Club Necaxa Logo.svg
Full nameImpulsora del Deportivo Necaxa S.A. de C.V.
Nickname(s)Los Rayos (The Lightning)
Los Electricistas (The Electricians)
Los Once Hermanos (The Eleven Brothers)
El Equipo de la Década (The Team of the Decade)
Founded21 August 1923; 99 years ago (1923-08-21)
GroundEstadio Victoria
Aguascalientes City
OwnerNX Football USA LLC (50%)[1]
Ernesto Tinajero Flores (50%)
ChairmanErnesto Tinajero Flores
ManagerAndrés Lillini
LeagueLiga MX
Apertura 2022Regular phase: 12th
Final phase: Reclassification
WebsiteClub website
Current season

Impulsora del Deportivo Necaxa S.A. de C.V. (pronounced [ne.ˈ]); often simply known as Necaxa, is a Mexican professional football club in Liga MX based in the city of Aguascalientes. It plays in the Estadio Victoria.


Foundation (Light and Power Company, Luz y Fuerza) (1899–1920)

Necaxa was founded on 21 August 1923 by Scotsman William H. Fraser, an engineer and owner of the Light and Power Company (Compañía de Luz y Fuerza) in the state of Puebla. As a student in the United Kingdom Fraser played football and was a strong advocate for the sport. Fraser consolidated the teams of the Light and Power Company and the Street Car operators Compañia de Luz y Fuerza and Tranvías into one.

Fraser supported the newly merged team with company revenue and funds. In addition, the Light and Power Company offered steady employment to players in an era where half of the players were playing at an amateur level.[2] However, the Mexican football federation did not allow teams to be named after private companies, so the team changed its name to Necaxa, after the Necaxa River that was close to the electrical plant.

Historians assert that the colors and Necaxa's crest came from following the arrival of the Cornish community in Mexico,[3] the Cornish community flourished and stayed in Central Mexico until the Mexican Revolution in 1910. Although the Cornish community in Mexico broadly returned to Cornwall, they left a cultural legacy; Cornish pasties, Cornish mining museums, a Cornish Mexican Cultural Society and football, are part of the local heritage and tradition in and around Mineral del Monte.[4] In 1923, it was decided Necaxa team would field players regardless of race and nationality.

In that era, the team was called "Los Electricistas" (The Electricians). The team adopted the colors red and white as their team colors, earning them the nickname "Los roji-blancos". During this period, the oldest rivalry in Mexican football began to form, between Necaxa and Atlante F.C.

On 14 September 1930, having already been a 2-time champion of the amateur Copa Eliminatoria, Necaxa inaugurated its stadium named Parque Necaxa, located on the banks of La Piedad River on land donated by the Fraser Family. The stadium had a maximum capacity for 15,000 fans, and was known for its clock tower displaying the team's emblem.

Necaxa, in the early days of Mexican Football were members of the Mexican Amateur Association Football League Liga Mexicana de Fútbol Amateur Association, composed of Atlante F.C., Club España, Germania FV, and seasoned and disciplined team Asturias. Necaxa won championships during the 1932–33, 1934–35, 1936–37, 1937–38. seasons.[5]

The following season after the stadium's opening, players such as Hilario López and Luis Pérez contributed to the team's success, leading Necaxa to the League final against Atlante, losing 3–2.

But Necaxa would rebound the next season, smashing Atlante by a 9–0 score. The line-up Necaxa used on that day was the following:




During this decade, Necaxa became one of the most popular teams in Mexico. Under the direction of the Ernst Pauler, Necaxa, in one season of play (1935–36), the team dominated and won titles ranging from Champion of Champions, Champion of the Liga Mayor De La Ciudad, National Champion of League, National Champion and Central American Champions. Their last title was the Central American Championship in El Salvador.

