This article's tone or style may not reflect the encyclopedic tone used on Wikipedia. See Wikipedia's guide to writing better articles for suggestions. (April 2019) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

Circuit de Spa-Francorchamps
Logo Circuit de Spa Francorchamps.svg

Spa-Francorchamps of Belgium.svg
LocationStavelot, Belgium
Time zoneCET (UTC+1)
CEST (DST)
Coordinates50°26′14″N 5°58′17″E / 50.43722°N 5.97139°E / 50.43722; 5.97139Coordinates: 50°26′14″N 5°58′17″E / 50.43722°N 5.97139°E / 50.43722; 5.97139
Capacity70,000
FIA Grade1
Major eventsCurrent:
Formula One
Belgian Grand Prix (intermittently 1925–1970, 1983–present)
GT World Challenge Europe Endurance Cup
Spa 24 Hours
World Endurance Championship
6 Hours of Spa (2012–present)
Spa-Classic
FIA World Rallycross Championship
World RX of Benelux (2019, 2021–present)
FIM Endurance World Championship
24H Spa EWC Motos
(1973–2001, 2022)
Sidecar World Championship
(1949–1979, 1981–1990, 2022)
ELMS
4 Hours of Spa
(2004–2011, 2016–present)
International GT Open
(2008–present)
DTM (2005, 2020, 2022)
FIA F2 (2017–2020, 2022)
FIA F3 (2019–present)
FREC (2021-present)
TCR Europe (2018–present)
FFSA GT Championship (1998, 2008, 2013–2015, 2019, 2021–present)
Former:
Belgian motorcycle Grand Prix (1949–1979, 1981–1986, 1988–1990)
WTCC Race of Belgium (2005, 2014)
World SBK (1992)
World Sportscar Championship (1953, 1963–1975, 1981–1990)
W Series (2021)
Spa-Francorchamps GP2 round (2005, 2007–2016)
GP3 (2010–2018)
World Series Formula V8 3.5 (2006–2017)
Grand Prix Circuit (2007–present)
Length7.004 km (4.352 miles)
Turns20
Race lap record1:46.286 (Valtteri Bottas, Mercedes W09, 2018, Formula One)
Grand Prix Circuit (2004–2006)
Length6.976 km (4.335 miles)
Turns19
Race lap record1:45.108 (Kimi Räikkönen, McLaren MP4-19B, 2004, Formula One)
Grand Prix Circuit (1995–2003)
Length6.968 km (4.330 miles)
Turns19
Race lap record1:47.176 (Michael Schumacher, Ferrari F2002, 2002, Formula One)
Grand Prix Circuit with chicane at Eau Rouge (1994)
Length7.001 km (4.350 miles)
Turns19
Race lap record1:57.117 (Damon Hill, Williams FW16B, 1994, Formula One)
Grand Prix Circuit (1981–1993)
Length6.940 km (4.312 miles)
Turns19
Race lap record1:51.095 (Alain Prost, Williams FW15C, 1993, Formula One)
Grand Prix Circuit (1979–1980)
Length6.947 km (4.317 miles)
Turns17
Race lap record2:49.250 (Kenny Blake, Yamaha YZR500, 1979, 500cc)
Old Circuit (1939–1978)
Length14.100 km (8.761 miles)
Turns21
Race lap record3:13.400 (Henri Pescarolo, Matra-Simca MS670B, 1973, Group 5)
Original Pre-War Circuit (1921–1938)
Length14.982 km (9.310 miles)
Turns25
Race lap record5:04.100 (Hermann Lang, Mercedes-Benz W125, 1937, GP)
Websitewww.spa-francorchamps.be

The Circuit de Spa-Francorchamps (French pronunciation: ​[siʁkɥi də spa fʁɑ̃kɔʁʃɑ̃]), frequently referred to as Spa,[1][2] is a 7.004 km (4.352 mi) motor-racing circuit located in Stavelot, Belgium. It is the current venue of the Formula One Belgian Grand Prix, hosting its first Grand Prix in 1925, and has held a Grand Prix every year since 1985 (except 2003 and 2006).

Spa also hosts several other international events including the 24 Hours of Spa, the World Endurance Championship 6 Hours of Spa-Francorchamps, and the TCR Spa 500. It is also home to the Uniroyal Fun Cup 25 Hours of Spa, one of the longest motor races in the world.

The circuit has undergone several redesigns through its history, most extensively in 1979 when the track was modified and shortened from a 14.100 km (8.761 mi) circuit using public roads to a 6.968 km (4.330 mi) permanent circuit due to safety concerns with the old circuit.[3]

Despite its name, the circuit is not in Spa but lies in the vicinity of the town of Francorchamps within the boundaries of the municipality of Stavelot, with a part in the boundaries of Malmedy.

Track configurations

Original layout

The original 15 km track layout
The original 15 km track layout
The quicker 14 km track layout
The quicker 14 km track layout
Eau Rouge and Raidillon in 1997, with a maximum gradient in excess of 18%
Eau Rouge and Raidillon in 1997, with a maximum gradient in excess of 18%

Designed in 1920 by Jules de Thier and Henri Langlois Van Ophem,[4] the original course used public roads linking the Belgian towns of Francorchamps, Malmedy, and Stavelot. The track's inaugural race was planned for August 1921, but was cancelled when only one driver entered.[4] The first car race was held at the circuit in 1922, and 1924 saw the first running of the now famous 24 Hours of Francorchamps race.[4] The circuit was first used for Grand Prix racing in 1925.[4]

The original Spa-Francorchamps circuit was essentially a speed course, with drivers managing higher average speeds than on other race tracks.[citation needed] At the time, the Belgians took pride in having a very fast circuit, and to improve average speeds, in 1939 the former slow uphill U-turn at the bottom of the Eau Rouge creek valley, called the Ancienne Douane (until 1920, there was a German Empire customs office here[5]), was cut short with a faster sweep straight up the hill, called the Raidillon. At Eau Rouge, southbound traffic was allowed to use the famous uphill corner, while the opposite downhill traffic had to use the old road and U-turn behind the grandstands, rejoining the race track at the bottom of Eau Rouge.

The old race track continued through the now-straightened Kemmel curves to the highest part of the track (104 metres above the lowest part), then went downhill into Les Combes, a fast, slightly banked downhill left-hand corner towards Burnenville, passing this village in a fast right hand sweep. Near Malmedy, the Masta straight began, which was only interrupted by the Masta Kink between farm houses before arriving at the town of Stavelot. Then, the track progressed through an uphill straight section with a few bends called La Carriere, going through two high-speed turns (the former being an unnamed right-hand turn, and the latter named Blanchimont) before braking very hard for the La Source hairpin, and that rejoined the downhill start finish section (as opposed to today where the start–finish section is before La Source).

