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Clinical pharmacology has been defined as "that discipline that teaches, does research, frames policy, gives information and advice about the actions and proper uses of medicines in humans and implements that knowledge in clinical practice".[1][2] Clinical Pharmacology is inherently a translational discipline underpinned by the basic science of pharmacology, engaged in the experimental and observational study of the disposition and effects of drugs in humans, and committed to the translation of science into evidence-based therapeutics.[3] It has a broad scope, from the discovery of new target molecules to the effects of drug usage in whole populations.[4] The main aim of clinical pharmacology is to generate data for optimum use of drugs and the practice of 'evidence based medicine'.

Clinical pharmacologists have medical and scientific training that enables them to evaluate evidence and produce new data through well-designed studies. Clinical pharmacologists must have access to enough patients for clinical care, teaching and education, and research. Their responsibilities to patients include, but are not limited to, detecting and analysing adverse drug effects and reactions, therapeutics, and toxicology including reproductive toxicology, perioperative drug management, and psychopharmacology.

Modern clinical pharmacologists are also trained in data analysis skills. Their approaches to analyse data can include modelling and simulation techniques (e.g. population analysis, non-linear mixed-effects modelling).

Branches

Clinical Pharmacology consists of multiple branches listed below:

History

Medicinal uses of plant and animal resources have been common since prehistoric times. Many countries, such as China, Egypt, and India, have written documentation of many traditional remedies. A few of these remedies are still regarded as helpful today, but most have them have been discarded, because they were ineffective and potentially harmful.

For many years, therapeutic practices were based on Hippocratic humoral theory, popularized by the Greek physician Galen (129 – c. AD 216) and not on experimentation.

In around the 17th century physicians started to apply use methods to study traditional remedies, although they still lacked methods to test the hypotheses they had about how drugs worked.[8]

By the late 18th century and early 19th century, methods of experimental physiology and pharmacology began to be developed by scientists such as François Magendie and his student Claude Bernard.

From the late 18th century to the early 20th century, advances were made in chemistry and physiology that laid the foundations needed to understand how drugs act at the tissue and organ levels. The advances that were made at this time gave manufacturers the ability to make and sell medicines that they claimed to be effective, but were in many cases worthless. There were no methods for evaluating such claims until rational therapeutic concepts were established in medicine, starting at about the end of the 19th century.

The development of receptor theory at the start of the 20th century and later developments led to better understanding of how medicines act and the development of many new medicines that are both safe and effective. Expansion of the scientific principles of pharmacology and clinical pharmacology continues today.[9][7]

See also

References

  1. ^ Aronson JK. A manifesto for clinical pharmacology from principles to practice. Br J Clin Pharmacol 2010; 70: 3–13.
  2. ^ Martin, Jennifer H., David Henry, Jean Gray, Richard Day, Felix Bochner, Albert Ferro, Munir Pirmohamed, Klaus Mörike, and Matthias Schwab. "Achieving the World Health Organization's vision for clinical pharmacology." British journal of clinical pharmacology 81, no. 2 (2016): 223-227.
  3. ^ https://ascpt.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/hub/journal/15326535/aims-and-scope/read-full-aims-and-scope
  4. ^ Atkinson, Arthur (2012). Principles of clinical pharmacology. London: Elsevier Academic Press. ISBN 978-0123854711.
  5. ^ Ambrose, Paul G (January 2007). Pharmacokinetics-Pharmacodynamics of Antimicrobial Therapy, Clinical Infectious Diseases, Volume 44, Issue 1.
  6. ^ Chatu, Sukhdev., and Christopher. Tofield. The Hands-on Guide to Clinical Pharmacology. 3rd ed., Wiley-Blackwell, 2010
  7. ^ a b Katzung, Bertram G. (2010). Basic & Clinical Pharmacology. San Francisco, California: McGraw Hill Companies.
  8. ^ Paul G. Ambrose, Sujata M. Bhavnani, Christopher M. Rubino, Arnold Louie, Tawanda Gumbo, Alan Forrest, George L. Drusano; Pharmacokinetics-Pharmacodynamics of Antimicrobial Therapy: It's Not Just for Mice Anymore, Clinical Infectious Diseases, Volume 44, Issue 1, 1 January 2007, Pages 79–86, https://doi.org/10.1086/510079
  9. ^ Clinical Pharmacology. The SAGE Encyclopedia of Pharmacology and Society. 2015.