Thomas B.; Smith, Christopher J.; Turnock, Steven T. (7 August 2020). "Current and future global climate impacts resulting from COVID-19". Nature Climate Change. 10 (10): 913–919. Bibcode:2020NatCC..10..913F. doi:10.1038/s41558-020-0883-0. ISSN 1758-6798. S2CID 221019148.
  71. ^ Ripple, William J.; et al. (July 28, 2021), "World Scientists' Warning of a Climate Emergency 2021", BioScience, 71 (9): 894–898, doi:10.1093/biosci/biab079, hdl:1808/30278, retrieved July 29, 2021
  72. ^ "Eco-friendly, lab-grown coffee is on the way, but it comes with a catch". The Guardian. 16 October 2021. Retrieved 26 October 2021.
  73. ^ Treich, Nicolas (2021). "Cultured Meat: Promises and Challenges". Environmental & Resource Economics. 79: 33–61. doi:10.1007/s10640-021-00551-3. PMC 7977488. PMID 33758465.
  74. ^ Newton, Peter; Blaustein-Rejto, Daniel (2021). "Social and Economic Opportunities and Challenges of Plant-Based and Cultured Meat for Rural Producers in the US". Frontiers in Sustainable Food Systems. 5: 10. doi:10.3389/fsufs.2021.624270. ISSN 2571-581X.
  75. ^ Andrews, LB (2000). "Genes and Patent Policy: Rethinking IP Rights". Nature Reviews Genetics. 3 (10): 803–8. doi:10.1038/nrg909. PMID 12360238. S2CID 13822192.
  76. ^ Marchant GE. 2007. Genomics, Ethics, and Intellectual Property. Intellectual Property Management in Health and Agricultural Innovation: A Handbook of Best Practices. Ch 1.5:29-38
  77. ^ Hamilton, Chris (15 December 2008). "Intellectual property rights, the bioeconomy and the challenge of biopiracy". Genomics, Society and Policy. 4 (3): 26. doi:10.1186/1746-5354-4-3-26. ISSN 1746-5354. S2CID 35186396.
  78. ^ Braun, Veit (2021). "Tools of Extraction or Means of Speculation? Making Sense of Patents in the Bioeconomy". Bioeconomy and Global Inequalities: Socio-Ecological Perspectives on Biomass Sourcing and Production. Springer International Publishing: 65–84. doi:10.1007/978-3-030-68944-5_4. ISBN 978-3-030-68943-8. S2CID 236731518.
  79. ^ Birch, Kean (1 May 2017). "Rethinking Value in the Bio-economy: Finance, Assetization, and the Management of Value". Science, Technology, & Human Values. 42 (3): 460–490. doi:10.1177/0162243916661633. ISSN 0162-2439. PMC 5390941. PMID 28458406. S2CID 1702910.
  80. ^ Löfgren, Hans (2009). "The Competition State and the Private Control of Healthcare". Global Health Governance. Palgrave Macmillan UK: 245–264. doi:10.1057/9780230249486_12. ISBN 978-1-349-30228-4.
  81. ^ Treich, Nicolas (1 May 2021). "Cultured Meat: Promises and Challenges". Environmental and Resource Economics. 79 (1): 33–61. doi:10.1007/s10640-021-00551-3. ISSN 1573-1502. PMC 7977488. PMID 33758465.
  82. ^ "Grant Opportunities, New Harvest". new-harvest.org. New Harvest. Archived from the original on October 18, 2016. Retrieved July 25, 2018.
  83. ^ "New Harvest".
  84. ^ "Industrializing Cell-Based Meats & Seafood Summit".
  85. ^ "International Conference on Cultured Meat". International Conference on Cultured Meat. Retrieved 2020-01-02.
  86. ^ "Good Food Conference 2018". goodfoodconference.com.
  87. ^ "Cultured Meat Symposium Announces Cell-Based Meat Conference Planned for November 2018". KULR8.
  88. ^ "CMS".
  89. ^ "The Alternative Protein Show".
  90. ^ "New Food Conference".
  91. ^ "Clean Meat - The Bestselling Book by Paul Shapiro". cleanmeat.com.
  92. ^ Shapiro, Paul (2 January 2018). Clean Meat. ISBN 9781501189081.
  93. ^ Cultured Meat Future Food (8 April 2018). "Cultured Meat and Future Food Podcast Episode 03: Paul Shapiro" – via YouTube.
  94. ^ Meat Planet.
  95. ^ Green Queen Media (30 July 2021). "This Children's Book Wants To Inspire Future Cell-Based Meat Makers".
  96. ^ The Spoon (31 July 2021). "Food Tech News: Food Waste Sneakers, Cell-Ag Children's Book, and Bon Appétit's New App".
  97. ^ "Alex Shirazi | User Experience Designer". alexshirazi.com. Retrieved 2021-08-15.
  98. ^ "Cultured Meat and Future Food". cleanmeatpodcast.com.
  99. ^ "Cultured Meat Future Food". YouTube.
  100. ^ "Spider silk made by photosynthetic bacteria". phys.org. Archived from the original on 7 August 2020. Retrieved 16 August 2020.
  101. ^ Foong, Choon Pin; Higuchi-Takeuchi, Mieko; Malay, Ali D.; Oktaviani, Nur Alia; Thagun, Chonprakun; Numata, Keiji (2020-07-08). "A marine photosynthetic microbial cell factory as a platform for spider silk production". Communications Biology. Springer Science and Business Media LLC. 3 (1): 357. doi:10.1038/s42003-020-1099-6. ISSN 2399-3642. PMC 7343832. PMID 32641733.
  102. ^ "Growing food with air and solar power: More efficient than planting crops". phys.org. Retrieved 11 July 2021.
  103. ^ Leger, Dorian; Matassa, Silvio; Noor, Elad; Shepon, Alon; Milo, Ron; Bar-Even, Arren (29 June 2021). "Photovoltaic-driven microbial protein production can use land and sunlight more efficiently than conventional crops". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 118 (26): e2015025118. doi:10.1073/pnas.2015025118. ISSN 0027-8424. PMC 8255800. PMID 34155098. S2CID 235595143.
  104. ^ "'Vegan spider silk' provides sustainable alternative to single-use plastics". phys.org. Retrieved 11 July 2021.
  105. ^ Kamada, Ayaka; Rodriguez-Garcia, Marc; Ruggeri, Francesco Simone; Shen, Yi; Levin, Aviad; Knowles, Tuomas P. J. (10 June 2021). "Controlled self-assembly of plant proteins into high-performance multifunctional nanostructured films". Nature Communications. 12 (1): 3529. doi:10.1038/s41467-021-23813-6. ISSN 2041-1723. PMC 8192951. PMID 34112802.

Further reading