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In law, a chambers is a room or office used by barristers or a judge. A barrister's chambers or barristers' chambers are the rooms used by a barrister or a group of barristers. A judge's chambers, on the other hand, is the office of a judge, where the judge may hear certain types of cases, instead of in open court.

Judge's chambers

A judge's chambers is the office of a judge, where certain types of matters can be heard "in chambers", also known as in camera, rather than in open court. Generally, cases heard in chambers are cases, or parts of cases, in which the public and press are not allowed to observe the procedure.[1] Judge's chambers are often located on upper floors of the court house, away from the courtrooms, sometimes in groupings of judge's chambers; however, they may also be directly adjacent to the courtroom to which the judge is assigned.[2]

In some jurisdictions, a courtroom, rather than the judge's actual chambers, is used to hear matters "in chambers". Such courtrooms may also be called "chambers".

In English legal history, there was no statutory sanction for the process before 1821, though the custom can be traced back to the 17th century. That year, an Act of Parliament provided for sittings in chambers between terms, and an act of 1822 empowered the sovereign to call upon the judges by warrant to sit in chambers on as many days in vacation as should seem fit; later the Law Terms Act 1830 defined the jurisdiction to be exercised at chambers. The Judges' Chambers Act 1867 was the first Act, however, to lay down proper regulations for chamber work, and the Supreme Court of Judicature Act 1873 preserved that jurisdiction and gave power to increase it thereafter.[3]

Barristers' chambers

In England and Wales, New Zealand, Australia, India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka and Hong Kong, chambers may refer to the office premises used by a barrister or to a group of barristers, especially in the Inns of Court.[4] In these jurisdictions, barristers are forbidden from forming or becoming partners in law firms (though they may be employed by them) and (except for those employed by a law firm or by a government agency) are theoretically all solo practitioners. However, to share costs and expenses, barristers typically operate fraternally with each other, as unincorporated associations known as "chambers". The term "Chambers" is used to refer both to the physical premises where the Barrister's Set conduct most of their work from, as well as the 'set' or unincorporated association itself. Chambers typically have office spaces for the barristers to work from, conference rooms with infrastructure to conduct video conferencing for a large audience, printing and photocopying sections, a substantially large and updated library, as well as rooms for the Barristers' and clients' dining and entertainment. Most Chambers have a staff to look after administrative matters, including a full-fledged kitchen and dining hall to serve up meals and refreshments. The transactional side of chambers are administered by barristers' clerks who receive cases from solicitors and agree on matters such as fees on behalf of their employers; they then provide case details to the barristers and conduct office management for them.[5] Some chambers specialise in particular areas of law. Members are known as tenants, and can only be dismissed for gross misconduct.

There are chambers all over England and Wales; however, the largest concentration of them is in London.[5] A report by the General Council of the Bar in 2006, showed that of the 355 practising chambers in the United Kingdom, 210 were based in London.[6]

In Hong Kong, the 133 chambers within the special administrative region are almost exclusively located in the City of Victoria.[7] In Sri Lanka, Counsels would maintain their chambers at their residence, which serve as their office and contain their personal library.

References

  1. ^ Ehrlich, Eugene, Amo, Amas, Amat and More, p. 151, ISBN 0-06-272017-1.
  2. ^ Piotrowski, C M; Rogers, E A (2013). Designing Commercial Interiors. New Jersey, USA: John Wiley & Sons. p. 338. ISBN 9781118656976.
  3. ^  One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainChisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Chambers". Encyclopædia Britannica. 5 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 821–822.
  4. ^ Venables, Delia. "Barristers' Chambers in England and Wales". Legal Resources in UK and Ireland. Retrieved 4 October 2011.
  5. ^ a b Griffiths-Baker, Janine (2002). "The Modern Fiduciary: Conflicts in Other Professions". Serving Two Masters: Conflicts of Interest in the Modern Law Firm. Oregon, USA: Hart Publishing. pp. 51–52. ISBN 9781841132297.
  6. ^ Herschel, David; Wakefield, William; Sasse, Scott (2007). Criminal Justice in England and the United States. MA, USA: Jones and Bartlett. p. 166. ISBN 9780763741129.
  7. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 22 January 2015. Retrieved 2015-02-01.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)