Spa is located in the Belgian Ardennes countryside, and the old circuit was, and still is, used as everyday public road, and there were houses, trees, electric poles, fields and other obstacles located right next to the track. Before 1970, there were no safety modifications of any kind done to the circuit and the conditions of the circuit were, aside from a few straw bales, virtually identical to everyday civilian use. Former Formula One racing driver and team owner Jackie Oliver was quoted as saying "if you went off the road, you didn't know what you were going to hit".[6]

Spa-Francorchamps was the fastest road circuit in Europe at the time,[when?] and it had a reputation for being dangerous and very fast – it demanded calmness from drivers, and most were frightened of it. The old Spa circuit was unique in that speeds were consistently high with hardly any let-up at all for three to four minutes. This made it an extraordinarily difficult mental challenge, because most of the corners were taken at more than 290 km/h (180 mph) and were not quite flat – every corner was as important as the one before it. If a driver lifted the throttle more than expected, then whole seconds, not tenths, would be lost. The slightest error of any kind carried multiple harsh consequences, but this also worked inversely: huge advantages could be gained if a driver came out of a corner slightly faster.

Like the Le Mans circuit, which also ran on public roads, Spa became notorious for fatal accidents. At the 1960 Belgian Grand Prix, two drivers, Chris Bristow and Alan Stacey, were killed within 15 minutes (although Stacey's accident was caused by a bird hitting him in the face) and Stirling Moss had crashed at Burnenville during practice and was severely injured. When Armco crash barriers were added to the track in 1970, deaths became less frequent, but the track was still notorious for other factors. The Ardennes forest had very unpredictable weather and there were parts where it was raining and the track was wet, and other parts where the sun was shining and the track was completely dry. This factor was a commonality on long circuits, but the unpredictable weather at Spa, combined with the fact that it was a track with all but one corner being high-speed, made it one of the most dangerous race tracks in the world (if not the most). As a result, the Formula 1 and motorcycle Grands Prix and 1000 km sportscar races saw smaller than usual fields at Spa because most drivers and riders feared the circuit and did not like racing there. Multiple fatalities during the 1973 and 1975 24 Hours of Spa touring car races more or less sealed the old circuit's fate, and by 1978, the last year Spa was in its original form, the only major races held there were the Belgian motorcycle Grand Prix and the Spa 24 Hours touring car race; the 1000 km World Sportscar Championship race no longer took place after 1975 and did not come back until 1982.[citation needed]

In 1969, the Belgian Grand Prix was boycotted by the F1 drivers because of the extreme danger of Spa. There had been ten car racing fatalities in total at the track in the 1960s, including five in the two years previous. The drivers demanded changes made to Spa which were not possible on short notice, so the Belgian Grand Prix was dropped that year. Armco barriers were added to the track and sections of it were improved (especially the Stavelot and Holowell sections), just like they had been added for the 1969 Le Mans race. One last race there the following year on the improved track was still not satisfactory enough (even after a temporary chicane was added at Malmedy just for that race) for the drivers in terms of safety, and even with the chicane, the drivers averaged over 240 km/h (150 mph) during the race. For the 1971 race, the track owners and authorities had not brought the track up to date with mandatory safety measures, and the race was cancelled. Formula One would not return to Spa until 1983 on the modern track.

Masta Kink

Map of the old and new (2004–2006) Spa circuits, overlaid
Map of the old and new (2004–2006) Spa circuits, overlaid

The Masta Kink "was by far the most difficult corner in the world", according to Jackie Stewart,[7] requiring skill and bravery in equal measure to get it right. After a long run from Malmedy, the cars would reach top speed before having to negotiate Masta, a high speed left-right chicane, and a good exit speed was vital as it was followed by another long straight run to Stavelot. This was a very fast and very dangerous corner, as it was situated right in the middle of two long unbroken straights, both about 1.5 mi (2.4 km) long. The speed in this sector could reach 310 km/h (190 mph).

Masta was removed from F1 racing after the 1970 season. Jackie Stewart's crusade to improve safety in racing was set in motion by his crash there in 1966, when his BRM ended upside-down in a ditch near a farmhouse on the outside of the corner, with fuel gushing out of the tank onto Stewart, who had broken ribs. At this point, many of the Formula One drivers disliked Spa (including Stewart and Jim Clark, who had some of his greatest wins there) because of the immense speeds that were constant on the track. While he was spectating at the 1972 12 Hours of Sebring, Stewart attempted to organise a boycott of the Spa 1000 km race that year, a move that was not respected by many of the drivers, because Spa was still popular with racing drivers outside of Formula One. Stewart later described the old Spa circuit in 1986 as being as "ferocious as a tiger", and he later described Masta in an interview in 2011 as perhaps the hardest corner on any racetrack he raced on in his career; even more so than Eau Rouge.[8]

A Porsche 904 GTS turning into La Source in 1965
A Porsche 904 GTS turning into La Source in 1965

Another particularly gruesome story comes from the 1972 24-hour touring car race.[9] During one of his pit stops at night, Hans-Joachim Stuck shouted to his co-driver Jochen Mass over the noise from the cars that he should "look out for body parts at the Masta Kink". Mass arrived there expecting to see pieces from cars all over the road but was appalled to discover it was in fact the remains of a marshal.[10]

After Masta, and at the end of the subsequent Holowell Straight, there used to be a sharp hairpin at the entrance to the town itself, which was later bypassed by a quicker, banked right hand corner. Another fast section of road in the forest leads to Blanchimont. Here, the new short Grand Prix track of 1979 joins the old layout.

Eighteen Formula One World Championship Grands Prix were run on the Spa-Francorchamps circuit's original configuration, which was boycotted by F1 in 1969,[11] before the revised circuit banished it to the history books in 1979. The lap record of the old triangle-shaped track is 3 minutes and 13.4 seconds, held by the French driver Henri Pescarolo, driving a Matra at the 1973 Spa 1000 km World Sportscar Championship race at an average speed of 262 km/h (163 mph), but the fastest ever recorded time of the old Spa circuit was the pole position time for the same race—3 minutes and 12.7 seconds by Jacky Ickx in a Ferrari 312PB.

New layout

A satellite view of the modern circuit
A satellite view of the modern circuit

Over the years, the Spa course has been modified several times. The track was originally about 15 km (9.3 mi) long, but after World War II, the track underwent some changes. In 1930, the chicane at Malmedy was eliminated and bypassed, making the course even faster, but the chicane was re-installed in 1935, albeit slightly different. In 1939, "Virage de l'Ancienne Douane" was eliminated and cut short, thus giving birth to the Eau Rouge/Raidillon uphill sweeping corner. In 1947, the chicane at Malmedy was again eliminated and bypassed, and was made part of the Masta Straight. The slight right-hander that was originally Holowell (the corner before Stavelot after the second Masta Straight) was eliminated. And finally, instead of going through a slight left-hander that went into the town of Stavelot and a sharp right-hander at a road junction in Stavelot, a shortcut was built that became a very fast, very wide right-handed turn that bypassed Stavelot. All these changes made the final configuration of the old Spa circuit 14.100 km (8.761 mi) long, and also made Spa the fastest open road circuit in the world. In the final years of the old circuit, drivers could average 240 km/h (150 mph). The biggest change, however, saw the circuit being shortened from 14.100 km (8.761 mi) to 6.947 km (4.317 mi) in 1979. The start/finish line, which was originally on the downhill straight before Eau Rouge, was moved to the straight before the La Source hairpin in 1981. Like its predecessor, the new layout is still a fast and hilly route through the Ardennes where speeds in excess of 330 km/h (210 mph) can be reached. Since its inception, the place has been famous for its unpredictable weather, where drivers are confronted with one part of the course being clear and bright while another stretch is rainy and slippery.