1935 Caribbean games lineup


  • Mexico Raúl "Pipiolo" Estrada
  • Mexico Alfonso Riestra
  • Mexico Antonio "Toño" Azpiri
  • Mexico Lorenzo "Abuelo" Camarena
  • Mexico Miguel Pizano
  • Mexico Guillermo "Perro" Ortega
  • Mexico Ignacio "Calavera" Avila

"Paco" Martinez de la Vega, an aficionado, would coin the surname for the very first time "Campeonismo" or "Championshipism", which Necaxa would later use to justify their achievements and titles.[2]

Late 1930s: Once Hermanos

Following the Mexican Revolution, the late 1930s represented Necaxa's most successful all-Mexican team. The Once Hermanos or "Eleven Brothers" period was coined in that era due to that team's ability to work as a team. The Necaxa team, in 1936, won the Copa México.

In that same year, a talented striker gained popularity within Necaxa's benches. Even though he was not one of the original "once hermano" or "eleventh brother" Horacio Casarìn, was a great player in the Mexican league national ranks. His success took him to the big screen in Mexican Cinema.[2]

Necaxa's "Once Hermanos" lineup

  • Mexico Lorenzo "Abuelo" Camarena
  • Mexico Ignacio "Calavera" Ávila
  • Mexico Marcial "Ranchero" Ortiz
  • Mexico Chino López
  • Mexico Ivan Vázquez Morales
  • Mexico Gerardo "Day" Madriz

1940s brief hiatus

Necaxa disappears from competitive play within the Mexican League in 1943[7] altogether due to the professionalization of Mexican Football. It would be half a decade before the Necaxa emblem and uniform would be represented on the field again.[2]

1950-60s resurgence

Seven years later, Club Necaxa returned to play under the conditions of the commercialization of the Mexican league. Under the new ownership of the Union of Electricians and Juan Jose Rivas Rojas, Club Necaxa played their first game on 25 September 1950 in the old district of Oblatos, in a stadium called Parque Oblatos or "Oblatos Stadium" otherwise called the Municipal Stadium of Felipe Martinez Sandoval in Guadalajara, Mexico. This park inaugurated Necaxa's comeback to football. In the fifties, Necaxa were tenants and played in the Federal District of Mexico City in present-day Estadio Azul (1950–55).

In the late sixties, Necaxa played football in Estadio Azteca in Mexico City. A modern lighting system in Estadio Azetca was inaugurated on 5 June 1966 with the first night game between Valencia CF and Necaxa. The first goal of the game was scored by Honduran José Cardona. In this game Roberto Martínez o Caña Brava scored the first goal made by a Mexican. Estadio Azteca was the largest stadium in Latin America, and the fifth largest stadium in the world. It is known throughout North America and South America as the home stadium for the Mexico national football team.

Throughout the 1950s Necaxa struggled financially to keep afloat. In 1955, large debts obliged Necaxa to sell the majority of its star players. Miguel Ramierz Vazquez a new owner, contracted the services of the Uruguayan coach Donald Ross, who eventually took Guadalajara to a championship 1957, beginning a road to stability, yet not winning championships.

The electricians won the Title cup in 1960 and the following year, in the Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico Olympic stadium, "the electricians" defeated Rey Pele and the club and team of the Santos of Brazil 4–3 in an official match of that year's "Exagonal" tournament. "Morocho" Dante Juarez assisted in two victorious goals in Necaxa's win over the Santos de Brazil.

Through the early 1960s, Necaxa struggled financially until it was sold. New owners,Julio Orvañanos brought a championship in 1965–66.[2]

Mexico 68 and Carlos Albert vs Necaxa

In this decade, the organization was in financial trouble. The team had poor attendance in Mexico City due to the population unrest.

The case of Carlos Albert begins with a small group of veteran footballers in the spring of 1969. Club Necaxa Veteran players petitioned the organization for better wages and argued that as a team and group, they have always responded to the team's performance. Carlos Albert was the face of the disagreement between the players and management.

Albert was listed by Necaxa Management as transferable and was retained on half his salary. He asked management to void his contract in order, to avoid loss of income and to be able to continue playing in the League with another team. Necaxa Management did not accept his request.

