|Arohanam||S R₂ G₃ M₁ P D₁ N₂ Ṡ|
|Avarohanam||Ṡ N₂ D₁ P M₁ G₃ R₂ S|
|Equivalent||Aeolian dominant scale|
Charukesi (pronounced chārukēśi) is a rāga in Carnatic music (musical scale of South Indian classical music). It is the 26th Melakarta rāgam in the 72 melakarta rāgam system of Carnatic music. It is called Tarangini in Muthuswami Dikshitar school of Carnatic music.
Charukesi is known[by whom?] to incite feelings of pathos and devotion in the listener.
It is the 2nd rāgam in the 5th chakra Bana. The mnemonic name is Bana-Sri. The mnemonic phrase is sa ri gu ma pa dha ni. Its ārohaṇa-avarohaṇa structure (ascending and descending scale) is as follows (see swaras in Carnatic music for details on below notation and terms):
(chathusruthi rishabham, anthara gandharam, shuddha madhyamam, shuddha dhaivatham, kaisiki nishadham)
It is a sampoorna rāgam - a rāgam that has all seven swaras (notes). It is the shuddha madhyamam equivalent of Rishabhapriya, which is the 62nd melakarta.
The structure is the equivalent of an Aeolian dominant scale, also known as the Mixolydian b-6 scale.
There are only a few minor janya rāgams (derived scales) associated with Charukesi. See full list of janya rāgams associated with it.
Many compositions exist amongst modern adaptations of Charukesi, especially in Indian movies, in film songs. Examples are the songs Ammamma kelladi thozhi from Karuppu panam by M.S.Viswanathan Dhaandiya Aattam from the movie Kadhalar Dhinam, Vasanta mullai poalae from the movie Sarangadara, Edho Edho Ondru from the movie Enakku Iruvathu, Unakku Padhinettu, 'Aadal Kalaye' from Sri Raghavendra and Udaya Udaya from another Udhaya. In Hindi movies Ahista Ahista from the movie Swades, Teri Umeed Tera Intezar from the movie Deewana, Aye Kash Kavi Aisa Hota from the movie Mohra, are in Charukesi. Another composition in this raaga is the song Bombe Aatavaiyya from the Rajkumar starrer Kannada movie Shruthi Seridaaga. Arguably the best rendition of Charukesi in a Hindi movie is Baiyya Na Dharo sung by Lata Mangeshkar and composed by Madan Mohan from the movie Dastak. Charukesi is also popular in Hindustani music.
Bhavgeet He Surano Chandra Vha composed by Pandit Jitendra Abhisheki and ghazal Main Hosh Mein Tha performed by Mehdi Hassan are other well known examples of Charukesi.
In Malayalam, one of the all-time greatest songs is in Charukesi: 'Akale akale neelaakaasam' (from the movie 'Midumidukki', 1968). This was composed by Baburaj and sung by Yesudas and S. Janaki. There are claims that this raga is actually a very rare janya raga of Charukesi, Ushaabharanam (s g m d p m d n s / s n d p m g r g m r s). There are other great Charukesi compositions in Malayalam Films like Krishna Kripa Saagaram from Sargam sung by Yesudas and Chitra. Yaathrayai from Aayiram Para by Yesudas, Pooja Bimbam Mizhi from Harikrishnans by Yesudas and Chitra and Swapnam Thejichal from Rakshasa Raajavau by Yesudas to mention a few.
In the 2012 release of his devotional album on Lord Ayyappan Sabarimalai Va Charanam Solli Va, ace singer P. Unni Krishnan renders a song on Raga Charukesi, Uthirathil Udhithavane Sol, signifying the Lord's birth star UTHIRAM. This album was composed and released by Manachanallur Giridharan, a noted music director from Tamil Nadu.
In western music, charukesi like structures are encountered in Franz Schubert's famous Impromptu C Minor Allegro molto moderato and also in Russian Composer Mikhail Ippolitov-Ivanov's 'Procession of the Sardar' from his Orchestral Suite, Caucasian Sketches.