The circuit probably[according to whom?] demonstrates the importance of driver skill more than any other in the world. This is largely due to the Eau Rouge and Blanchimont corners, both which need to be taken flat out to achieve a fast run onto the straights after them, which aids a driver in both a fast lap and in overtaking.

The "Raidillon" in the Eau Rouge valley
The "Raidillon" in the Eau Rouge valley
Red water ("Eau rouge" in French) on the banks of the river close to the circuit
Red water ("Eau rouge" in French) on the banks of the river close to the circuit

Eau Rouge

The most famous part of the circuit is the Eau Rouge and Raidillon combination. Having negotiated the La Source hairpin, drivers race down a straight to the point where the track crosses the Eau Rouge stream for the first time, before being launched steeply uphill into a sweeping left-right-left series of corners with a blind summit. Properly speaking, the Eau Rouge corner is only the left-hander at the bottom. The following right-hander that leads steeply uphill, which was introduced in 1939 to shortcut the original Ancienne Douane hairpin, is called Raidillon [fr]. The corner requires an amount of skill from the driver to negotiate it well and the long Kemmel straight ahead produces good overtaking opportunities for drivers at the following "Les Combes" corner. The corner was tighter and narrower before 1970, allowing drivers to take the corner faster.

2005 and 2006 F1 World Champion Fernando Alonso explained:

"...You come into the corner downhill, have a sudden change [of direction] at the bottom and then go very steep uphill. From the cockpit, you cannot see the exit and as you come over the crest, you don't know where you will land. It is a crucial corner for the timed lap, and also in the race, because you have a long uphill straight afterwards where you can lose a lot of time if you make a mistake. But it is also an important corner for the driver's feeling. It makes a special impression every lap, because you also have a compression in your body as you go through the bottom of the corner. It is very strange – but good fun as well."[12]

A challenge for drivers has always been to take Eau Rouge/Raidillon flat out. Touring cars can take the corner at 160–180 km/h (99–112 mph), and Formula One cars at over 300 km/h (190 mph) due to high downforce.[13] World Champion Jacques Villeneuve once spoke of the effects of downforce, saying that to get through the corner the drivers have to drive faster, because downforce increases the faster a race car goes. Without lifting the throttle through Eau Rouge, a car would be flat out from La Source, along the Kemmel straight to Les Combes, a total distance of 2.015 km (1.252 mi).

A loss of control through this section can often lead to a very heavy shunt, as usually the rear end of the car is lost and the resulting impact is often lateral. Several famous racing drivers have crashed while driving through Eau Rouge/Raidillon, including Stefan Bellof in a Porsche sportscar, Guy Renard during the 1990 24h of Spa-Francorchamps in a Toyota Corolla GT, and Alex Zanardi in a season-ending crash during a practice session of the 1993 Belgian Grand Prix in a Lotus. Jacques Villeneuve suffered a spectacular crash at the top of Raidillon in qualifying during the 1999 Belgian Grand Prix which he described as "My best-ever crash". His teammate Ricardo Zonta followed Villeneuve by having a similar accident later in practice, leading cartoonist Jim Bamber to show BAR boss Craig Pollock telling Zonta: "Jacques is the quickest through Eau Rouge, so go out there and do exactly what Jacques does…" It was revealed later that Villeneuve and Zonta had a personal bet to see if either could take the corner flat out.[14]

Following the deaths of Roland Ratzenberger and Ayrton Senna at Imola in 1994, the following F1 races saw the introduction of chicanes made up from stacked tyres. The entry to Eau Rouge was obstructed in such a way in 1994, although it was returned to its previous configuration the following year. The corner was slightly modified for the 2002 Belgian Grand Prix.

When fans first got to see the course configuration at the start of the weekend of the 2005 Turkish Grand Prix, they noted that an uphill kink on the back straight was very similar to Eau Rouge; the kink was therefore jokingly dubbed "Faux Rouge" (a pun on the name of the original Spa corner using the French word "faux", meaning "false").[15]

Spa Francorchamps Kemmel Straight

Blanchimont

The Blanchimont high-speed left-hand turn, present in both the old 14.100 km (8.761 mi) circuit and the new, shorter, 7.004 km (4.352 mi) track, is the final sweeping corner of the track before the chicane, which leads to the pit straight.

This turn and the approach to it have been the scene of serious accidents over time, the most recent being in 2001, when Luciano Burti lost the front wing of his Prost due to a clash with Eddie Irvine's Jaguar, losing front downforce and steering, leaving the track at 298 km/h (185 mph) and piling into the tyre wall, the impact knocking him out and burying the car into a mound of tyres. Problems have also occurred in lower classes of racing with Tom Kristensen having a very violent crash in a Formula 3000 car in 1997 after running wide on the entry to the Blanchimont turn and subsequently hitting the wall, throwing the monocoque back out in the middle of the track, where it was hit by numerous cars before coming to a complete halt.[16]

The run-off area is narrower than in other turns taken at this speed, and behind the protective barriers there is a 7–8 metre drop. This is the first turn taken by the cars after the new track rejoins the route of the old 14 km track. Blanchimont was also the scene where in 1992 after Érik Comas had crashed heavily during Friday's session, Ayrton Senna stopped, disembarked his car and sprinted to help the injured driver, with other cars driving past at racing speeds.

Jacky Ickx corner

From the 2018 Belgian Grand Prix turn 11 has been called the Jacky Ickx corner as a tribute to his career.[17] The corner was formerly known by most drivers as "speakers corner" because the circuit's public address announcer could see the cars for the first time after the cars disappeared into the forest past Raidillon. There are two versions of Jacky Ickx as of 2022, the car turn and a turn inside of it for motorcycles.

Problems and renovations

Due to the introduction of the Television Without Frontiers Directive (1989),[18] tobacco advertising and sponsorship on television were banned within the European Union from 1991. Formula One faced a major threat regarding races in its historical European heartland. Due to these political and legislative circumstances, the Grand Prix at Spa was left out of the 2003 calendar as a response to the internal tobacco legislation in Belgium. The event was tagged as a world class event within the national senate, and thus it was saved for the 2004 Formula One season. The final Bus Stop chicane was reprofiled for 2004 with an additional sweep to the right.

Spa was dropped from the Formula One calendar in 2006. The organiser of the event went bankrupt in late 2005, and therefore the planned improvements to the race track and paddock had not yet been made. The Wallonia government stepped in and provided the necessary funds, but too late for the 2006 race to take place.

Redevelopment for the 2007 season

With a new financial backer, the renovation started on 6 November 2006 and finished in May 2007, costing around €19 million.[19] Formula 1 returned to Spa for 2007, with a modified track layout. The Bus Stop chicane was moved back towards Blanchimont and the La Source hairpin moved forward. This allowed more space for the new pit lane, and gave a longer start/finish straight.

Modifications

New asphalt runoff was added to the inside and outside of Les Combes for the 2010 race, in line with the prevailing trends at other Formula One circuits. Prior to the 2013 race, drainage grooves were cut into the asphalt on the start–finish straight, underneath the first 11 grid slots. Drivers were initially concerned[citation needed] that this would affect grip at the start.