The courts ruled in favour of Albert on Thursday 8 October 1971, and Necaxa was forced to pay MX$77,000 to Carlos Albert. Due to the will of managements unfair psychological abuse and labour malpractice, This case forced a cause to action from several players to request better treatment and more rights for Necaxa football players.

Atlético Español 1971 to 1982

On 19 September 1971, Club Necaxa experienced financial trouble and became in debt with players and management. The owners sold the club to a group of businessmen from Spain. The ownership handled the player contracts, disputes and the franchises debt. The new Spanish ownership restructured contracts and made Club Necaxa solvent. The club plays under the name of the Spanish Athletic Bulls or "Toros del Atlético Español".

In 1975, the organization won their only international title in the CONCACAF Champions' Cup, playing the final against Transvaal of Suriname and defeating them 5–1 on aggregate. In 1973–74, they reached the final against Cruz Azul. They played a two-legged tie in which the Atlético Español won the first leg 2–1 but lost the second 3–0, becoming sub champion of the league.

Players who distinguished themselves in Atlético Español were the Brazilian striker Carlos Eloir Perucci, Ricardo Brandón, Salvador Plascencia,'Sabanita' Rivera, Juan Santillán, and Tomás Boy, under the direction of Miguel Marín, 'the Witch' Gutiérrez, Enrique Díaz and 'Chucho' Prado and the Chiliean Prieto.[8]

In 1982, the Spanish ownership within the Federal District of Mexico city sold the franchise. A new group of Mexican businessmen purchased Necaxa in 1982, then telecommunications Giant Grupo Televisa returned the organization's original name from 1971 and opened its training facilities in Cuautitlán Izcalli in the state of Mexico.[9] The ownership renamed the franchise Necaxa by 1982 after the cultural and historical importance of the franchise in Mexican football. While Mexico experienced a crisis called "the Lost Decade" or "La Decada Perdida"[10] in the 1980s and early 1970s, Necaxa in the 1980s struggled against two relegation matches. One at the end of the 1982–83 season against Zacatepec and another by the end of the 1984–85 season against Leones Universidad de Guadalajara.

Atlético Español footballers: Goalkeepers: Julito Aguilar, Jan Gomola, Goyo Cortez, Enrique Vazquez del Mercado, Defense: El Pimienta Rico, Juan Manuel Alvarez, Mario Trejo, Midfielder: Juan Carlos Rodriguez Vega, Manuel Manzo, Benito Buen Hombre Pardo, Tomas Boy. Forwards: Juan Manuel Borbolla, J.J. Muñante, Romano, Carlos Eloir Perucci, El Cachito Ramirez, Ricardo Brandon, Pio Tabaré Gonzalez, Juan Carlos Rossete. Raúl 'El Cora Isiordia", y Alejandro Romanh.

New Owners and return to glory (1990–2000)

In 1988, Futbol Club Necaxa was purchased by Mexican telecommunications giant Grupo Televisa S.A C.V. The now late owner, Emilio Azcárraga Milmo (father of Emilio Azcárraga Jean), and several associates took a new direction with the team.

In the 1989 and 1990 season, director of football operations Anibal Ruiz acquired the services of the Ecuadorian midfielder, Álex Aguinaga, one of the iconic figures of the Necaxa in the 1990s and one of the most talented foreign players who has ever set foot on Mexican soil.

Necaxa has a great season, previously in the 1980s they battled twice against México Primera División's regulations of the Mexican League. In that year Necaxa reached the finals losing to Pumas of the University of Mexico. The following season Aníbal Ruiz was replaced with new coach, the Argentine ex-defender, Eduardo Luján Manera who contracted the services of the Chilean Ivo Basay. Under Manera, Necaxa didn't qualify for the finals of the championship. The acquisition of new coach Roberto Saporiti, marked the beginning of a commitment to competition excellence in a period known to Necaxa fans as "La Epoca Necaxista bajo el Capitalismo" or "the new era of Necaxa under Capitalism".[citation needed]

