|Chamarajendra Wadiyar X|
|23rd Maharaja of Mysore|
|Reign||23 September 1868 – 28 December 1894|
|Coronation||23 September 1868|
|Predecessor||Krishnaraja Wadiyar III (adoptive father)|
|Successor||Krishna Raja Wadiyar IV (eldest son)|
|Born||22 February 1863|
Chamundi Hills, Mysore, Mysore Kingdom
|Died||28 December 1894 (aged 31)|
|Spouse||Vanivilasa Sannidhana Sri Kempa Nanjammanni Avaru|
|Issue||Krishna Raja Wadiyar IV, Kanteerava Narasimharaja Wadiyar, Jayalakshmi Ammanni, Krishnaraja Ammanni, Chaluvaja Ammanni, Krishnajammanni|
|Father||Sardar Chikka Krishnaraj Urs|
Krishnaraja Wadiyar III (adoptive father)
|Mother||Rajkumari Sri Putta Ammanni|
Maharaja Chamarajendra Wadiyar X(Chamaraja Wadiyar X; 22 February 1863 – 28 December 1894) was the twenty-third maharaja of the Kingdom of Mysore, between 1868 and 1894.
Chamarajendra Wadiyar X was born in the old palace in Mysore on 22 February 1863, as the third son of Sardar Chikka Krishnaraj Urs of the Bettada-Kote branch of the ruling clan. His father died about a week before his birth. His mother, Rajkumari Putammani Devi, was the eldest daughter of Maharaja Krishnaraja Wadiyar III. Following the failure of heirs male, Krishnaraja Wadiyar III decided to adopt Chamarajendra. The adoption was done on 18 June 1865 and was recognised by the British Government of India on 16 April 1867.
Krishnaraja Wadiyar III died on 27 March 1868, and Chamarajendra Wadiyar X ascended the throne at the royal palace, Mysore, on 23 September 1868. However, since 1831, the Kingdom of Mysore had been under the direct administration of the British Raj, which had earlier deposed Krishnaraja Wadiyar on allegations of misrule. Later, the Privy Council of the United Kingdom ordered the reversal of the British East India Company's decision to annexe Mysore. By the Rendition Act of 1881, the princely state of Mysore was reconstituted and restored to the Wadiyar dynasty. Chamarajendra Wadiyar X was groomed by the British to take charge of the administration. He was officially handed the reins of governance on 25 March 1881.
Although his reign proved to be a brief one, he left an indelible mark on the Kingdom of Mysore. He was aptly aided by Rangacharlu (1881–1883) CE and Sheshadri Iyer (1883–1901) two of the most competent Diwans.
He instituted the Representative Assembly of Mysore Kingdom in 1881. This was the first modern, democratic legislative institution of its kind in princely India. He sponsored the famous journey of Swami Vivekananda to Chicago in 1893. He gave primacy to women's education and founded the Kannada Bashojjivini School. He gave a fillip to the industrialisation of the Kingdom of Mysore by instituting several industrial schools and conducting the annual Dasara Industrial Exhibition. He facilitated the founding of Agricultural Banks to help finance farmers and initiated life insurance for government employees.
Many of the most famous landmarks of Mysore and Bangalore owe their existence to him. Prominent among these are:
Chamarajendra Wadiyar X was a great patron of arts and music; his court boasted of artists like Veena Subbanna, Veena Seshanna, K. Vasudevacharya. Veena Padmanabiah, Mysore Karigiri Rao, and Bidaram Krishnappa, among others.
The maharaja was a violin virtuoso himself and used to daily provide accompaniment to Veena Subbanna's vocal and Veena Sheshanna's veena performances. His favourite kriti's included Sujana Jeevana and Lavanya Rama. He was also a connaisseur of Javali's Kritis (Javalis are a genre of Carnatic music).
In May 1878, Chamarajendra Wadiyar married Vani Vilasa Sannidhana Kempananja Ammani Avaru, daughter of an arasu of Kalale, a prominent nobleman of Mysore state. They had four sons and three daughters, of whom the following survived to adulthood:
Chamarajndra Wadiyar died of diphtheria, in Calcutta, on 28 December 1894, aged 31. He was succeeded by his 10-year-old son, Krishnaraja Wadiyar IV. His wife, Maharani Kempa Nanjammani Vani Vilasa Sannidhana Avaru, served as regent of Mysore during the minority of their son.