This article may be expanded with text translated from the corresponding article in French. (May 2015) Click [show] for important translation instructions. View a machine-translated version of the French article. Machine translation like DeepL or Google Translate is a useful starting point for translations, but translators must revise errors as necessary and confirm that the translation is accurate, rather than simply copy-pasting machine-translated text into the English Wikipedia. Consider adding a topic to this template: there are already 4,878 articles in the main category, and specifying|topic= will aid in categorization. Do not translate text that appears unreliable or low-quality. If possible, verify the text with references provided in the foreign-language article. You must provide copyright attribution in the edit summary accompanying your translation by providing an interlanguage link to the source of your translation. A model attribution edit summary is Content in this edit is translated from the existing French Wikipedia article at [[:fr:Charolaise]]; see its history for attribution. You should also add the template ((Translated|fr|Charolaise)) to the talk page. For more guidance, see Wikipedia:Translation.
Charolais
Vache de race charolaise avec son veau.jpg
Cow and calf
Conservation statusFAO (2007): not at risk[1]: 144 
Other namesFrench: Charolaise
Country of originFrance
DistributionWorldwide
UseBeef
Traits
Weight
  • Male:
    1000–1650 kg[2]: 153 
  • Female:
    700–1200 kg[2]: 153 
Height
  • 135–150 cm[2]: 153 
CoatWhite [2]
Horn statusHorned in both sexes[3]
  • Cattle
  • Bos (primigenius) taurus

The Charolais (French: [ʃaʁɔlɛ]) or Charolaise ([ʃaʁɔlɛz]) is a French breed of taurine beef cattle. It originates in, and is named for, the Charolais area surrounding Charolles,[4] in the Saône-et-Loire department, in the Bourgogne-Franche-Comté region of eastern France. Charolais are raised for meat; they may be crossed with other breeds, including Angus and Hereford cattle.

History

The Charolais is the second-most numerous cattle breed in France after the Holstein and is the most common beef breed in that country, ahead of the Limousin. At the end of 2014, France had 4.22 million head of Charolais, including 1.56 million cows, down 0.6% from a year earlier.[5] The Charolais is a world breed: it is reported to DAD-IS by 68 countries, of which 37 report population data. The world population is estimated at about 730,000. The largest populations are reported from the Czech Republic and Mexico.[6]

The breed was introduced to the southern United States from Mexico in 1934.[7]

As the cradle of the Charolais cattle,[8] the Charolais-Brionnais Country is applicant for the UNESCO's label as a World Heritage Site to preserve, consolidate and transmit this resource.[9]

Characteristics

It is among the heaviest of cattle breeds: bulls weigh from 1,000 to 1,650 kg (2,200 to 3,600 lb), and cows from 700 to 1,200 kg (1,500 to 2,600 lb). The coat ranges from white to cream-coloured; the nose is uniformly pink.[2]: 153 

Use

The Charbray, a cross-breed with Brahman cattle, is recognised as a breed in some countries.[10] The Brazilian Canchim is a composite breed with 5/8 Charolais and 3/8 Indu-Brasil.[11] Other derived breeds include Charford and Char-Swiss in the United States.[2]: 153 

See also

References

  1. ^ Barbara Rischkowsky, D. Pilling (eds.) (2007). List of breeds documented in the Global Databank for Animal Genetic Resources, annex to The State of the World's Animal Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. ISBN 9789251057629. Accessed September 2019.
  2. ^ a b c d e Valerie Porter, Lawrence Alderson, Stephen J.G. Hall, D. Phillip Sponenberg (2016). Mason's World Encyclopedia of Livestock Breeds and Breeding (sixth edition). Wallingford: CABI. ISBN 9781780647944.
  3. ^ Charolaise / France (Cattle). Domestic Animal Diversity Information System of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Accessed April 2020.
  4. ^ "Breeds of Livestock - Charolais Cattle — Breeds of Livestock, Department of Animal Science". afs.okstate.edu. Retrieved 25 February 2020.
  5. ^ [1] Infos rapides Bovins : Hausse du cheptel bovin français en 2014. Accessed June 2015.
  6. ^ Transboundary breed: Charolais. Domestic Animal Diversity Information System of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Accessed May 2015.
  7. ^ The Charolais heritage ... a brief history Archived 19 April 2014 at the Wayback Machine. American-International Charolais Association. Accessed May 2015.
  8. ^ "Histoire du Charolais - La Maison du Charolais". www.maison-charolais.com. Archived from the original on 25 November 2013.
  9. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 15 December 2019. Retrieved 23 December 2019.((cite web)): CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  10. ^ Transboundary breed: Charbray. Domestic Animal Diversity Information System of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Accessed May 2015.
  11. ^ Breed data sheet: Canchim / Brazil (Cattle). Domestic Animal Diversity Information System of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Accessed September 2019.