Eau Rouge and Raidillon safety concerns

In Spa Francorchamps' tenure as a permanent racing facility, after it was removed from the public road network in 2000, there have been multiple accidents in the Eau Rouge/Raidillon combination. In the day and age where safety is paramount to many racing organizations and governing bodies like the Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile, these crashes, of which some noteworthy ones are listed below, opened up public debate whether the Eau Rouge/Raidillon combination was deemed unsafe. Criticism centred around the nature of the tyre barrier and run-off area of Raidillon, which tended to bounce out-of-control cars back onto the track rather than collect them.[20]

In October 2020 the circuit announced that gravel traps would be placed at La Source, Raidillon, Blanchimont, Les Combes and Stavelot. The runoff areas of some corners including Raidillon would be expanded. It was part of an €80 million upgrade to the circuit that would make it able to hold motorcycle races. The upgrade will also include a grandstand at the top of the Eau Rouge/Raidillon hill. The upgrades were completed in March 2022, ready for the FIM EWC race, due to be held in June. The circuit is also shortened, as Jacky Ickx corner is bypassed in favour of a shorter section with more runoff for motorcycles.[21][22]

Fatal crash of Formula 2 driver Anthoine Hubert in 2019

During the Formula 2 feature race in late August, a serious incident between Anthoine Hubert and Juan Manuel Correa occurred shortly after Raidillon on the Kemmel Straight. As the second lap began, Trident driver Giuliano Alesi lost control of his car as he climbed the Raidillon curve due to a puncture he had received earlier, causing his car to spin and hit the left wall of the circuit, tearing off his rear wing and spreading debris onto the track. As another Trident driver, Ralph Boschung reached the crest of Raidillon, he slowed down and moved towards the run-off area to avoid Alesi's damaged car and the field of debris. Hubert, who was following Boschung closely and had no view of what had happened to Alesi, moved right to avoid Boschung's slowing car, clipping Boschung's right rear wheel with his front wing. Hubert's car crashed into the tyre barrier on the right side of the track at an acute angle and was deflected sideways into the path of Charouz driver Juan Manuel Correa, who struck it on the left side in the driver seat area.[23]

The incident resulted in the death of Hubert and serious injury to Correa with the feature race being abandoned and the scheduled sprint race a day later being cancelled too, whilst the Formula 1 Belgian Grand Prix went ahead.

2021 W Series and Formula One incidents

During the qualifying session of the W Series, rain started to fall, affecting the grip. This caused a serious incident that involved six cars crashing into each other. Sarah Moore was the first driver to lose control of her car, spinning into the barrier at Raidillon. Abbie Eaton also lost the car and spun into the same barrier. She bounced back into Moore at low speed. Beitske Visser lost the rear end, spun around and went straight into Eaton and Moore, causing Eaton to become airborne. Ayla Agren did the same as Visser, spinning and running into Moore and an airborne Eaton. Belén García then hit all four cars, causing Visser to become airborne and mount the tyre barrier. The final car of Fabienne Wohlwend then hit Beitske Visser head on, causing Visser to spin into the track and roll over.[24][25] The incident ended with cars all over the track and run off areas. All drivers were checked as a precaution, and Visser and Agren were sent to hospital for x-rays and further checks.[26] Eventually, all drivers were cleared and unharmed.[27]

Just one day after the W Series crash, Formula One held its qualifying session in heavy rain. In the third segment of qualifying, many drivers were complaining that the conditions were not safe and that the session should be delayed or red flagged. Lando Norris then had a snap of oversteer, and subsequently corrected but then aquaplaned into the tyre barrier at Raidillon. His McLaren then spun into the track while crossing the racing line.[28][29] Norris was taken to hospital for x-rays, but was cleared to race the next day.[30]

After this crash and the W Series incident just a day before, drivers from all series were calling for changes to that section of the track. Jack Aitken, who a month earlier suffered a broken collarbone and fractured vertebra after a crash at Eau Rouge in the 2021 24 Hours of Spa, said "everyone has gotten the picture of what needs changing"[31] on social media, regarding the W Series crash. Guanyu Zhou stated "Eau Rouge corner in Spa needs to making a change,"[32] while Pietro Fittipaldi said "they need to do something to Eau Rouge to make it safer.”[33] Carlos Sainz Jr. insisted the "corner maybe needs a bit of fine-tuning still."[34] Sacha Fenestraz, Jake Hughes, Daniel Ricciardo and Toto Wolff all agreed changes need to be made immediately to make the circuit safer.[35][36][37][38]

Other incidents

Multiple other incidents have happened at the Eau Rouge/Raidillon section of the circuit. These include crashes for Kevin Magnussen in 2016, where he managed to walk away with only minor injuries;[39] Pietro Fittipaldi in 2018, where he broke his leg[40] and Jack Aitken in 2021, where he broke his collarbone.[41]

Other racing series

Besides Formula 1 other races in different motorsports classes are hosted at Spa-Francorchamps. The most notable ones are the Blancpain Endurance Series, Formula 3, the RCN, Motorbike Endurance, DTM, and previously the ADAC GT Masters and the WTCC. The most famous long-distance and sports car races are the Spa 24 Hours and the 1000 km Spa. The circuit also hosts a 24-hour 2CV race.[42]

Current
Former

Layout history

Lap records

The unofficial all-time track record set during a race weekend is 1:41.252, set by Lewis Hamilton in a Mercedes-AMG F1 W11 EQ Performance, during final qualifying for the 2020 Belgian Grand Prix.[43][44] The official lap record for the current circuit layout is 1:46.286, set by Valtteri Bottas during the 2018 Belgian Grand Prix. The official race lap records of the modern Spa-Francorchamps circuit for several top series have been listed as:

Category Time Driver Vehicle Event
Modern Grand Prix Circuit with New Pit Lane and Bus Stop Chicane: 7.004 km (2007–present)
Formula One 1:46.286 Valtteri Bottas Mercedes AMG F1 W09 EQ Power+ 2018 Belgian Grand Prix
GP2 1:56.731 Sergio Pérez Dallara GP2/08 2009 Spa GP2 round
LMP1 1:57.394[45] Mike Conway Toyota TS050 Hybrid 2019 6 Hours of Spa-Francorchamps
FIA F2 2:00.204 Artem Markelov Dallara GP2/11 2017 Spa F2 round
Formula Renault 3.5 2:00.928[46] Jules Bianchi Dallara T12 2012 Spa Formula Renault 3.5 Series round
LMH 2:03.930[47] Sébastien Buemi Toyota GR010 Hybrid 2021 6 Hours of Spa-Francorchamps
LMP2 2:04.155[45] Pastor Maldonado Oreca 07 2019 6 Hours of Spa-Francorchamps
Auto GP 2:04.921[48] Romain Grosjean Lola B05/52 2010 Spa Auto GP round
GP3 2:06.456[49] Daniil Kvyat Dallara GP3/13 2013 Spa GP3 round
FIA F3 2:06.865 Logan Sargeant Dallara F3 2019 2020 Spa F3 round
FTwo (2009–2012) 2:07.722[50] Markus Pommer Williams JPH1 2012 Spa FTwo round
Class 1 Touring Cars 2:08.715[51] René Rast Audi RS5 Turbo DTM 2020 2020 Spa DTM round
LM GTE 2:13.658[47] Kévin Estre Porsche 911 RSR-19 2021 6 Hours of Spa-Francorchamps
LMP3 2:14.336[52] Marvin Dienst Ligier JS P320 2022 Spa Prototype Cup Germany round
GT1 (GTS) 2:15.423[53] Oliver Gavin Chevrolet Corvette C6.R 2009 24 Hours of Spa
FREC 2:17.678[54] Michael Belov Tatuus F.3 T-318 2021 Spa FREC round
GT3 2:18.146[55] Marco Mapelli Lamborghini Huracán GT3 Evo 2020 24 Hours of Spa
Formula Renault 2.0 2:18.441[56] Matevos Isaakyan Tatuus FR2.0/13 2015 Spa Eurocup Formula Renault 2.0 round
Formula 4 2:22.596[57] Robert Shwartzman Tatuus F4-T014 2015 Spa ADAC Formula 4 round
WTCC 2:26.579 Yvan Muller Citroën C-Elysée WTCC 2014 FIA WTCC Race of Belgium
JS P4 2:29.904[58] Kevin Balthazar Ligier JS P4 2020 Spa Ligier European Series round
TCR Touring Car 2:30.858[59] Santiago Urrutia Audi RS 3 LMS TCR 2019 Spa TCR Europe round
GT4 2:32.557[60] Adrien Tambay Porsche 718 Cayman GT4 Clubsport 2019 Spa French GT4 Cup round
Alpine Elf Europa Cup 2:34.453[61] Jean-Baptiste Mela Alpine A110 Cup 2021 Spa Alpine Elf Europa Cup round
JS2 R 2:34.789[58] Viktor Shaytar Ligier JS2 R 2020 Spa Ligier European Series round
Stock car racing 2:34.795[62] Ander Vilariño Chevrolet Camaro NASCAR 2012 Spa Racecar Euro Series round
W Series 2:43.401[63] Emma Kimiläinen Tatuus F.3 T-318 2021 Spa W Series round
Motorcycle Circuit with Modified Speaker's Corner Curve: 6.985 km (2022)
Modern Grand Prix Circuit with Modified Bus Stop Chicane: 6.976 km (2004–2006)
Formula One 1:45.108 Kimi Räikkönen McLaren MP4-19B 2004 Belgian Grand Prix
Formula Renault 3.5 2:06.447[64] Miloš Pavlović Dallara T05 2006 Spa Formula Renault 3.5 Series round
LMP1 2:06.626[65] Jamie Davies Audi R8 2004 1000 km of Spa
GP2 2:07.563 Alexandre Prémat Dallara GP2/05 2005 Spa GP2 round
Euroseries 3000 2:08.457[66] Marco Bonanomi Lola B02/50 2006 Spa Euroseries 3000 round
LMP2 2:08.781[67] Ángel Burgueño Lola B05/40 2006 1000 km of Spa
DTM 2:13.134[68] Mika Häkkinen AMG-Mercedes C-Klasse 2005 2005 Spa DTM Round
Formula 3 2:13.844[69] Lewis Hamilton Dallara F305 2005 Spa F3 Euro Series round
GT1 (GTS) 2:15.598[70] Jamie Davies Maserati MC12 GT1 2005 Spa 24 Hours
Formula Renault 2.0 2:20.758[71] Scott Speed Tatuus FR2000 2004 Spa Formula Renault 2000 Eurocup round
N-GT 2:23.052[72] Romain Dumas Porsche 911 (996) GT3-RSR 2004 Spa 24 Hours
GT2 2:23.862[70] Emmanuel Collard Porsche 911 (996) GT3-RSR 2005 Spa 24 Hours
F3000 2:29.524[73] Robert Doornbos Lola B02/50 2004 Spa F3000 round
Super 2000 2:32.302[74] Frank Diefenbacher SEAT Toledo Cupra 2004 Spa ETCC round
Modern Grand Prix Circuit with Original Bus Stop Chicane: 6.968 km (1995–2003)
Formula One 1:47.176 Michael Schumacher Ferrari F2002 2002 Belgian Grand Prix
F3000 2:07.133[75] Sébastien Bourdais Lola B02/50 2002 Spa F3000 round
LMP900 2:08.074[76] Tom Kristensen Audi R8 2003 1000 km of Spa
Euro F3000 2:09.800[77] Jaroslav Janiš Lola B02/50 2002 Spa Euro F3000 round
GT1 (Prototype) 2:12.058[78] Bernd Schneider Mercedes-Benz CLK GTR 1997 FIA GT Spa 4 Hours
GT1 2:16.978[79] Thierry Boutsen Porsche 911 GT1 1996 4 Hours of Spa
SR2 2:17.051[80] Mirko Savoldi Lucchini SR2002 2002 FIA Sportscar Championship Spa
GT1 (GTS) 2:18.745[81] Andrea Piccini Ferrari 550 GTS Maranello 2002 Spa 24 Hours
N-GT 2:26.379[82] Andrea Bertolini Ferrari 360 Modena N-GT 2003 Spa 24 Hours
Super Touring 2:30.780[83] Peter Kox BMW 318is 1995 Spa STW Cup round
Super 2000 2:33.596[84] Andy Priaulx BMW 320i 2003 Spa ETCC round
Modern Grand Prix Circuit with Modified Eau Rouge Chicane: 7.001 km (1994)
Formula One 1:57.117 Damon Hill Williams FW16B 1994 Belgian Grand Prix
GT1 2:26.440[85] Anders Olofsson Ferrari F40 GTE 1994 4 Hours of Spa
F3000 2:32.388[86] Tarso Marques Reynard 94D 1994 Spa F3000 round
Super Touring 2:32.780[87] Johnny Cecotto BMW 318is 1994 Spa STW Cup round
Modern Grand Prix Circuit with Original Bus Stop Chicane: 6.940 km (1981–1993)
Formula One 1:51.095 Alain Prost Williams FW15C 1993 Belgian Grand Prix
Group C 2:06.211[88] Mauro Baldi Mercedes-Benz C11 1990 480 km of Spa
F3000 2:06.940[89] Pedro Lamy Reynard 92D 1993 Spa F3000 round
Formula Two 2:16.810[90] Geoff Lees Ralt RH6/81 1981 Spa F2 round
500cc 2:26.110 Kevin Schwantz Suzuki RGV500 1989 Belgian motorcycle Grand Prix
World SBK 2:29.890[91] Doug Polen Ducati 888 SBK 1992 Spa World SBK round
Jaguar Sport 2:31.420[92] Cor Euser Jaguar XJR-15 1991 Spa Jaguar Intercontinental Challenge round
250cc 2:33.530 Sito Pons Honda NSR250 1989 Belgian motorcycle Grand Prix
Group A 2:37.390[93] Steve Soper Ford Sierra RS500 Cosworth 1988 Spa 24 Hour
125cc 2:55.740 Hans Spaan Honda RS125R 1989 Belgian motorcycle Grand Prix
Modern Grand Prix Circuit without Bus Stop Chicane: 6.947 km (1979–1980)
500cc 2:49.250[94] Kenny Blake Yamaha YZR500 1979 Belgian motorcycle Grand Prix
Old Grand Prix Circuit: 14.100 km (1939–1978)
Group 5 sportscars 3:13.400[95] Henri Pescarolo Matra-Simca MS670 1973 1000km of Spa
F1 3:27.400 Chris Amon March 701 1970 Belgian Grand Prix
Group 2 3:49.400[96] Chris Amon BMW 3.0 CSL 1973 Spa 24 Hour
500cc 3:50.300[97] Barry Sheene Suzuki RGA500 1977 Belgian motorcycle Grand Prix
250cc 4:05.400 Walter Villa Harley-Davidson RR250[98][99][100] 1977 Belgian motorcycle Grand Prix
Group 5 touring cars 4:11.200[101] Chris Tuerlinckx Chevrolet Camaro 1969 Spa 24 Hour
Sidecar (B2A) 4:13.500 Rolf Steinhausen Busch-Yamaha sidecar 1977 Belgian motorcycle Grand Prix
Group 1B 4:19.000[102] Loek Vermeulen Chevrolet Camaro Z28 1978 Spa 24 Hour
125cc 4:22.200 Angel Nieto Morbidelli 125 GP[103][104][105][106] 1977 Belgian motorcycle Grand Prix
50cc 5:07.400 Eugenio Lazzarini Kreidler 50cc GP[107][108][109][110] 1977 Belgian motorcycle Grand Prix
Pre-war Grand Prix Circuit: 14.58 km (1939)
GP 5:19.900[111] Hermann Lang Mercedes-Benz W154 1939 Belgian Grand Prix
Pre-war Grand Prix Circuit: 14.95 km (1934-1938)[112][113]
GP 5:04.700[114] Hermann Lang Mercedes-Benz W125 1937 Belgian Grand Prix
Pre-war Grand Prix Circuit: 14.86 km (1930-1933)[115]
GP 6:00.000[116] Tazio Nuvolari Maserati 8CM 1933 Belgian Grand Prix
Original Grand Prix Circuit: 14.98 km (1920-1929)
GP 6:51.200[117] Antonio Ascari Alfa Romeo P2 1925 Belgian Grand Prix

