Chamdo
Chamdoic
Geographic
distribution
Chamdo Prefecture, Tibet
Linguistic classificationSino-Tibetan
Subdivisions
Glottologcham1336

The Chamdo languages are a group of recently discovered, closely related Sino-Tibetan languages spoken in Chamdo Prefecture, Tibet.[1][2][3] Their position within the Sino-Tibetan language family is currently uncertain.

Languages

The Chamdo languages are:[4]

Lexical comparison

Nyima & Suzuki (2019)

Lexical comparisons of numerals in four Chamdo languages from Nyima & Suzuki (2019):[4]

Gloss Larong Drag-yab gSerkhu Lamo
one ˊte khɯ ˊtɛ ˊtɕɛ ˉdə
two ˊne ˊne ˊna ˉna
three ˊsɔ̃ ˊsɔ̃ ˊsɔ̃ ˉsɔ̰̃
four ˊɣə ˉʑe ˊli ˉlə̰
five ˉŋa ˊŋɑ ˊɴɑ ˉɴwə̰˞
six ˊtɕhu ˉntɕho ˊtɕhu ˊtɕi
seven ˊn̥i ˉȵ̊e ˊȵ̊ɛ ˉn̥i
eight ˊɕe ˉɕe ˊɕɛ ˉɦdʑə
nine ˊɦgɯ ˉɴɢo ˊku ˉŋgo
ten ˉʔa qõ ˊɦa̰ qo ˉχɑ
eleven ˉʔa’ tə ˊɦa̰ tɛ ˉhtɕo htɕiʔ
twelve ˉʔa’ ne ˊɦa̰ ne ˉhtɕo ɦȵi
thirteen ˉʔɔ’ sɔ̃ ˊɦa̰ sɔ̃ ˉhtɕu hsɔ̃
fourteen ˉʔɔ’ ɣə ˊɦa̰ ʑe ˉhtɕʉ ɦʑə
fifteen ˉʔɑ’ ɴɑ ˊɦa̰ ɴɑ̰ ˉhtɕɛ ɦŋa
sixteen ˉʔo’ tɕhu ˊɦa̰ntɕho ˉhtɕu ʈuʔ
seventeen ˉʔɔ’ ȵ̊e ˊɦa̰ȵ̊e ˉhtɕu ɦdʉ̃
eighteen ˉʔɔ’ ɕɛ ˊɦa̰ ɕe ˉhtɕu ɦdʑɛʔ
nineteen ˉʔɛ’ ɴɢə ˊɦa̰ɴɢo ˉhtɕu ɦgu
twenty ˉnɑ ˊnɑ ˊȵi ɕu

Suzuki & Nyima (2018)

Suzuki & Nyima (2018: 4-6) provide the following lexical items for Lamo, Larong, and Drag-yab.[1]

The lexical data below is based on the following dialects.

