Eyālet-i Čildir
Eyalet of the Ottoman Empire
1578–1845

The Childir Eyalet in 1609
CapitalÇıldır 1578–1628;
Ahıska 1628-1829
Oltu 1829-1845
History 
• Battle of Çıldır
1578
• Disestablished
1845
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Principality of Guria
Principality of Meskheti
Trabzon Eyalet
Kars Eyalet
Tiflis Governorate
Today part ofGeorgia
Turkey

The Eyalet of Childir[1] (Ottoman Turkish: ایالت چلدر, romanizedEyālet-i Çıldır)[2] or Akhalzik[3][nb 1] was an eyalet of the Ottoman Empire in the Southwestern Caucasus. The area of the former Çıldır Eyalet is now divided between Samtskhe-Javakheti and the Autonomous Republic of Adjara in Georgia and provinces of Artvin, Ardahan and Erzurum in Turkey. The administrative center was Çıldır between 1578 and 1628, Ahıska between 1628 and 1829, and Oltu between 1829 and 1845.

History

Samtskhe was the only Georgian principality to permanently become an Ottoman province (as the eyalet of Cildir).[4] In the eighty years after the Battle of Zivin, the region was gradually absorbed into the empire.[4]

The Ottomans took the Ahıska region from the Principality of Meskheti, a vassal state of Safavid dynasty. In 1578, when the new province was established, they appointed the former Georgian prince, Minuchir (who took the name of Mustafa after converting to Islam) as the first governor.[5] This eyalet expanded after taking the Adjara region from the Principality of Guria in 1582. From 1625 onwards the entire eyalet was a hereditary possession of the now-Muslim Jaqeli atabegs of Samtskhe,[4] which administered it as hereditary governors, with some exceptions, until the mid-18th century.[5] After 1639, the Jaqeli Pashas of Childir were charged with reining in the kings of Imereti.[6]

During the Russo-Turkish War (1828–1829), Russians occupied much of the province. The administrative centre was moved from Akhaltsikhe, which was ceded to Russia, to Oltu.[citation needed]

By the Treaty of Adrianople, much of the pashalik was ceded to Russia, and became part of the Russian Akhalzik uezd (district) of Kutaisi Governorate.[3] The remaining, smaller inner part was united with the eyalet of Kars (later part of Eyalet of Erzurum) in 1845 and its coastal areas were united with Trabzon Eyalet in 1829.[7]

Governors

Administrative divisions

Sanjaks of the Eyalet in the 17th century:[9]

  1. Sanjak of Oulti (Oltu)
  2. Sanjak of Harbus
  3. Sanjak of Ardinj (Ardanuç)
  4. Sanjak of Hajrek (Hanak)
  5. Sanjak of Great Ardehan
  6. Sanjak of Postkhu
  7. Sanjak of Mahjil (Macahel)
  8. Sanjak of Ijareh-penbek
  1. Sanjak of Purtekrek (Yusufeli)
  2. Sanjak of Lawaneh (Livane/Artvin)
  3. Sanjak of Nusuf Awan
  4. Sanjak of Shushad (Şavşat)

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Other variants of this name include Akalzike (from Malthe Conrad Bruun (1822). Universal geography, or A description of all the parts of the world. p. 121. Retrieved 2013-06-02.)

References

  1. ^ Society for the diffusion of useful knowledge (1843). The penny cyclopædia [ed. by G. Long]. p. 180. Retrieved 2013-06-01.
  2. ^ "Some Provinces of the Ottoman Empire". Geonames.de. Archived from the original on 28 September 2013. Retrieved 25 February 2013.
  3. ^ a b The Penny Cyclopaedia of the Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge. Charles Knight. 1838. p. 174. Retrieved 2013-06-02.
  4. ^ a b c D. E. Pitcher (1972). An Historical Geography of the Ottoman Empire: From Earliest Times to the End of the Sixteenth Century. Brill Archive. p. 140. GGKEY:4CFA3RCNXRP. Retrieved 2013-06-01.
  5. ^ a b Gábor Ágoston; Bruce Alan Masters (2009-01-01). Encyclopedia of the Ottoman Empire. Infobase Publishing. p. 141. ISBN 978-1-4381-1025-7. Retrieved 2013-06-01.
  6. ^ Armani, Henry John (1970). "THE RUSSIAN ANNEXATION OF THE KINGDOM OF IMERETIA, 1800-1815: IN THE LIGHT OF RUSSO-OTTOMAN RELATIONS". ProQuest. p. 20. Retrieved 2024-04-09.
  7. ^ The Penny Cyclopædia of the Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge. C. Knight. 1843. p. 393. Retrieved 2013-06-01.
  8. ^ OVER 50,000 PEOPLE VISIT ISHAK PASHA PALACE IN EASTERN TURKEY
  9. ^ Evliya Çelebi; Joseph von Hammer-Purgstall (1834). Narrative of Travels in Europe, Asia, and Africa in the Seventeenth Century. Oriental Translation Fund. p. 95. Retrieved 2013-06-01.