In 1992, the talented footballer of UNAM, ex-Puma player Enrique Borja was put under contract and headed the club's football operations, leaving Saporiti as head coach of Necaxa. Eventually Saporitti was replaced. The team Saporitti, Manera, Ruiz leave was an offensive minded team, that was disciplined, yet lacked great defensive talent. The following season management engaged the services of Manuel Lapuente. Sergio "El Ratón" Zarate, Octavio "Picas" Becerril, the Chilean Eduardo "Lalo" Vilches, José María "El Chema" Higareda were key figures in the defense and offense of the club. Manuel Lapuente managed Club Necaxa to three Championship titles in Mexico's National Football League.[citation needed]

After 56 years, once again Necaxa found itself with the title of "Campeonísimo", contributing talent in the 1990s and late in the millennium, within the Primera División of the Mexican League and in the Mexico national team.[citation needed]

They won the Mexican League Championship in 1994 (beating Cruz Azul), in 1995 (beating Celaya) and 1998 (beating Guadalajara), becoming Champion of CONCACAF and champion of champions the legacy of the "Once Hermanos" attempted to be reestablished within the franchise's values and mind set. The Necaxa team of the 1990s and represented the cohesion and ability of working and playing as a team under lucrative financial incentives, forced great communication on the field and execution on the field during advanced Capitalism competition play. Necaxa's Championships were similar, yet different reminder of the spirit of "Los Once Hermanos" or "the Eleven Brothers" in the late 1930s.[citation needed]

Relocation and new home (2000–2009)

After poor attendance numbers during the early 2000s, Necaxa needed to refresh their home and relocate to improve on this issue. Many considered Estadio Victoria in Aguascalientes to be the first modern stadium built in Mexico.

Attendance continued to decline steadily despite the change of city and stadium for Necaxa. This consistent decline would lead to a relegation for Necaxa during the Spring 2009 campaign.

The Hidrorayos would bounce back winning the fall 2009 and Spring 2010 (undefeated) Ascenso MX titles thus earning an automatic promotion back up to the Liga MX.

Necaxa in Primera División and return to Ascenso MX (2011–present)

After winning the 2009–10 promotion, Necaxa returned to the FMF Primera División for the 2010–11 campaign. Omar Arellano began the season with Daniel Brailovsky taking over for the remainder of the tenure. Ultimately the club faced immediate relegation after only one year.

Despite having a good performance in the 2nd division, Necaxa was initially unable to return to the top flight, losing two finals in 2013 against Neza FC and Universidad de Guadalajara.

On 6 December 2014, Necaxa won the Apertura 2014 championship in the final game against Coras de Tepic ultimately losing the promotion play-off against Dorados de Sinaloa.

The Apertura 2015 tournament was not good for Necaxa, finishing in 10th place. However, in Clausura 2016, Necaxa finished the regular season as runner-up, one point behind U. de G. In the playoffs, Necaxa beat Correcaminos 2–1 in the Quarterfinals, Atlante 5–3 in the Semifinals, and Zacatecas 2–0 in the Finals to become champion. Next was a two-legged playoff series against Cd. Juarez, the Apertura 2015 champion. Necaxa won the first leg in Aguascalientes 1–0, and one week later in Cd. Juarez 2–0, thus clinching its return to Primera Division Liga MX for the first time in five years.

NX Football USA, LLC (2021–present)

Necaxa took in a 50% ownership partner named NX Football USA, LLC in 2021. The ownership group included former owners from Major League Soccer club D.C. United, former managers from English Football club Swansea City, and celebrities: Mexican-American actress Eva Longoria, international football player Mesut Özil, former NBA basketball player Shawn Marion, MLB baseball player Justin Verlander, and American model Kate Upton.


