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Changquan
長拳
Cekongfan.jpg
A man doing cekongfan (侧空翻; "side somersault"), a common move in Changquan.
Also known asLong Fist
FocusStriking, weapons training
Country of originChina China
CreatorZhao Kuangyin
Famous practitioners(see notable practitioners)
ParenthoodSan Huang Pao Chui, Chaquan, Fanziquan, Huaquan, Taizu Changquan, Hongquan
Descendant artsSanshou, Northern Praying Mantis
Olympic sportWushu (sport)

Chángquán (simplified Chinese: 长拳; traditional Chinese: 長拳; pinyin: Chángquán; lit. 'Long Fist') refers to a family of external (as opposed to internal) martial arts (kung fu) styles from northern China.

The forms of the Long Fist style emphasize fully extended kicks and striking techniques, and by appearance would be considered a long-range fighting system. In some Long Fist styles the motto is that "the best defense is a strong offense," in which case the practitioner launches a preemptive attack so aggressive that the opponent doesn't have the opportunity to attack. Others emphasize defense over offense, noting that nearly all techniques in Long Fist forms are counters to attacks. Long Fist uses large, extended, circular movements to improve overall body mobility in the muscles, tendons, and joints. Advanced Long Fist techniques include qin na joint-locking techniques and shuai jiao throws and takedowns.[1]

The Long Fist style is considered to contain a good balance of hand and foot techniques, but in particular it is renowned for its impressive acrobatic kicks.[2] In demonstration events, Long Fist techniques are most popular and memorable for their whirling, running, leaping, and acrobatics. Contemporary changquan moves are difficult to perform, requiring great flexibility and athleticism comparable to that of gymnastics.

Long Fist's arsenal of kicks covers everything from a basic front snap-kick to a jumping back-kick, from a low sweep to a whirlwind-kick. Specifically, typical difficulty movements in modern Changquan include: xuanfengjiao (旋风脚; "whirlwind kick"), xuanzi (旋子; "butterfly jump"), cekongfan (侧空翻; "side somersault"), and tengkongfeijiao (腾空飞脚; "flying jump kick").

History of Long Fist

The core of Changquan/Long Fist was developed in the 10th century by Zhao Kuangyin, founding Emperor of the Song Dynasty (960–1279). His style was called Tàizǔ Chángquán, which means "the Long Fist style of Emperor Taizu."[3] These texts can only be reliably dated to the second half of the 19th century. The Long Fist of contemporary wǔshù draws on Chāquán, "flower fist" Huāquán, Pào Chuí, and "red fist" (Hóngquán).

Widely perceived to have a strong Shaolin influence, traditional Long Fist was promoted at the Nanjing Guoshu Institute by Han Qing-Tang (韓慶堂), a famous Long Fist and qin na expert.[4] After the defeat of Chiang Kai-shek and subsequent closing of the institute, the new People's Republic of China created contemporary wushu, a popular artistic sport inspired largely by traditional Long Fist. However, this new evolution of changquan differed from the old style in that it was exhibition-focused. Higher, more elaborate jump kicks and lower stances were adopted, in order to create more aesthetically pleasing forms. Applications were then reserved for the sport of sanshou, which was kept somewhat separate from the taolu (forms). In 2005 with the creation of difficulty movements criteria in international competition, there has been a continued attention to jumps.

Subtypes of Long Fist

A sample Long Fist curriculum from Han Chin Tang Lineage

Northern Shaolin Long Fist Kung Fu Includes:

  1. Barehand Forms
  2. Weapons
  3. Qin Na Dui Da (Joint Locking skills & sets)
  4. Two Man Fighting Routines
  5. Self Defense Applications
  6. Iron Palm Training (Internal)

Hand forms

  1. Lian Bu Quan (連步拳) - Consecutive Linking Step Fist
  2. Gong Li Quan (功力拳) or Power Fist Form
  3. Tan Tui (潭腿) or Springing Legs
  4. Yi Lu Mai Fu (一路埋伏) or First Road of Ambush
  5. Er Lu Mai Fu (二路埋伏) or Second Road of Ambush
  6. Shi Zi Tang (十字趟) or Crossing Sequence
  7. Xiao Hu Yan (小 虎 燕) or Little Tiger Swallow
  8. San Lu Pao (三路跑) or Three Ways of Running
  9. Taizu Chuangquan
  10. Si Lu Cha Quan (四路查拳) or Fourth Way of Cha's Fist
  11. Si Lu Ben Za (四路奔砸 ) or Four Way of Running and Smashing
  1. 20 Methods Fighting Form or Er Shi Fa Quan (二十法拳)
  2. Duan Da Quan - Fighting In Close Quarters Boxing/Short Hit Boxing
  3. Hua Quan - First Set Of China Fist Yi Lu Xi Yue
  4. Hua Quan 2 - Second Set Of China Fist Er Lu Xi Yue
  5. Hua Quan 3 - Third Set Of China Fist San Lu Xi Yue
  6. Hua Quan 4 - Fourth Set Of China Fist Si Lu Xi Yue
  7. Hua Quan 2 2 Man - Second Set Of China Fist Two Man Fighting Set Er Lu Xi Yue
  8. Hua Quan 4 2 Man - Fourth Set Of China Fist Two Man Fighting Set Si Lu Xi Yue

Hand forms explained

Stances used in the system

  1. Ma Bu (馬步) (Horse Stance)
  2. Deng Shan Bu (登山步)/Gong Jian Bu (Mountain Climbing Stance/Bow and Arrow Stance)
  3. Jin Ji Du Li (金雞獨立) (Golden Rooster Standing on One Leg Stance)
  4. Xuan Ji Bu (玄機步) (False/Cat Stance)
  5. Zuo Pan Bu (坐盤步) (Crossed-Leg Stance)
  6. Fu Hu Bu (扶虎步) (Flat Stance)
  7. Si-Liu Bu (四六步) (Four-Six Stance)
  8. Tun Bu (吞步) - similar to False Stance, but with toes up and heel on the ground
  9. Half Horse Stance (Lead foot turned forward)

Weapons training

  1. Long Staff (Gun)
  2. Broadsword (Dao)
  3. Double Edge Sword
  4. Spear (Qiang)
  5. Chain/Nine Section Whip (Bian)
  6. Dragon Phoenix Sword
  7. Umbrella
  8. Straight Sword (Jian)
  9. Double Sword (Shuang Jian)
  10. Double Broadsword (Shuang Dao)
  11. Pudao
  12. Meteor Hammer
  13. Hook Sword

Notable practitioners

This is a dynamic list and may never be able to satisfy particular standards for completeness. You can help by adding missing items with reliable sources.

Popular Culture

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c d e Chris Crudelli (2008). The Way of the Warrior. Dorling Kindersley Ltd. ISBN 978-1-4053-3750-2.
  2. ^ Thomas A. Green (2001). Martial Arts of the World: An Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 1-57607-150-2.
  3. ^ Lim SK (2013). Origins of Chinese Martial Arts. Asiapac Books Pte Ltd. ISBN 978-981-3170-31-5.
  4. ^ William Acevedo, Mei Cheung & Carlos Gutiérrez García (2010). Breve historia del Kung-Fu. Ediciones Nowtilus S.L. ISBN 978-84-9763-781-7.
  5. ^ a b c Dingbo Wu (1994). Handbook of Chinese Popular Culture. Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN 0-313-27808-3.
  6. ^ a b c d Wong Kiew Kit (2002). The Art of Shaolin Kung Fu: The Secrets of Kung Fu for Self-Defense, Health, and Enlightenment. Tuttle Publishing. ISBN 0-8048-3439-3.

Further reading