|Garrison/HQ||Torbay, Falmouth and Plymouth.|
The Channel Fleet and originally known as the Channel Squadron  was the Royal Navy formation of warships that defended the waters of the English Channel from 1854 to 1909 and 1914 to 1915.
Throughout the course of Royal Navy's history there had been different squadrons stationed in home waters. One of the earliest known naval formations to be based at Plymouth was called the Western Squadron  which was the forerunner of the Channel Squadron that was later known as the Channel Fleet. In 1650 Captain William Penn, Commander-in-Chief, was charged with guarding the Channel from Beachy Head to Lands End with six ships. This system continued following the Restoration. It was the start of what was to become a Western Squadron. In 1690 the squadron operated out of Plymouth Dockyard during wartime periods which was for most of the 18th century and early 19th century. In 1854 The Channel Squadron and sometimes known as the Particular Service Squadron was established. The Channel Squadron only became a permanent formation in 1858.
During the 19th century, as the French developed Cherbourg as a base for steam-powered ships, the Royal Navy developed Portland Harbour as a base for the fleet. The harbour was built between 1849 and 1872 when the Royal Navy created a breakwater made of blocks from local quarries on the Isle of Portland.
With the amelioration of Anglo-French relations, and the rise of German militarism towards 1900, the need for a Channel Formation diminished and the main European naval arena shifted to the North Sea. Admiral Sir Arthur Wilson was officially "Senior Officer in Command of the Channel Squadron" from 1901 to 1903. His subordinate flag officer in that squadron was the Second-in-Command, who commanded a division of battleships. For the period 1858 to 1903 the Channel squadron was often incorrectly referred to as the Channel Fleet.
On 17 April 1903 The Right Hon. Lord Charles Beresford was appointed Vice-Admiral Commanding, Channel Squadron. On 6 May 1903 Admiral Beresford was informed by the Admiralty "that for the future the Channel Squadron shall be known as the Channel Fleet." On 14 December 1904 the Channel Fleet was re-styled the 'Atlantic Fleet' and the Home Fleet became the 'Channel Fleet'.
On 24 March 1909, under a fleet re-organisation, the Channel Fleet became the 2nd Division of the Home Fleet.
Post holders have included:
Note:Channel Squadron - renamed The Channel Fleet, September, 1901
Post holders included:
Note Channel Fleet is re-named Atlantic Fleet 1909-1914
Post holders included:
Post holders included:
|1||Battleships||4 September 1895||5 ships: Royal Sovereign, Empress of India, Resolution, and Repulse.|
|2||Cruisers||4 September 1895||5 ships: Blenheim, Endymion, Bellona, Halcyon, and Speedy.|
Of note:As the Channel Squadron - renamed The Channel Fleet, September, 1901.
|1||Battleships||September 1901 - 1904||5 ships|
|2||Cruiser Squadron||September 1901 - 1904||10 ships|
|1||Battleships||January 1905-February 1907||12 ships - increased to 18 by 1907|
|2||1st Cruiser Squadron||January 1905-February 1907||5 ships to 1905 + 2 more ships from 1906|
|3||Channel Fleet Flotilla||January 1905-February 1907||consisting of destroyers and divided into 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th Divisions|
|1||Battleships||March 1907-March 1909||14 ships|
|2||1st Cruiser Squadron||March 1907-March 1909||6 ships|
|3||Channel Fleet Flotilla||March 1907-March 1909||divided into 1st Destroyer Flotilla & 3rd Destroyer Flotilla in March.1909|
Of note: On 8 August 1914, ships from the pre-war Second and Third Fleets were organised into the Channel Fleet.
|1||5th Battle Squadron||August 1914-March 1915||Transferred from 2nd Fleet|
|2||8th Battle Squadron||August 1914-March 1915||7th and 8th BattSq's (3rd Fleet) merged to form 8th BattSq - dispersed 20/08/14|
|3||5th Cruiser Squadron||August 1914-March 1915|
|4||6th Cruiser Squadron||August 1914-March 1915|
|5||7th Cruiser Squadron||August 1914-March 1915|
|6||8th Cruiser Squadron||August 1914-March 1915|
|7||9th Cruiser Squadron||August 1914-March 1915|
|8||10th Cruiser Squadron||August 1914-March 1915|
|9||11th Cruiser Squadron||August 1914-March 1915|
|10||12th Cruiser Squadron||August 1914-March 1915|
The Channel Fleet features in several historical novels about the Royal Navy, notably Hornblower and the Hotspur by C. S. Forester, in which Forester's fictional hero becomes a favourite of the real Channel Fleet commander, Admiral William Cornwallis. The fleet also features in several of the Aubrey–Maturin novels by Patrick O'Brian.
The novel Billy Budd by Herman Melville is set on board ships of the Channel Fleet, in the immediate aftermath of the Spithead and Nore mutinies of 1797.
In the novel The War of the Worlds, the Channel Fleet protects the huge mass of refugee shipping escaping from the Essex coast in the face of the Martian onslaught. The initial heroic fight of HMS Thunder Child and the subsequent general engagement, is detailed in the chapter entitled "The Thunderchild".