Chamarajendra Wadiyar X
Chamaraja Wodeyar 1863-94.jpg
Chamarajendra Wadiyar X
23rd Maharaja of Mysore
Reign23 September 1868 – 28 December 1894
Coronation23 September 1868
PredecessorKrishnaraja Wadiyar III (adoptive father)
SuccessorKrishna Raja Wadiyar IV (eldest son)
Born22 February 1863
Chamundi Hills, Mysore, Mysore Kingdom
Died28 December 1894(1894-12-28) (aged 31)
Calcutta
SpouseVanivilasa Sannidhana Sri Kempa Nanjammanni Avaru
IssueKrishna Raja Wadiyar IV, Kanteerava Narasimharaja Wadiyar, Jayalakshmi Ammanni, Krishnaraja Ammanni, Chaluvaja Ammanni, Krishnajammanni
HouseWadiyar dynasty
FatherSardar Chikka Krishnaraj Urs
Krishnaraja Wadiyar III (adoptive father)
MotherRajkumari Sri Putta Ammanni
ReligionHinduism

Maharaja Chamarajendra Wadiyar X GCSI (Chamaraja Wadiyar X; 22 February 1863 – 28 December 1894) was the twenty-third maharaja of the Kingdom of Mysore, between 1868 and 1894.

Adoption and accession

Chamarajendra Wadiyar X was born in the old palace in Mysore on 22 February 1863, as the third son of Sardar Chikka Krishnaraj Urs of the Bettada-Kote branch of the ruling clan. His father died about a week before his birth. His mother, Rajkumari Putammani Devi, was the eldest daughter of Maharaja Krishnaraja Wadiyar III. Following the failure of heirs male, Krishnaraja Wadiyar III decided to adopt Chamarajendra. The adoption was done on 18 June 1865 and was recognised by the British Government of India on 16 April 1867.

Krishnaraja Wadiyar III died on 27 March 1868, and Chamarajendra Wadiyar X ascended the throne at the royal palace, Mysore, on 23 September 1868. However, since 1831, the Kingdom of Mysore had been under the direct administration of the British Raj, which had earlier deposed Krishnaraja Wadiyar on allegations of misrule. Later, the Privy Council of the United Kingdom ordered the reversal of the British East India Company's decision to annexe Mysore. By the Rendition Act of 1881, the princely state of Mysore was reconstituted and restored to the Wadiyar dynasty. Chamarajendra Wadiyar X was groomed by the British to take charge of the administration. He was officially handed the reins of governance on 25 March 1881.

Reign

Although his reign proved to be a brief one, he left an indelible mark on the Kingdom of Mysore. He was aptly aided by Rangacharlu (1881–1883) CE and Sheshadri Iyer (1883–1901) two of the most competent Diwans.

He instituted the Representative Assembly of Mysore Kingdom in 1881. This was the first modern, democratic legislative institution of its kind in princely India. He sponsored the famous journey of Swami Vivekananda to Chicago in 1893. He gave primacy to women's education and founded the Kannada Bashojjivini School. He gave a fillip to the industrialisation of the Kingdom of Mysore by instituting several industrial schools and conducting the annual Dasara Industrial Exhibition. He facilitated the founding of Agricultural Banks to help finance farmers and initiated life insurance for government employees.

Many of the most famous landmarks of Mysore and Bangalore owe their existence to him. Prominent among these are:

Patronage

Chamarajendra Wadiyar X of Mysore in 1877
Chamarajendra Wadiyar X of Mysore in 1877

Chamarajendra Wadiyar X was a great patron of arts and music; his court boasted of artists like Veena Subbanna, Veena Seshanna, K. Vasudevacharya. Veena Padmanabiah, Mysore Karigiri Rao, and Bidaram Krishnappa, among others.

The maharaja was a violin virtuoso himself and used to daily provide accompaniment to Veena Subbanna's vocal and Veena Sheshanna's veena performances. His favourite kriti's included Sujana Jeevana and Lavanya Rama. He was also a connaisseur of Javali's Kritis (Javalis are a genre of Carnatic music).

HH Sri Chamarajendra Wadiyar X by Raja Ravi Varma
HH Sri Chamarajendra Wadiyar X by Raja Ravi Varma

Family

In May 1878, Chamarajendra Wadiyar married Vani Vilasa Sannidhana Kempananja Ammani Avaru, daughter of an arasu of Kalale, a prominent nobleman of Mysore state. They had four sons and three daughters, of whom the following survived to adulthood:

  1. Krishna Raja Wadiyar IV, succeeded his father as Maharaja of Mysore.
  2. Prince Kanteerava Narasimharaja Wadiyar, father of Maharaja Jayachamarajendra Wadiyar.
  3. Princess Jayalakshammani, (1881–1924), married in 1897, her youngest maternal uncle, M. Kantaraj Urs, was the Diwan of Mysore between 1919 and 1922. Jayalakshmi Vilas Palace, Manasa Gangotri, now Post-Graduate Centre of the University of Mysore, was built as her residence.
  4. Princess Krishnajammani, (1883–1904), married in 1896, Col. Desaraja Urs, Commander of the Mysore Armed Forces, from the Bagle family of Mogur in Mysore State. Karanjivilas Palace, now Indian Postal Training Centre, was built for her. They had one son and three daughters. She and her three daughters died of tuberculosis. The royal family built the Krishnajammanni Sanitorium in her memory. Her son Rajkumar C Desaraj Urs had three children – Rajkumar Prithviraj Urs (m. Shivamala Ghatge and had 4 daughters and one son, Yogendra Prithviraj Urs), Col Desaraj Urs, and Geeta Devi Urs.
  5. Princess Cheluvajammani (1886–1936),[3] married in 1900, Sardar M. Lakshmikanta Raj Urs, a nobleman of Mysore State. The Cheluvambavilas Palace, now the headquarters of CFTRI, was built as her residence. There is also a maternity hospital and park named after her.

Chamarajndra Wadiyar died of diphtheria, in Calcutta, on 28 December 1894, aged 31. He was succeeded by his 10-year-old son, Krishnaraja Wadiyar IV. His wife, Maharani Kempa Nanjammani Vani Vilasa Sannidhana Avaru, served as regent of Mysore during the minority of their son.

Places in honour

Notes

  1. ^ "A bit of Baroda in Mysore: Road in Sayajirao's name main market". The Times of India. 28 December 2009.
  2. ^ "Maharaja's royal gift to Mysore". The Times of India. 25 July 2010. Archived from the original on 3 December 2013. Retrieved 11 July 2013.
  3. ^ "Mysore Princess Dead". The Straits Times. 3 May 1936. p. 15. Retrieved 9 May 2017.
  4. ^ "Rajmahal Road to be renamed Chamaraja Road". The Times of India. 20 April 2017. Retrieved 28 February 2022.
  5. ^ Rupera, Prashant (28 December 2009). "A bit of Baroda in Mysore: Road in Sayajirao's name main market". The Times of India. Retrieved 28 February 2022.
  6. ^ Sharma, Sachin (13 May 2015). "Memory of Sayajis friend erased from citys face". The Times of India. Retrieved 28 February 2022.