In popular culture

As the long-time home of the Belgian Grand Prix and its location within the Ardennes forests it has been a popular backdrop for all kinds of fictional media, from appearances in comics and motion pictures,[118] to regular appearances in dozens of video games going back into the 1980s.

Tour de France

The circuit has been used several times in the Tour de France cycling race. In 1980, the circuit was part of an individual time trial stage, won by Bernard Hinault (Renault–Gitane); while in 1989, several laps of the circuit were completed before the finish of the third stage,[119] which was won by PDM–Concorde's Raúl Alcalá. In 2017, the circuit was used as part of the third stage, starting in Verviers, Belgium and ending in Longwy, France.[120]

Climate

The area of Spa-Francorchamps is often rainy or having cool air temperatures, which has led to Formula One events such as the 1998 14-car pileup on a waterlogged track and the dramatic finish to the 2008 event, when rain fell during the last few laps after an all-dry race. The Royal Meteorological Institute runs weather stations both in Stavelot and in Malmedy, which both show similar oceanic climates with some interior influence. Although temperatures generally often stay above freezing in winter, snowfall is quite common. During summer, temperatures most often remain in the low 20s, with frequent cloud cover and showers. With the World Endurance race running in spring and the Formula One race in late summer, hot temperatures during high-profile events are very rare.

Climate data for Stavelot (1981–2010 normals; sunshine 1984–2013)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 3.4
(38.1)
4.6
(40.3)
8.5
(47.3)
12.5
(54.5)
16.7
(62.1)
19.4
(66.9)
21.7
(71.1)
21.3
(70.3)
17.4
(63.3)
12.9
(55.2)
7.3
(45.1)
4.2
(39.6)
12.6
(54.7)
Daily mean °C (°F) 0.9
(33.6)
1.2
(34.2)
4.4
(39.9)
7.4
(45.3)
11.6
(52.9)
14.4
(57.9)
16.6
(61.9)
16.2
(61.2)
12.9
(55.2)
9.3
(48.7)
4.7
(40.5)
1.7
(35.1)
8.5
(47.3)
Average low °C (°F) −1.8
(28.8)
−2.1
(28.2)
0.4
(32.7)
2.4
(36.3)
6.4
(43.5)
9.4
(48.9)
11.5
(52.7)
10.9
(51.6)
8.1
(46.6)
5.4
(41.7)
2.0
(35.6)
−0.7
(30.7)
4.4
(39.9)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 115.1
(4.53)
97.6
(3.84)
105.0
(4.13)
78.8
(3.10)
89.9
(3.54)
96.5
(3.80)
100.9
(3.97)
95.7
(3.77)
97.0
(3.82)
97.3
(3.83)
103.3
(4.07)
120.0
(4.72)
1,197.1
(47.13)
Average precipitation days 15.1 13.1 15.1 11.8 12.5 12.6 12.5 11.7 12.1 12.5 14.9 15.9 159.8
Mean monthly sunshine hours 45 69 113 159 185 181 197 188 133 102 49 34 1,453
Source: Royal Meteorological Institute[121]
Climate data for Malmedy (1981–2010 normals; sunshine 1984–2013)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 3.0
(37.4)
4.2
(39.6)
7.9
(46.2)
11.8
(53.2)
16.2
(61.2)
18.9
(66.0)
21.1
(70.0)
20.8
(69.4)
17.1
(62.8)
12.6
(54.7)
6.9
(44.4)
3.7
(38.7)
12.1
(53.8)
Daily mean °C (°F) 0.5
(32.9)
0.8
(33.4)
4.1
(39.4)
7.0
(44.6)
11.3
(52.3)
14.0
(57.2)
16.2
(61.2)
15.8
(60.4)
12.5
(54.5)
8.9
(48.0)
4.3
(39.7)
1.3
(34.3)
8.1
(46.6)
Average low °C (°F) −2.1
(28.2)
−2.4
(27.7)
0.2
(32.4)
2.3
(36.1)
6.4
(43.5)
9.2
(48.6)
11.2
(52.2)
10.7
(51.3)
8.0
(46.4)
5.2
(41.4)
1.7
(35.1)
−1.0
(30.2)
4.2
(39.6)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 123.6
(4.87)
104.1
(4.10)
109.3
(4.30)
79.5
(3.13)
90.1
(3.55)
97.4
(3.83)
103.9
(4.09)
97.6
(3.84)
100.7
(3.96)
102.3
(4.03)
109.5
(4.31)
128.9
(5.07)
1,246.7
(49.08)
Average precipitation days 15.3 13.3 15.1 11.9 12.6 12.9 12.7 11.9 12.2 12.7 15.0 15.9 161.4
Mean monthly sunshine hours 44 68 111 158 184 179 195 186 132 100 47 34 1,437
Source: Royal Meteorological Institute[122]