Cognates
no. gloss Lamo Larong Drag-yab
1 bitter qa˥ qʰɛ˥ n̥tsʰə˥ tsʰə˥
2 cry qo˧˥ qo̰˧˥ qə˧˥
3 earth ndzɔ̰˧˥ ndzɑ˧˥ ndza˧˥
4 eat ndzə˥ ndzə˥ ndzə˥
5 house tɕi˥ tɕo˥ tɕẽ˧˥
6 blood se˥ se˥ sɛ˥
7 needle ʁɑ˧˥ ʁɑ˧˥ ʁɑ˧˥
8 cow ŋʉ˧˥ ŋʉ˧˥ ŋu˧˥
9 wait ɦlḭ˥ ɦle˥ ɦli˥
10 horse re˧˥ re˥ re˧˥
11 salt tsʰo˥ n̥tsʰə˥ tsʰə˥
12 six tɕi˧˥ tɕʰu˧˥ tɕʰu˥
13 meat tɕʰi˧˥ ɲtɕʰi˥ ɲ̥tɕʰə˧˥
14 you nə˥ ɲe˥ ɲa˥
15 seven n̥i˥ n̥i˧˥ ɲ̥e˥
16 hand lu˧˥ ndi˥ nde˧˥
17 butter jwɚ̰˥ wa˥ we˧˥
18 head wɔ̰˥ wɔ̰˥ ʁo̰˧˥
19 eye məʔ˥ do˧ ɦɲi˥ ɲə˥
20 nose n̥ʉ˥ ɲ̥u˥ n̥a˥ rə˧
21 tongue ʰl̥ə˥ ndə̰˥ mda˧˥
22 tooth xʉ˧˥ ʰl̥i˧˥ xɯ˧˥
23 milk χɔ̰˧˥ ʰl̥ɔ̰˥ χl̥ɔ̰˧
24 moon le˥ ɦli˥ ɦla̰˧ jḭ˧
Non-cognates
no. gloss Lamo Larong Drag-yab
25 mouth ɲ̥tɕʰu˥ to˧ (< Tibetan) mu˧˥ ɕi˧˥
26 foot siʔ˥ ka˧ ŋɡɯ˧˥ pʰə˥ ndɯ˧
27 liver se˥ je˥ ɲ̥tɕʰĩ˥ mbi˧ (< Tibetan)
28 laugh ɦɡɛ (< Tibetan) n̥tsʰə˧˥ ʁə˥
29 sleep nə˥ ɦgɯ˧ jṵ˧˥ nə˧˥ mḛ˧
30 child no˥ no˧ n̥tʰe˥ ɲa˧˥
31 take le˧˥ ɣi˧˥ tɕʰõ˥
32 search xɯ˥ ɦzɔ̃˥ ɲə˧˥ ŋo˧
33 forget nɛ˧˥ tʰa˥ ɦmɛ˥ ɣə˧˥ ɦmu˧ se˧
34 sky ɦnɑ˥ (< Tibetan) ŋo˥ mo˧˥
35 sun nə˥ ɲi˧˥ ɲi˧˥ me˧ (< Tibetan)
36 red ɦmaʔ ɦma˧ (< Tibetan) nḛ˥ nḛ˧ ndja̰˥
37 body hair ʰpu˥ (< Tibetan) mɔ˧˥ mo̰˧˥
38 urine qo˥ pi˧˥ bi˧˥
39 look ʈu˥ ŋi˧˥ tʰa˧˥ ŋɛ̃˧
40 person mə˧˥ ŋʉ˥ nɛ̰˧ ɦŋɯʔ˥ ɲi˧
41 male no˥ zə˧˥ zə˧˥
42 daughter nu˧˥ mo˧ m̥e˧˥ m̥ə˧˥
43 road tɕə˥ rɛ˥ ra˧˥
44 fear ɦlɛ˥ ɦɣe˥ ɣe˧˥
45 be born no˥ mbə˧ ndzə˧˥ ndzɑ˧˥
46 go xɯ˥ n̥tʰõ˥ n̥tʰɛ̃˥
47 shout kəʔ˥ ɕi˧ rɛ˥ rḛ˧˥
48 four lə̰˥ ɦɣə˧˥ (< Tibetan) ɦɣe˧˥ (< Tibetan)
49 eight ɦdʑə˥ (< Tibetan) ɕe˧˥ ɕa˥
50 ten ʁɑ˧˥ ʔa˥ qõ˧ ɦa̰˧˥ ʁõ˧
51 twenty ɲe˧˥ qɑ˧ nɑ˧˥ nɑ˧˥
52 be sick ŋo˥ nø̰˧˥ nɛ˧˥ ŋa˧
53 rain mo˧˥ tsu˥ mo˧˥
54 wear to˧˥ ŋɡʉ˧ ŋɡu˥ qe˧˥
55 wind mɛ̰˥ ŋɑ˧˥ mi˧ ɦdʑa˧˥ ɦɡə˧ rə˧
56 wipe nə˥ ɕə˧ ɕḛ̃˥ xɔ̰˧˥

Changdu Gazetteer (2005)

The Changdu Gazetteer (2005: 819)[5] provides the following comparative data in Tibetan script. The table below uses Wylie romanization. English translations for the Chinese glosses are also provided.

