Chickamauga and Chattanooga National Military Park
Cannon Row.jpg
Cannon Row
Map showing the location of Chickamauga and Chattanooga National Military Park
Map showing the location of Chickamauga and Chattanooga National Military Park
Location in Tennessee
Map showing the location of Chickamauga and Chattanooga National Military Park
Map showing the location of Chickamauga and Chattanooga National Military Park
Location in United States
LocationCatoosa, Dade, & Walker County, Georgia & Hamilton County, Tennessee, United States
Nearest cityChattanooga, Tennessee
Coordinates34°56′24″N 85°15′36″W / 34.94000°N 85.26000°W / 34.94000; -85.26000Coordinates: 34°56′24″N 85°15′36″W / 34.94000°N 85.26000°W / 34.94000; -85.26000
Area9,523 acres (38.54 km2)[1]
EstablishedAugust 19, 1890
Visitors977,158 (in 2019)[2]
Governing bodyNational Park Service
WebsiteChickamauga and Chattanooga National Military Park
Chickamauga and Chattanooga National Military Park
LocationS of Chattanooga on U.S. 27, Fort Oglethorpe, Georgia
Built1890
Built byUnited States War Department, National Park Service
Architectural styleBungalow/Craftsman, Single-pen log cabin
NRHP reference No.66000274[3]
Added to NRHPOctober 15, 1966
Wilder Brigade Monument at the Chickamauga Battlefield unit
Wilder Brigade Monument at the Chickamauga Battlefield unit

Chickamauga and Chattanooga National Military Park, located in northern Georgia and southeastern Tennessee, preserves the sites of two major battles of the American Civil War: the Battle of Chickamauga and the Siege of Chattanooga. A detailed history of the park's development was provided by the National Park Service in 1998.[4]

History

Starting in 1890, during the decade, the Congress of the United States authorized the establishment of the first four national military parks: Chickamauga and Chattanooga, Shiloh, Gettysburg and Vicksburg.

The first and largest of these (5,300 acres or 2,145 ha), and the one upon which the establishment and development of most other national military and historical parks was based, was authorized in 1890 at Chickamauga, Georgia and Chattanooga, Tennessee. It was officially dedicated in September 1895.[5] It owes its existence chiefly to the efforts of Generals Henry V. Boynton and Ferdinand Van Derveer, both veterans of the Union Army of the Cumberland, who saw the need for a federal park to preserve and commemorate these battlefields.[6] Another early proponent and driving force behind the park's creation was Ohio General Henry M. Cist, who led the Chickamauga Memorial Society in 1888. Franklin Guest Smith, a former Union officer still on active duty, served as secretary and member of the board of commissioners from 1893 until his 1903 military retirement, and served in the same role as a civilian until 1908.[7] Another former Union officer, Charles H. Grosvenor, was chairman of the park commission from 1910 until his death in 1917. During the Park's early years, it was managed by the War Department and used for military study as well as a memorial. The National Park Service took over site management in 1933.[8]

Use during the Spanish–American War

The newly created Chickamauga and Chattanooga National Military Park was utilized during the Spanish–American War as a major training center for troops in the southern states. The park was temporarily renamed "Camp George H. Thomas" in honor of the union army commander during the Civil War battle at the site. The park's proximity to the major rail hub at Chattanooga and its large tracts of land made it a logical marshalling area for troops being readied for service in Cuba and other points south.[9][10]

Park areas

The military park consists of four main areas, and a few small isolated reservations, around Chattanooga.

On October 15, 1966, as with all historic areas already administered by the National Park Service, the military park was listed on the National Register of Historic Places.

On February 20, 2003, Public Law No: 108-7 added Moccasin Bend as a new unit of the park. Moccasin Bend Archaeological District, designated a National Historic Landmark on September 8, 1986, is directly across the Tennessee River from Lookout Mountain. It is significant due to its archaeological resources of American Indian settlement. There are currently minimal visitor services at Moccasin Bend, including two hiking trails (the Blue Blazes Trail and the Browns Ferry Road) and a ten-acre meadow. Each of these areas is open to the public. The park anticipates further development, land restoration, and visitor services in the years to come.[11]

Chattanooga and Moccasin Bend viewed from the Lookout Mountain unit
Chattanooga and Moccasin Bend viewed from the Lookout Mountain unit

See also

References

  1. ^ "Listing of acreage – December 31, 2020" (XLSX). Land Resource Division, National Park Service. Retrieved August 15, 2021. (National Park Service Acreage Reports)
  2. ^ "NPS Annual Recreation Visits Report". National Park Service. Retrieved December 26, 2012.
  3. ^ "National Register Information System". National Register of Historic Places. National Park Service. July 9, 2010.
  4. ^ Jill K. Hanson and Robert W. Blvthe (February 10, 1998). "National Register of Historic Places Registration: Chickamauga and Chattanooga National Military Park". National Park Service. and more than 100 accompanying photos
  5. ^ Chickamauga and Chattanooga National Military Park (Ga. and Tenn.) Commission: Louisiana Committee Photographs (Mss. 4504), Louisiana and Lower Mississippi Valley Collections, LSU Libraries, Baton Rouge, Louisiana, USA. (accessed 26 January 2015) <http://www.louisianadigitallibrary.org/cdm/landingpage/collection/LSU_CNP>
  6. ^ "Saving History for Generations: The Creation of the First Civil War Military Park", Hallowed Ground, Fall 2013, Vol.14, no. 3, pages 14-15.
  7. ^ Suter, J. L., ed. (1908). District of Columbia: Concise Biographies of Its Prominent and Representative Contemporary Citizens. Washington, D.C.: Potomac Press. p. 434 – via Google Books.
  8. ^ "Saving History for Generations: The Creation of the First Civil War Military Park", Hallowed Ground, Fall 2013, Vol.14, no. 3, page 15.
  9. ^ "The Troops at Chickamauga, Park now called Camp George H. Thomas". The New York Times. April 23, 1898. Retrieved February 1, 2010.
  10. ^ "Spanish–American War". The Encyclopedia of Arkansas. Retrieved February 1, 2010.
  11. ^ "Visit". Friends of Moccasin Bend. Archived from the original on April 12, 2016. Retrieved March 11, 2016.