Chikuzen Province (筑前国, Chikuzen no kuni) was an old province of Japan in the area that is today part of Fukuoka Prefecture in Kyūshū. It was sometimes called Chikushū (筑州) or Chikuyō (筑陽), with Chikugo Province. Chikuzen bordered Buzen, Bungo, Chikugo, and Hizen Provinces.
The original provincial capital is believed to be near Dazaifu, although Fukuoka city has become dominant in modern times.
At the end of the 13th century, Chikuzen was the landing point for a Mongol invasion force. But the main force was destroyed by a typhoon (later called kamikaze).
In April 1336, Kikuchi Taketoshi attacked the Shoni clan stronghold at Dazaifu. At the time, the Shoni were allied with Ashikaga Takauji in his battles against Go-Daigo. The Shoni were defeated, which led to the suicide of several clan members, including their leader Shoni Sadatsune.
In the Meiji period, the provinces of Japan were converted into prefectures. Maps of Japan and Chikuzen Province were reformed in the 1870s. At the same time, the province continued to exist for some purposes. For example, Chikuzen is explicitly recognized in treaties in 1894 (a) between Japan and the United States and (b) between Japan and the United Kingdom.
The name persists in features such as the Chikuhō Main Line (JR Kyushu) and stations Chikuzen Habu and Chikuzen Ueki. The adjacent Haruda Line includes Chikuzen Uchino and Chikuzen Yamae stations, reflecting the region in the time the rail networks were established.
Sumiyoshi-jinja and Hakosaki-gū (Hakozaki Shrine?) were the chief Shinto shrines (ichinomiya) of Chikuzen.