English gloss Chinese gloss Lhasa Tibetan Khams Tibetan
(Chamdo)
Lamo
(Dongba 东坝话)
Larong
(Rumei 如美话)
Drag-yab
(Zesong 则松话)
house 房子 ཁང་པ (khang pa) ཁོང་པ (khong pa) ཅིས (cis) ཅོང (cong) ཅིམ (cim)
chhaang (Tibetan alcohol) 青稞酒 ཆང (chang) ཆོང (chong) ཨོས (os) ཆང (chang) དགེས (dges)
hand ལག་པ (lag pa) ལག་པ (lag pa) ལུའུ (lu'u) འདིས ('dis) འདིས ('dis)
ride horse 骑马 རྟ་བཞོན (rta bzhon) རྟ་ཀྱ (rta kya) རིས་གྱིས (ris gyis) རེ་གག (re gag) རེའུ་ན་ཚེམ (re'u na tshem)
hat 帽子 ཞྭ་མོ (zhwa mo) ཞ་མགོ (zha mgo) ཇའ (ja'a) དེའུ (de'u) དེའུ (de'u)
eat rice 吃饭 ཁ་ལག་ཟས (kha lag zas) ཟ་མ་ཟ (za ma za) ཆོག་ཅོག་ཏོས (chog cog tos) གཟིས་མའི་མཛད (gzis ma'i mdzad) གཟིན་ཐོ་འམ (gzin tho 'am)
sheep 绵羊 ལུག (lug) ལུག (lug) ཡིས (yis) ལའ (la'a) ལྭའུ (lwa'u)
beautiful 漂亮 སྙིང་རྗེ་མོ (snying rje mo) གཅེས་ལི་མ (gces li ma) ཀ་ཞིས་ཉིས (ka zhis nyis) དངེས་ཡིས (dnges yis) དངུད་ལུ (dngud lu)
donkey 毛驴 བོང་བུ (bong bu) ཀུ་རུ (ku ru) བ་ཅི (ba ci) ཅོའུ (co'u) གུའུའུ (gu'u'u)
salt ཚྭ (tshwa) ཚྭ (tshwa) ཚོག་ཏི (tshog ti) ཚེའུ (tshe'u) ཚྭའུ (tshwa'u)
swell སྐྲངས་པ (skrangs pa) སྐྲོང་པ (skrong pa) སྐྲེ་བེ (skre be) དུ་རགས (du rags) དུའུ་རམས (du'u rams)
head མགོ (mgo) མགོ (mgo) དབུ (dbu) དབོག (dbog) གཞོག (gzhog)
child 小孩 སྤུ་གུ (spu gu) ཉོག (nyog) ཉོག་ཉོག (nyog nyog) ཐད (thad) ཆ་ཆོག (cha chog)
dry beef 干牛肉 ཤ་སྐམ (sha skam) ཤ་སྐམ (sha skam) བྱིས་རོ (byis ro) ཆེས་རོང་རོང (ches rong rong) ཆོའུ་རིམ་རིམ (cho'u rim rim)
What is this? 这是什么 དེ་ག་རེ་རེད (de ga re red) འདི་ཆི་རེད་ལས ('di chi red las) ཏེ་ཧ་ཆོས (te ha chos) ཨེ་ཏི་ཐོའུ (e ti tho'u) ཙེ་དུ་ཁྱི (tse du khyi)
Where are you going? 你去哪里 རང་ག་བ་འགྲོ་ག (rang ga ba 'gro ga) ཁྱོད་ག་ན་འགྲོ་ཇི (khyod ga na 'gro ji) ནི་རི་ཧི་ལོ་ཤས (ni ri hi lo shas) གནད་མདོ་ཧུ་ནུ་ངོག (gnad mdo hu nu ngog) འདེ་རུ་ཧེན ('de ru hen)
crazy person 疯子 སྨྱོན་པ (smyon pa) མྱོན་པ (myon pa) འ་རོ ('a ro) སྨྱོན་འབས (smyon 'bas) ཡ་རོག (ya rog)
crow (bird) 乌鸦 པུ་རོག (pu rog) ཁ་ཏ (kha ta) ཕོ་རོག (pho rog) ཁ་གཏེ (kha gte) ཕུའུ་རོག (phu'u rog)
Thank you. 谢谢 ཐུགས་རྗེ་ཆེ (thugs rje che) ཡག་བྲུང (yag brung) བྱུ་ནུ་པུ་ང་ཉིད་གུ་ནི་ད (byu nu pu nga nyid gu ni da) དེ་སྒྲ་དགེ (de sgra dge) ཏི་སྒྲ་དགེ (ti sgra dge)

References

  1. ^ a b Suzuki, Hiroyuki and Tashi Nyima. 2018. Historical relationship among three non-Tibetic languages in Chamdo, TAR. Proceedings of the 51st International Conference on Sino-Tibetan Languages and Linguistics (2018). Kyoto: Kyoto University.
  2. ^ Zhao, Haoliang. 2018. A brief introduction to Zlarong, a newly recognized language in Mdzo sgang, TAR. Proceedings of the 51st International Conference on Sino-Tibetan Languages and Linguistics (2018). Kyoto: Kyoto University.
  3. ^ Jacques, Guillaumes. 2016. Les journées d'études sur les langues du Sichuan.
  4. ^ a b Tashi Nyima; Hiroyuki Suzuki (2019). "Newly recognised languages in Chamdo: Geography, culture, history, and language". Linguistics of the Tibeto-Burman Area. 42 (1): 38–81. doi:10.1075/ltba.18004.nyi. ISSN 0731-3500.
  5. ^ Xizang Changdu Diqu Difangzhi Bianzuan Weiyuanhui 西藏昌都地区地方志编纂委员会 (2005). Changdu Diquzhi 昌都地区志. Beijing: Fangzhi Chubanshe 方志出版社.