Chandel or Chandela is a Rajput clan from India.[1] Families belonging to this clan ruled several kingdoms in north India and held various feudal estates. The most notable of these were the Chandelas of Jejakabhukti, who ruled the Bundelkhand region.

History

During 10th to 13th century CE, the Chandelas of Jejakabhukti ruled the Bundelkhand region in present-day Madhya Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh. Chandel claim Chandravansh lineage,[1] Historians Such as CV Vaidya and GS Ojha consider these Chandela Rajput to be of Pure Lunar(Chandravansh) lineage.[2][3][4] The British indologist V. A. Smith theorised that the Chandelas were of either Bhar or Gond origin, this theory was not supported by some scholars including C V Vaidya because this Bhar and Gond Origin theory was based on Marriage of Durgavati to a king of Gond kingdom Dalpat shah who was not a Gond but a Kachhhwaha Rajput adopted by King Amandas Gond according to Akbarnama.[5] After the decline of Kalchuri Rajput remaining Kalchuri Rajput kingdom adopted tribal's which lead to the beginning of Gond Kingdom in which Dalpat Shah a Kachhwaha Rajput was adopted by a Gond King Amandas Gond.[6][5] Historian R. K. Dikshit also not find Bhar and Gond Origin theory convincing: he argues that Maniya was not a tribal deity.[7] Also, the dynasty's association with Gond territory is not necessarily indicative of a common descent: the dynasty's progenitor may have been posted as a governor in these territories.[8]

Gidhaur zamindari

Main article: Gidhaur chieftaincy

Gidhaur palace
Gidhaur palace

The zamindari estate of Gidhaur in Munger district, present-day Bihar was controlled by a branch of the Chandel [9] They are considered to be one of the oldest ruling families in Bihar. It was established by Bir Bikram Shah whose ancestors came from Mahoba in Bundelkhand but were driven into Bihar during the 12th century following various Muslim incursions. They managed to gain control of Gidhaur after expelling the various aboriginal chiefs from the region. Bir Bikram Shah slowly started to expand his chieftaincy to encompass the surrounding areas. Other rulers belonging to this lineage include Sukhdev Singh, Ram Naranjan Singh and Darp Narayan Singh.[10]

Chandels of Mirzapur

Bijaigarh in modern Mirzapur district of Eastern Uttar Pradesh was ruled by a family of Chandel Rajputs who traced their line to the Burhur Chandels of Rewa. They were notable for their conflict with the Bhumihars of Benares state and for participating in the Indian rebellion of 1857.[11]

Bilaspur Princely State

The Princely family of Bilaspur State are Chandel claiming descent from Shishupala, who reigned in Chanderi in southern Palputana . But according to Bilaspur Past and Present, Bilaspur Gazetteer and Ganesh Singh's book Chandravansh Vilas and Shashivansh Vinod confirm that the foundation of Kahlur Princely State was laid by Birchand in 697 AD who claims its descent from Chandervanshi Rajputs who reigned at Chanderi in the Chedi to northern Mahismati region, but this is not completely true, Harihar Chand (71st king of Chanderi) made his son Govind Chand the king of Chanderi and in old age came north with Bir Chand.[12]

Zaildari

A group of Chandel families claiming a common origin once held the zaildaris of Ghund, Madhan, and Theog in present-day Himachal Pradesh. According to their tradition, their ancestor migrated from Chanderi to Bilaspur. After three generations, his descendants moved to Ram Sarai in the Garhwal region. After another four generations, four brothers from the family moved to the Shimla region. The eldest brother became administrator of Madhan; the third youngest - Jai Chand - became the administrator of Theog; and the youngest became the administrator of Ghund.[13]

References

  1. ^ a b R. B. Mandal (1981). Frontiers in Migration Analysis. Concept. p. 172.
  2. ^ Shekhāvata, Surajanasiṃha (1989). Śekhāvāṭī pradeśa kā prācīna itihāsa (in Hindi). Śrī Śārdūla Ejyūkeśana Ṭrasṭa.
  3. ^ Yaman ), डॉ अशोक कुमार ‘यमन’ ( Dr Ashok Kumar (8 January 2022). मध्यकालीन भारतीय संगीत का इतिहास ( Madhyakalin Bharatiya Sangeet ka Itihas ) (in Hindi). Kalpana Prakashan.
  4. ^ Pandey, Dhanpati (1998). Pracheen Bharat Ka Rajneetik Aur Sanskritik Itihas (in Hindi). Motilal Banarsidass Publishe. ISBN 978-81-208-2380-8.
  5. ^ a b Beveridge, H. (1907). The Akbarnama Of Abul Fazl Vol. 2.
  6. ^ "Rani Durgavati: The symbol of syncretic culture between Rajputs and Tribals". Times of India Blog. 16 August 2021. Retrieved 17 January 2022.
  7. ^ Dikshit, R. K. (1976). The Candellas of Jejākabhukti. Abhinav Publications. p. 8. ISBN 978-81-7017-046-4.
  8. ^ Dikshit, R. K. (1976). The Candellas of Jejākabhukti. Abhinav Publications. p. 7. ISBN 978-81-7017-046-4.
  9. ^ Yogendra Roy (1998). "Landed Aristocracy and the Peasantry in Medieval Bhagalpur". Proceedings of the Indian History Congress. 59: 279–286. JSTOR 44146998.
  10. ^ Ansari, Tahir Hussain (2019). Mughal Administration and the Zamindars of Bihar. Taylor & Francis. pp. 234–236. ISBN 978-1-00-065152-2.
  11. ^ Downs, Troy (1992). "Rajput revolt in Southern Mirzapur, 1857–58". Journal of South Asian Studies: 29–46.
  12. ^ Mark Brentnall (2005). The Princely and Noble Families of the Former Indian Empire: Himachal Pradesh. Indus. p. 50 52. ISBN 9788173871634.
  13. ^ Mark Brentnall (2005). The Princely and Noble Families of the Former Indian Empire: Himachal Pradesh. Indus. p. 284. ISBN 9788173871634.

Bibliography