See also

References

  1. ^ "FP2: Verstappen tops second practice, before triggering red flag with late shunt at Spa". Formula One. 27 August 2021. Retrieved 6 February 2022.
  2. ^ "Six female drivers from the W Series evaluated after massive crash at Spa". NBC Sports. 27 August 2021. Retrieved 6 February 2022.
  3. ^ "Spa-Francorchamps".
  4. ^ a b c d "Circuit History". Circuit de Spa Francorchamps. Retrieved 22 January 2011.
  5. ^ "Deutsche Topographische Karte "5501 Bürnenville", Ausgabe 1893". uni-greifswald.de. Archived from the original on 19 July 2011. Retrieved 25 June 2018.
  6. ^ Velocity (3 March 2012). "Grand Prix: The Killer Years". Retrieved 25 June 2018 – via YouTube.
  7. ^ "Jackie Stewart". Legends of F1. Season 1. Episode 2. Sky. Retrieved 7 November 2017. (10:45) Masta Kink was by far the most difficult corner in the world
  8. ^ https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ISOEXQG5vOo 19:04
  9. ^ "Léon Grisard's untimely death". Motorsport Memorial.
  10. ^ "A History of Spa-Francorchamps". grandprix.com.
  11. ^ "Spa-Francorchamps". ESPN F1. ESPN EMEA Ltd. Retrieved 1 September 2010.
  12. ^ 2004 Belgium Grand Prix – Selected driver quotes The Official Formula One website, 26 August 2004. Archived from the original on 17 October 2013. Retrieved 9 May 2021
  13. ^ "F1 performance map at Spa-Francorchamps". autosport.com. Retrieved 25 June 2018.
  14. ^ Tom Bellingham. "This Is What Happened When Two F1 Drivers Made A Dare At Spa". wtf1. Retrieved 4 October 2018.
  15. ^ "Istanbul Park". Retrieved 30 August 2016.
  16. ^ The Official Tom Kristensen Website[permanent dead link]
  17. ^ "Spa-Francorchamps réserve une surprise à Jacky Ickx - France Racing". franceracing.fr. 20 June 2018. Retrieved 25 June 2018.
  18. ^ "Television Without Frontiers Directive 1989". EU. Retrieved 11 May 2017.
  19. ^ Renovation of Francorchamps-circuit starts in November F1Technical.net, July 2006
  20. ^ Southwell, Hazel (15 October 2021). "Spa's Most Dangerous Corner Is Finally Being Made Safer". The Drive. Retrieved 6 January 2022.
  21. ^ Cooper, Adam (17 October 2020). "F1 drivers support return of gravel to Spa-Francorchamps". Autosport. Retrieved 24 October 2020.
  22. ^ Cleeren, Filip (9 October 2020). "Spa unveils €80million renovation project ahead of bike racing return". Autosport.com. Retrieved 24 October 2020.
  23. ^ "Fatal F2 crash: detailed new analysis on how it happened, is action needed?". thejudge13.
  24. ^ "2 W Series drivers discharged from hospital after crash". MARCA. 28 August 2021. Retrieved 31 August 2021.
  25. ^ "W-Series drivers hospitalised after big crash at Spa". GRAND PRIX 247. 27 August 2021. Retrieved 31 August 2021.
  26. ^ Valantine, Henry (27 August 2021). "Two drivers treated in hospital after W Series crash". PlanetF1. Retrieved 31 August 2021.
  27. ^ "Drivers out of hospital after W Series crash". BBC Sport. Retrieved 31 August 2021.
  28. ^ "WATCH: McLaren's Lando Norris walks away after dramatic Eau Rouge-Raidillon crash in Belgian GP qualifying | Formula 1®". www.formula1.com. Retrieved 31 August 2021.
  29. ^ "Big Norris crash at Eau Rouge red-flags qualifying". RACER. 28 August 2021. Retrieved 31 August 2021.
  30. ^ "Norris cleared to race in F1 Belgian GP after Eau Rouge Q3 crash". www.autosport.com. Retrieved 31 August 2021.
  31. ^ "@jaitkenracer on Twitter - Seeing a bit too much finger pointing and "I am/was right" on my feed atm". Twitter. Archived from the original on 27 August 2021. Retrieved 31 August 2021.
  32. ^ "@gyzhou_33 on Twitter - Man... Eau Rouge corner in Spa needs to making a change". Twitter. Archived from the original on 27 August 2021. Retrieved 31 August 2021.
  33. ^ "@PiFitti on Twitter - I hope all the drivers are safe…". Twitter. Archived from the original on 27 August 2021. Retrieved 31 August 2021.
  34. ^ GPfans.com. "Sainz adds to growing concern over Eau Rouge-Raidillon after Norris crash". GPfans. Retrieved 31 August 2021.
  35. ^ "Drivers urge Eau Rouge & Raidillon changes after huge crash · RaceFans". RaceFans. 28 August 2021. Retrieved 31 August 2021.
  36. ^ Andrew Lewin (28 August 2021). "Ricciardo supports Eau Rouge changes after Norris crash". F1i.com. Retrieved 31 August 2021.
  37. ^ GPfans.com. "Wolff on rain delay - Racing "too dangerous through Eau Rouge and Raidillon"". GPfans. Retrieved 31 August 2021.
  38. ^ "Drivers Call For Changes To Eau Rouge-Raidillon After Horror W Series Crash". WTF1. 28 August 2021. Retrieved 31 August 2021.
  39. ^ "Magnussen walks away from huge crash". Formula 1® - The Official F1® Website. Retrieved 31 August 2021.
  40. ^ Pietro Fittipaldi crash - Spa 2018 - WEC Videos, retrieved 31 August 2021
  41. ^ Woodhouse, Jamie (15 August 2021). "Jack Aitken proposes Eau Rouge change after horror crash". PlanetF1. Retrieved 31 August 2021.
  42. ^ 2cvRacingTeams. "24h02' 2cv - Spa Francorchamps". www.24h2cv.be. Retrieved 25 June 2018.
  43. ^ "WATCH: Hamilton's record-breaking pole lap at Spa for the Belgian Grand Prix". Retrieved 15 May 2022.
  44. ^ "Spa Francorchamps lap times". Retrieved 18 May 2022.
  45. ^ a b "2019 6 Hours of Spa-Francorchamps Final Classification" (PDF). Retrieved 9 April 2021.
  46. ^ "2012 Formula Renault 3.5 Spa Session Facts". Retrieved 9 April 2021.
  47. ^ a b "2021 6 Hours of Spa-Francorchamps Classification By Category - Hour 6" (PDF). Retrieved 1 May 2021.
