Claude de Lorraine
Duke of Guise
Jean Clouet - Portrait of Claude of Lorraine, Duke of Guise - WGA5083.jpg
Portrait by Jean Clouet
Born(1496-10-20)20 October 1496
Château de Condé-sur-Moselle
Died12 April 1550(1550-04-12) (aged 53)
Château de Joinville
Noble familyLorraine
Spouse(s)
(m. 1513)
Issue
FatherRené II, Duke of Lorraine
MotherPhilippa of Guelders
Coat of arms of the Duke of Guise
Coat of arms of the Duke of Guise

Claude de Lorraine, Duke of Guise (20 October 1496 – 12 April 1550) was a French aristocrat and general. He became the first Duke of Guise in 1528.

He was a highly effective general for the French crown. His children and grandchildren were to lead the Catholic party in the French Wars of Religion.

Biography

Claude was born at the Château de Condé-sur-Moselle, the second son of René II, Duke of Lorraine, and Philippa of Guelders.[1] He was educated at the French court of Francis I. On 9 June 1513, at the age of sixteen, Claude married Antoinette de Bourbon (1493–1583),[1] daughter of François, Count of Vendôme.[2]

Military service

Claude distinguished himself at the Battle of Marignano (1515),[3] and was long in recovering from the twenty-two wounds he received in the battle. In 1521, he fought at Fuenterrabia, and Louise of Savoy ascribed the capture of the place to his efforts. In 1522 he forced the English to raise the siege of Hesdin. In 1523, he became governor of Champagne and Burgundy, after defeating at Neufchâteau the imperial troops who had invaded this province. In 1525, Claude defeated a peasant army near Saverne (Zabern).[4] Following Francis I's return from captivity, Claude was made Duke of Guise in 1527.[5] The Guises, as cadets of the sovereign House of Lorraine and descendants of the Capetian House of Anjou, claimed precedence over the Bourbon princes of Condé and Conti.[6]


Marriage and issue

Claude married Antoinette de Bourbon,[7] daughter of François, Count of Vendôme and Marie de Luxembourg, on 9 June 1513; they had:

By an unnamed mistress,[9] Claude had:

Death

Claude fell ill in 1550, and despite being under the care of five doctors, died on 12 April.[9]

Claude died at Château de Joinville, aged 53.

Ancestry

See also

Notes

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i Wellman 2013, p. 236.
  2. ^ Barbier 2002, p. 511.
  3. ^ Spangler 2009, p. 64.
  4. ^ Carroll 2009, p. 35.
  5. ^ Hillerbrand 1996, p. 452.
  6. ^ Asch 2016, p. 45.
  7. ^ Bell 2004, p. 127.
  8. ^ Carroll 2009, p. 57.
  9. ^ a b c d Carroll 2009, p. 46.

References

Claude, Duke of Guise House of Lorraine Born: 20 October 1496  Died: 12 April 1550 Preceded byRené Count of GuiseLord of Elbeuf 1508–1528 Elevation Count of Aumale 1508–1547 Succeeded byFrancis New titleElevation Duke of Guise 1528–1550 Marquis of Elbeuf 1528–1550 Succeeded byRené