Period Kit manufacturer Shirt partner
1922–23 No sponsors* Mexican Light & Power Company, Ltd.
1922–23 No sponsors* StreetCar Operators
1923–26 No sponsors*
1926–36 No sponsors*
1936–40 No sponsors*
1950–70 To be determined*
1971–82 To be determined
1987–88 Adidas Choco Milk
1989–92 Adidas
1993–94 Adidas Coca-Cola / Elf
1994–95 Adidas* Coca-Cola / Elf
1995–96 Umbro* Coca-Cola / Elf
1996–97 Umbro Coca-Cola / AFORE Garante
1998 (Winter'98) Umbro* Coca-Cola
1999-00 EEscord Coca-Cola
2000–01 EEscord Coca-Cola/Sol
2001 EEscord Masfresco / Victoria / Coca-Cola
2002 Atletica Coca-Cola / Victoria
2003 Atletica Bimbo / Victoria / Coca-Cola
2004 Atletica Bimbo / Office Depot / Victoria
2005 Atletica Visa / Leche San Marcos / Banamex / Corona
2006 Atletica Visa / Seguros Argos SA de CV / Leche San Marcos / Corona / Banamex
2007–08 Atletica Visa / Seguros Argos SA de CV / Leche San Marcos / Corona / Aeroméxico / Banamex / Cemex Monterey / Caja Libertad
2008 Voit Sabritas / Corona / Leche San Marcos
2009 Voit Diversity Capital / Corona / Leche San Marcos
2009–10 Voit* Caja Popular Mexicana / Corona / Seguros Argos
2010–11 Atletica Caja Popular Mexicana / Corona / ETN / Pepsi / Rolcar / ETN / Bimbo[13]
2011–12 Atletica Futura/Leche San Marcos/Corona/Caja Popular Mexicana/SKY/Coca-Cola/Trucka/Rolcar/Agro depot[13]
2012–13 Pirma ETN/Leche San Marcos/Meson del Taco/Corona/Caja Popular Mexicana/SKY/Coca-Cola/Trucka/Rolcar/Agro depot[13]
2013–14 Pirma Aeroméxico/Coca-Cola/Corona/ETN/Leche San Marcos/Pizza Ola/Rolcar/SKY/Trucka/Oxxo Gas[13]
2014-17 Umbro Aeroméxico/Coca-Cola/Corona/ETN/Búfalo/Leche San Marcos/Pizza Ola/Rolcar/SKY/Trucka/Oxxo Gas[13]
2017–20 Charly Rolcar/Cavall Sport/Búfalo/Circle K/Coca-Cola/Mercedes-Benz/SKY/Mediotiempo
2020 – present Pirma Rolcar/Stubhub/Sisolar/Mercedes-Benz/Mobil/L’Anqgel/Del Monte/Perdura/PlayDoIt

First kit evolution

Second 1922–23

1990–present kit evolution




Type Competition Titles Winning Seasons Runners Up
Flag of Mexico.svg
Primera División 3 1994–95, 1995–96, Invierno 1998 Invierno 1996, Verano 1998, Verano 2002
Copa MX 8 1924–25, 1925–26, 1932–33, 1935–36, 1959–60, 1965–66, 1994–95, Clausura 2018 1933–34, 1939–40, 1941–42, Clausura 2016
Campeón de Campeones 2 1966, 1995 1960
Supercopa MX 1 2018 2019
Ascenso MX 4 Apertura 2009, Clausura 2010, Apertura 2014, Clausura 2016
Campeón de Ascenso 2 2009–10, 2015–16 2014–15
Campeonato de Primera Fuerza de la FMF/Liga Mayor 4 1932–33, 1934–35, 1936–37, 1937–38 1924–25, 1931–32, 1939–40


Type Competition Titles Winning Seasons Runners Up
Confederation of North, Central American and Caribbean Association Football
CONCACAF Champions League Cup.svg
CONCACAF Champions' Cup
1 1999 1996
CONCACAF Cup Winners Cup 1 1994


Type Competition Titles Winning Seasons Runners Up
Copa Libertadores InterLiga 1 2007



Position Staff
Chairman Mexico Ernesto Tinajero Flores
General Director Mexico Santiago Tinajero
Director of football Mexico Alberto Clark
Coordinator of football Vacant

Source: Liga MX

Coaching staff

Position Staff
Manager Argentina Andrés Lillini
Assistant managers Mexico Carlos Cariño
Mexico Alex Diego
Goalkeeper coach Mexico Ángel Maldonado
Fitness coaches Mexico Milton Mora
Argentina Valentín Lillini
Physiotherapist Mexico Manuel Castillo
Team doctor Mexico Franco Vázquez


First-team squad

As of 1 July 2022[15]

Note: Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality.