  48. ^ "2010 Spa Auto GP - Round 5". Retrieved 13 May 2022.
  49. ^ "2013 GP3 Series Spa Session Facts". Retrieved 9 April 2021.
  50. ^ "2012 F2 Round 7". Retrieved 14 May 2021.
  51. ^ "2020 DTM Spa Statistics". Retrieved 9 April 2021.
  52. ^ "4th Hankook 12H Spa-Francorchamps 2022 Prototype Cup Germany - Race 2 Results" (PDF). Retrieved 24 April 2022.
  53. ^ "2009 Spa 24 Hours". Retrieved 17 April 2022.
  54. ^ "2021 FREC Spa Session Facts". Retrieved 25 July 2021.
  55. ^ "2020 Spa 24 Hours". Retrieved 17 April 2022.
  56. ^ "2015 Formula Renault 2.0 Euro Spa Session Facts". Retrieved 9 April 2021.
  57. ^ "2015 ADAC Formula 4 Spa Session Facts". Retrieved 9 April 2021.
  58. ^ a b "2020 Ligier European Series Spa-Francorchamps Heat Race 1 Final Classification" (PDF). Retrieved 17 April 2022.
  59. ^ "2019 Spa Francorchamps TCR Europe Race - 1 Final Results" (PDF). Retrieved 18 May 2021.
  60. ^ "2019 FFSA French Championship GT4 Race 2 Circuit de Spa Francorchamps" (PDF). Retrieved 25 July 2021.
  61. ^ "2021 Spa Francorchamps Alpine ELF Europa Cup Race - 1 Final Results" (PDF). Retrieved 17 April 2022.
  62. ^ "2012 Spa 200 Sprint Race Results". Retrieved 14 May 2021.
  63. ^ "2021 W Series Spa Session Facts". Retrieved 29 August 2021.
  64. ^ "2006 Formula Renault 3.5 Spa Session Facts". Retrieved 10 April 2021.
  65. ^ "Spa 1000 Kilometres 2004". Retrieved 10 April 2021.
  66. ^ "2006 Spa Euro F3000 - Round 5". Retrieved 13 May 2022.
  67. ^ "Spa 1000 Kilometres 2006". Retrieved 10 April 2021.
  68. ^ "2005 DTM Spa Session Facts". Retrieved 9 April 2021.
  69. ^ "2005 F3 Euro Series Spa Session Facts". Retrieved 9 April 2021.
  70. ^ a b "2005 Spa 24 Hours". Retrieved 17 April 2022.
  71. ^ "2004 Formula Renault 2000 Eurocup Spa Session Facts". Retrieved 10 April 2021.
  72. ^ "2004 Spa 24 Hours". Retrieved 18 April 2022.
  73. ^ "2004 F3000 Spa Session Facts". Retrieved 9 April 2021.
  74. ^ "ETCC 2004 » Spa-Francorchamps Round 13 Results". Retrieved 13 May 2022.
  75. ^ "2002 F3000 Spa Session Facts". Retrieved 9 April 2021.
  76. ^ "Spa 1000 Kilometres 2003". Retrieved 13 May 2022.
  77. ^ "2002 Spa Euro F3000". Retrieved 13 May 2022.
  78. ^ "1997 Spa FIA GT". Retrieved 18 April 2022.
  79. ^ "1996 Spa FIA GT". Retrieved 13 May 2022.
  80. ^ "FIA Sportscar Championship Spa 2002". Retrieved 13 May 2022.
  81. ^ "Spa 24 Hours 2002". Retrieved 14 May 2022.
  82. ^ "Spa 24 Hours 2003". Retrieved 14 May 2022.
  83. ^ "STW Cup 1995 » Spa-Francorchamps Round 4 Results". Retrieved 13 May 2022.
  84. ^ "ETCC 2003 » Spa-Francorchamps Round 11 Results". Retrieved 13 May 2022.
  85. ^ "Spa 4 Hours 1994". Retrieved 13 May 2022.
  86. ^ "1994 F3000 Spa Session Facts". Retrieved 10 April 2021.
  87. ^ "STW Cup 1994 » Spa-Francorchamps Round 7 Results". Retrieved 13 May 2022.
  88. ^ "World Sports Prototype Championship Spa 1990". Retrieved 9 April 2021.
  89. ^ "1993 Spa F3000". Retrieved 18 May 2022.
  90. ^ "1981 Spa F2". Retrieved 13 May 2022.
  91. ^ "Superbike World Championship Spa-Francorchamps 1992 Classification". Retrieved 11 May 2022.
  92. ^ "Spa JaguarSport". Retrieved 18 May 2022.
  93. ^ "1988 Spa 24 Hours". Retrieved 13 May 2022.
  94. ^ "1979 Belgian MotoGP". Retrieved 17 April 2022.
  95. ^ "1973 Spa 1000Kms". Retrieved 17 April 2022.
  96. ^ "Spa 24 Hours 1973". Retrieved 13 May 2022.
  97. ^ "1977 Belgian MotoGP". Retrieved 17 April 2022.
  98. ^ "1976 Harley-Davidson 250RR Road Racer | S194 | Las Vegas 2019".
  99. ^ "Motorcycle Classics". 12 February 2019.
  100. ^ "Harley Davidson RR250 Race Bike". 2 May 2013.
  101. ^ "Spa 24 Hours 1969". Retrieved 13 May 2022.
  102. ^ "1978 24H Spa". Retrieved 17 April 2022.
  103. ^ "Morbidelli Racer".
  104. ^ "Archives: Morbidelli - the Ultimate David vs Goliath".
  105. ^ "Morbidelli's motorcycles to go to auction | GRR".
  106. ^ "Bonhams : The ex-Angel Nieto, 1973 Morbidelli 125cc Grand Prix Racing Motorcycle Frame no. 504 Engine no. 405".
  107. ^ "Kreidler 50".
  108. ^ "Bikes You've Never Seen Before: Kreidler 50 Cross". 11 September 2021.
  109. ^ "Bonhams : C.1973 van Veen Kreidler 50cc Racing Motorcycle".
  110. ^ "Bonhams : The ex-Vince Gunning,c.1976 van Veen Kreidler 50cc Racing Motorcycle".
  111. ^ "1939 Belgian Grand Prix". Retrieved 17 April 2022.
  112. ^ "1934 Belgian Grand Prix". Retrieved 17 April 2022.
  113. ^ "1935 Belgian Grand Prix". Retrieved 17 April 2022.
  114. ^ "1937 Belgian Grand Prix". Retrieved 17 April 2022.
  115. ^ https://www.motorsportmagazine.com/database/races/1930-belgian-grand-prix/[bare URL]
  116. ^ "1933 Belgian Grand Prix". Retrieved 17 April 2022.
  117. ^ "1925 Belgian Grand Prix". Retrieved 17 April 2022.
  118. ^ O'Keefe, Tthomas C. (1999). "GRAND PRIX REDUX: The Italian Stallion Does Maranello". Atlas F1. Kaizar.Com, Incorporated/Autosport. Retrieved 23 August 2012.
  119. ^ "La Etapa de Hoy" [Today's Stage]. El Mundo Deportivo (in Spanish). 3 July 1989. p. 42. Retrieved 3 July 2017.
  120. ^ "Stage 3: Verviers to Longwy". Tour de France. Amaury Sport Organisation. Archived from the original on 7 July 2017. Retrieved 3 July 2017.
  121. ^ "Klimaatstatistieken van de Belgische gemeenten" (PDF) (in Dutch). Royal Meteorological Institute. Retrieved 29 May 2018.
  122. ^ "Klimaatstatistieken van de Belgische gemeenten" (PDF) (in Dutch). Royal Meteorological Institute. Retrieved 29 May 2018.