|Manmadha Leelayai Vendrar Undo||Haridas||Papanasam Sivan||M. K. Thyagaraja Bhagavathar|
|Neeyegadhi Eswari||Annaiyin Aanai||S. M. Subbaiah Naidu||P. Leela|
|Vasandha Mullai Polae||Sarangadhara||G. Ramanathan||T. M. Soundararajan|
|Aadal Kaaneero||Madurai Veeran (1956 film)||M. L. Vasanthakumari|
|Ammamma Keladi||Karuppu Panam||Viswanathan–Ramamoorthy||L. R. Eswari|
|Vellimalai Mannava||Kandhan Karunai||K. V. Mahadevan||S. Varalakshmi|
|Thungadha Kannendru||Kungumam (film)||T. M. Soundararajan, P. Susheela|
|Azhagiya Thamizh Magal||Rickshawkaran||M. S. Viswanathan|
|Moondru Tamizh Thondriyadhu||Pillaiyo Pillai|
|Muthukulikka Vaareergala||Anubavi Raja Anubavi||T. M. Soundararajan, L. R. Eswari, M. S. Viswanathan|
|Ammamma Thambi||Rajapart Rangadurai||T. M. Soundararajan|
|Paal Polave (Ragam Sarasangi also)||Uyarndha Manithan||P. Susheela (Won National Award for 1st song)|
|Mangala Mangaiyum||Neela Vaanam||P. Susheela, L. R. Eswari|
|Muthu Tharagai||Oru Kai Osai||S. P. Balasubrahmanyam, P. Susheela|
|Nambhikai Vaithuvidu||Silambu||K.J. Yesudas|
|Nilaimaarum Ulagil||Oomai Vizhigal||Manoj–Gyan|
|Aadal Kalaiye||Sri Raghavendrar||Illayaraja|
|Siriya Paravai||Andha Oru Nimidam||S. P. Balasubrahmanyam, S. Janaki|
|Vaanathula Velli||Enga Ooru Mappillai||Mano, K.S. Chitra|
|Pothukkittu Oothuthadi||Paayum Puli||Malaysia Vasudevan, P. Susheela|
|Chinna Ponnu||Aruvadai Naal||Malaysia Vasudevan, S. Janaki, Vani Jairam|
|Petha Manasu||Enne Petha Raasa||Illayaraja|
|Arumbhagi Mottagi||Enga Ooru Kavalkaran||Deepan Chakravarthy, P. Susheela|
|Mayaginen solla||Naane Raja Naane Mandhiri||P. Jayachandran, P. Susheela|
|Vatti Edutha||Gramatthu Minnal||Illayaraja, K.S. Chitra|
|Vaanil Vedivelli||Honest Raj||Mano, S. Janaki|
|Thoodhu Selvadharadi||Singaravelan||S. Janaki|
|Uyire Uyirin||En Bommukutty Ammavukku||K.J. Yesudas, K.S. Chitra|
|Manamalayum Manjalum||Vaathiyaar Veettu Pillai||S. P. Balasubrahmanyam|
|Samsaram Adhu||Samsaram Adhu Minsaram||Shankar–Ganesh|
|Udhaya Udhaya||Udhaya||A. R. Rahman||Hariharan, Sadhana Sargam|
|Yedho Yedho||Enakku 20 Unakku 18||Karthik, Gopika Poornima|
|Thai Sonna||Desam||K.J. Yesudas, Madhushree|
|Rasiga Rasiga||Star||S. P. Balasubrahmanyam, Sujatha Mohan|
|Uyire Uyire (Charanam only)||Bombay||Hariharan, K.S. Chitra|
|Kann Imaikkamal||Ragasiya Police||Laxmikant–Pyarelal||Mano,Swarnalatha|
|En Rasathi Nee Vazhanum||Oomai Kuil||Chandrabose||S. P. Balasubrahmanyam, K.S. Chitra|
|Engengey||Nerrukku Ner||Hariharan, Asha Bhosle|
|Kadhala Kadhala||Avvai Shanmughi||Hariharan, Sujatha Mohan|
|Chinna Chinna Mundhiriya||Natpukkaga||Mano, K.S. Chitra|
|Poravale Ponnuthayi||Rayilukku Neramachu||S. A. Rajkumar||S. P. Balasubrahmanyam, Swarnalatha|
|Pollachi Elaneere||Attahasam||Bharadwaj||Anuradha Sriram, Karthik|
|Thayyatha Thayyatha||Thiruttu Payale||Sadhana Sargam,Reshmi, Amalraj|
|Thalaattum Kaatre Vaa||Poovellam Un Vasam||Vidyasagar||Shankar Mahadevan|
|Kaadhal Vandhaal||Iyarkai||Tippu,Manikka Vinayagam|
|Nenjil Nenjil||Engeyum Kadhal||Harris Jayaraj||Harish Raghavendra, Chinmayi|
|Aaruyire Aaruyire||Madrasapattinam||G. V. Prakash Kumar||Sonu Nigam, Saindhavi|
|Idhu Enna Valiyo||Nandhanam||Gopi Sundar||Haricharan, Chinmayi|
|Neelangaraiyil||Pulivaal||N. R. Raghunanthan||Karthik, Saindhavi|
|Usure Usure||Karuppan||D. Imman||Ananya Bhat|
|O Nanna Chethana||Kannada||Bhava Taranga||Mahesh Mahadev||Kuvempu||Priyadarshini||PM Audios|
|Hey Suranno Chandra Vha||Marathi||-||Pt. Jeetendra Abhisheki ji||Kusumagraz||Mahesh Kale||-|
|Yaar Aval||Instrumental||Kanavugal||Tariq||—||—||Utopia NH7 Music|
This section covers the theoretical and scientific aspect of this rāgam.
Charukesi's notes when shifted using Graha bhedam, yields 3 other major melakarta rāgams, namely, Vachaspati, Natakapriya and Gourimanohari. Graha bhedam is the step taken in keeping the relative note frequencies same, while shifting the shadjam to the next note in the rāgam. For further details and an illustration, see Graha bhedam on Vachaspati.