No. Pos. Nation Player
1 GK Mexico MEX Luis Malagón
3 DF Uruguay URU Agustín Oliveros
4 DF Mexico MEX Alexis Peña (on loan from Guadalajara)
6 DF Argentina ARG Juan Pablo Segovia
7 MF Spain ESP Édgar Méndez
8 MF Mexico MEX Fernando Madrigal
9 FW Argentina ARG Milton Giménez
11 FW Uruguay URU Facundo Batista
12 MF Chile CHI Ángelo Araos
14 DF Uruguay URU Fabricio Formiliano (Captain)
15 MF Mexico MEX Arturo Palma
No. Pos. Nation Player
16 MF Mexico MEX José Joaquín Esquivel
17 DF Mexico MEX Brian García
18 MF Mexico MEX Brayan Garnica
21 FW Mexico MEX Jesús Godínez (on loan from Guadalajara)
22 GK Mexico MEX Hugo González (on loan from Monterrey)
25 MF Uruguay URU Vicente Poggi
27 MF Mexico MEX Heriberto Jurado
30 FW Mexico MEX Ricardo Monreal
31 DF Argentina ARG Fernando Meza
MF Mexico MEX Pablo Domínguez (on loan from Atlante)
MF Mexico MEX Edson Partida (on loan from Atlante)

For recent transfers, see List of Mexican football transfers summer 2021.

Out on loan

No. Pos. Nation Player
GK Mexico MEX Rubén Castellanos (at Atlético Morelia)
DF Mexico MEX Jesús Alcántar (at Sporting CP)
DF Paraguay PAR Julio González (at Guaraní)
DF Mexico MEX Alfredo Gutiérrez (at Raya2)
DF Mexico MEX Alán Montes (at Real Avilés)
MF Mexico MEX Alejandro Andrade (at Atlético Morelia)
MF United States USA Fernando Arce Jr. (at Juárez)
No. Pos. Nation Player
MF Mexico MEX Áxel Cruz (at Chihuahua)
MF Chile CHI Yerko Leiva (at Curicó Unido)
MF Mexico MEX Raúl Márquez (at Inter Playa del Carmen)
FW Mexico MEX Luis García (at Puebla)
FW Mexico MEX César López (at Atlante)
FW Mexico MEX Daniel López (at Pumas Tabasco)
FW Argentina ARG Maximiliano Salas (at Palestino)

Reserve teams

Main article: Necaxa Reserves and Academy

Necaxa (Liga TDP)
Reserve team that plays in the Liga TDP, the fourth level of the Mexican league system.

Historical championship squads

1994–95 Champions


1995–96 Champions


Winter 98

Top scorers

Interior of Victoria Stadium.
Interior of Victoria Stadium.

Historical Amateur leading scorers

Historical Leading Season scorers

All-time leading scorers

Player Goals Nationality
Ricardo Peláez 138 Mexico
Ivo Basay 101 Chile
Víctor Lojero 86 Mexico
Álex Aguinaga 82 Ecuador
Alberto García Aspe 65 Mexico
Julio Maria Palleiro 64 Uruguay


This is the list of managers who had the Club Necaxa in short tournaments:

Name Tournament Led Games Games Won Tied Games Games Lost
Enrique Díaz 1982 16 2 7 7
Walter Ormeño 1982–84 60 14 27 19
José Antonio Roca 1984–85 38 5 15 18
Mario Pérez 1986–87 40 7 24 9
Cayetano Ré 1987–88 46 15 15 16
Aníbal Ruiz 1988–90 70 24 28 18
Eduardo Luján Manera 1990–91 38 12 11 15
Roberto Saporiti 1991–94 121 52 39 30
Manuel Lapuente 1994–95 – Inverno 97 61 26 15 20
Raul Arias Verano 98 – Clausura 2005 297 120 76 101
Enrique López Zarza Apertura 2005 – Apertura 2006 45 16 10 19
Pablo Luna Apertura 2006 1 0 1 0
Hugo Sanchez Apertura 2006 7 2 1 4
Jose Luis Trejo Clausura 2007 17 4 6 7
Hans Westerhof Apertura 2007 17 5 5 7
Salvador Reyes Clausura 2008 – Apertura 2008 33 6 18 9
Octavio Becerril Apertura 2008 5 2 2 1
Raul Arias Clausura 2009 17 3 5 9
Omar Arellano Nuño Apertura 2009 – Bicentenario 2010 44 22 17 5
Daniel Brailovsky Apertura 2010 – Clausura 2011 15 3 1 11
Sergio Bueno Clausura 2011 13 3 6 4
Paco Ramírez Apertura 2011 12 5 4 3
Luis Francisco García Llamas Apertura 2011 3 1 1 1
Tita Clausura 2012 12 8 3 3
Jaime Ordiales Apertura 2012 – Apertura 2013 28 14 10 4
Armando González Apertura 2013 – Clausura 2014 38 18 12 8
Miguel de Jesús Fuentes Apertura 2014 – 2015 36 15 9 12
Alfonso Sosa 2015–2017 38 19 13 6
Ignacio Ambríz 2017–2018 47 18 18 11

Fan clubs


  1. ^ "Club Necaxa's US investment approved by Mexican FA". Sportico. Retrieved 24 May 2021.
  2. ^ a b c d e La serie Mexico Nuevo Siglo: Rueda de la Fortuna Los Rayos
  3. ^ Logan James (reprint 1976). The Scottish Gael Or Celtic Manners. John Donald Publishers Ltd. pp. 249–250. ISBN 0-85976-021-9.
  4. ^ "The Cornish in Mexico",, 30 September 2008, retrieved 2009-09-07
  5. ^ "Mexico – List of Final Tables". Rec.Sport.Soccer Statistics Foundation.
  6. ^ "Señor Gol – en sida om Mexikansk fotboll". Señor Gol. Archived from the original on 7 November 2003. Retrieved 25 June 2015.
  7. ^ "Carlos Calderón: El Necaxa III. Los gloriosos años 30 –". 14 June 2009. Retrieved 25 June 2015.
  8. ^ "La Vieja Guardia – Pasión Rojiblanca". Retrieved 25 June 2015.
  9. ^ "Necaxa deja Cuautitlán". Archived from the original on 26 June 2015. Retrieved 25 June 2015.
  10. ^ "La Década Perdida". Retrieved 25 June 2015.
  11. ^ Novy-Williams, Scott Soshnick,Eben (12 April 2021). "Liga MX Draws First Major U.S. Investors to 'NFL of Mexico'". Retrieved 4 August 2022.
  12. ^ Testa, Laura. "NX Football USA LLC's Acquisition of a Stake in Impulsora del Deportivo Necaxa, S.A. de C.V." Retrieved 4 August 2022.
  13. ^ a b c d e "Club Necaxa". Archived from the original on 25 February 2010. Retrieved 6 March 2010.
  14. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 31 July 2020. Retrieved 9 August 2011.((cite web)): CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  15. ^ Liga Mx / Ascenso Mx. "Página Oficial de la Liga del Fútbol Profesional en México .: Bienvenido". Liga Mx. Retrieved 18 October 2018.


  • ESPN
  • La serie Mexico Nuevo Siglo: Rueda de la Fortuna Los Rayos
  • Juan Cid y Mulet: Libro de Oro del Fútbol Mexicano – Tomo 2
  • Editorial
  • IFFHS All-Time Club World Ranking